Sports Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 277–288 | Cite as

Strength, Flexibility and Athletic Injuries

  • Joseph Knapik
  • Bruce H. Jones
  • Connie L. Bauman
  • John McA. Harris
Leading Article

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Extensor Soccer Player Knee Injury Injury Risk 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott HG, Kress JB. Preconditioning in the prevention of knee injuries. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 50: 326–333, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agre JC, Baxter TL. Musculoskeletal profile of male collegiate soccer players. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 68: 147–150, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Appen L, Duncan PW. Strength relationship of the knee musculature: effect of gravity and sport. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 7: 232–235, 1986Google Scholar
  4. Bauman CL, Knapik JJ, Jones BH. An approach to musculoskeletal profiling of women in sports. In Cantu & Gillespie (Eds) Sports medicine, sports sciences: bridging the gap, pp. 61–72, DC Heath & Co, Lexington, 1982Google Scholar
  5. Bender JA, Pierson JK, Kaplan HM, Johnson AJ. Factors affecting the occurrence of knee injuries. Journal of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation 18: 130–134, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burkett LN. Causative factors in hamstring strains. Medicine and Science in Sports 2: 39–42, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cahili BR, Griffith EH. Effect of preconditioning on the incidence and severity of high school football knee injuries. American Journal of Sports Medicine 6: 180–184, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell DE, Glenn W. Foot-pounds of torque of the normal knee and the rehabilitated postmeniscectomy knee. Physical Therapy 59: 418–421, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark JL, Challop RS, McCabe EB. Predicting lower-extremity injuries in high school football players. Journal of the American Medical Association 217: 1552–1553, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, pp. 215–271, Academic Press, New York, 1977Google Scholar
  11. Cooper DL, Fair J. Hamstring strains. Physician and Sportsmedicine 6 (8): 104, 1978Google Scholar
  12. Cowan D, Jones B, Tomlinson P, Robinson J, Polly D. The epidemiology of physical training injuries in US Army infantry trainees: methodology, population, and risk factors. US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Technical Report No. T4-89, 1988Google Scholar
  13. Cureton TK. Flexibility as an aspect of physical fitness. Research Quarterly 12: 381–390, 1941Google Scholar
  14. Edwards AL. Experimental design in psychological research, pp. 69–89, pp. 112–125, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1972Google Scholar
  15. Ekstrand J, Wiktorsson M, Oberg B, Gillquist J. Lower extremity goniometrie measurements: a study to determine their reliability. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 63: 171–175, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekstrand J, Gillquist J. The avoidability of soccer injuries. International Journal of Sports Medicine 4: 124–128, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ekstrand J, Gillquist J. The frequency of muscle tightness and injuries in soccer players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 10: 75–78, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Engebretsen L, Benum P, Fasting O, Molster A, Strand T. A prospective, randomized study of three surgical techniques for treatment of acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament. American Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 585–590, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferguson AB, Bender J. The ABC’s of athletic injuries and conditioning, Kreiger Publishing Co., Huntington, 1964Google Scholar
  20. Fleck SJ, Falkel JE. Value of resistance training for the reduction of sports injuries. Sports Medicine 3: 61–68, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garrett WE. Strains and sprains in athletes. Postgraduate Medicine 73: 200–209, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Garrick JG. Sports medicine. Pediatric Clinics of North America 24: 737–747, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Godshall RW. The predictability of athletic injuries: an eight-year study. Journal of Sports Medicine 3: 50–54, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goldfuss AJ, Morehouse CA, Le Veau BF. Effect of muscular tension on knee stability. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 267–271, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Grace TG, Sweetser ER, Nelson MA, Ydens LR Skipper BJ. Isokinetic muscle imbalance and knee joint injury. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 66A: 734–740, 1984Google Scholar
  26. Grana WA, Moretz JA. Ligamentous laxity in secondary school athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 240: 1975–1976, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grimby G, Gustafsson E, Peterson L, Renstrom P. Quadriceps function and training after knee ligament surgery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12: 70–75, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hasgood S, Solomonow M, Baratta R, Zhou BH, D’Amorosa R. The effect of joint velocity on the contribution of the antagonist musculature to knee stiffness and laxity. American Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 182–187, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heiser TM, Weber J, Sullivan G, Clarke P, Jacobs RR. Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 12: 368–370, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hennekens CH, Buring JE. Epidemiology in medicine, pp. 260–264, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1987Google Scholar
  31. Hejna WF, Rosenberg A, Buturusis DJ, Krieger A. The prevention of sports injuries in high school students through strength training. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal 4: 28–31, 1982Google Scholar
  32. Hislop HH, Penine JJ. The isokinetic concept of exercise. Physical Therapy 47: 114–117, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson DW, Jarrett H, Bailey D, Kausek J, Swanson J, et al. Injury prediction in the young athlete: a preliminary report. American Journal of Sports Medicine 6: 6–14, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kannus P, Jarvinen M. Conservatively treated tears of the anterior cruciate ligament. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 69A: 1007–1012, 1987Google Scholar
  35. Kirby RL, Simms FC, Symington VJ, Garner JB. Flexibility and musculoskeletal symptomatology in female gymnasts and age-matched controls. American Journal Sports Medicine 9: 160–164, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Klafs CE, Arnheim DD. Modern principles of athletic training, CV Mosby Co., St Louis, 1973Google Scholar
  37. Klein KK. Flexibility-strength and balance in athletics. Athletic Training 6: 62–65, 1971Google Scholar
  38. Klein KK. Muscle strength and the knee. Physician and Sports-medicine 2 (12): 29–31, 1974Google Scholar
  39. Knapik JJ, Wright JE, Mawdsley RH, Braun JM. Isokinetic, isometric and isotonic strength relationships. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 64: 77–80, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Knapik JJ, Bauman CL, Jones BH, Harris JM, Vaughan L. Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine 19: 76–81, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knight KL. Strength imbalances and knee injury. Physician and Sportsmedicine 8(1): 140, 1980Google Scholar
  42. Knuttgen HG, Kraemer WJ. Terminology and measurement in exercise performance. Journal of Applied Sports Science Research 1: 1–10, 1987Google Scholar
  43. Laird DE. Comparison of quad to ham strength ratios of an intercollegiate soccer team. Athletic Training 16: 66–67, 1981Google Scholar
  44. Liemohn W. Factors related to hamstring strains. Journal of Sports Medicine and Sports Medicine 18: 71–76, 1978Google Scholar
  45. Lysens R, Steverlynck A, van der Auweele Y, Lefevre J, Renson L, et al. The predictability of sports injuries. Sports Medicine 1: 6–10, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Merrifield HH, Cowan FJ. Groin strain injuries in ice hockey. Journal of Sports Medicine 1: 41–42, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Meeuwisse WH, Fowler PJ. Frequency and predictability of sports injuries in intercollegiate athletes. Canadian Journal of Sports Sciences 13: 35–42, 1988Google Scholar
  48. Mira AJ, Markley K, Greer RB. A critical analysis of quadriceps function after femoral shaft fracture in adults. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 62A: 61–67, 1980Google Scholar
  49. Moretz JA, Walters R, Smith L. Flexibility as a predictor of knee injuries in college football players. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10 (7): 93–97, 1982Google Scholar
  50. Murray MP, Gardner GM, Mollinger LA, Sepie SB. Strength of isometric and isokinetic contractions. Physical Therapy 60: 412–419, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Nicholas JA, Strizak AM, Veras G. A study of thigh muscle weakness in different pathological states of the lower extremity. American Journal of Sports Medicine 4: 241–248, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nicholas JA. Injuries to knee ligaments. Relationship to looseness and tightness in football players. Journal of the American Medical Association 212: 2236–2239, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nosse LJ. Assessment of selected reports on the strength relationship of the knee musculature. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 4: 78–85, 1982Google Scholar
  54. Pope DF, Cole KJ, Brand RA. Physiologic loading of the anterior cruciate ligament does not activate quadriceps or hamstrings in the anesthetized cat. American Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 595–599, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pope MH, Johnson RJ, Brown DW, Tigne C. The role of the musculature in injuries to the medical collateral ligament. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 61A: 398–402, 1979Google Scholar
  56. Powell KE, Kohl HW, Caspersen CJ, Blair SN. An epidemiological perspective on the causes of running injuries. Physician and Sportsmedicine 14: 100–114, 1986Google Scholar
  57. Prietto CA, Caiozzo VJ. The in vivo force-velocity relationship of the knee flexors and extensors. American Journal of Sports Medicine 17: 607–611, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Radin EL. Role of muscles in protecting athletes from injury. Acta Medica Scandinavia 711 (Suppl.): 143–147, 1986Google Scholar
  59. Sandberg R, Balfors B, Nilsson B, Westlin N. Operative versus non-operative treatment of recent injuries to ligaments of the knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 69A: 1120–1126, 1987Google Scholar
  60. Shelbourne KD, Whitaker J, McCarroll JR, Rettig AC, Hirschman LD. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: evaluation of intraarticular reconstruction of acute tears without repair. American Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 484–488, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Splain SH, Rolnick A. Sports injuries at a nonscholarship university. Physician and Sportsmedicine 12: 55–60, 1984Google Scholar
  62. Stafford MG, Grana WA. Hamstring/quadriceps ratios in college football players: a high velocity evaluation. American Journal of Sports Medicine 12: 209–211, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steele VA, White JA. Injury prediction in female gymnasts. British Journal of Sports Medicine 20: 31–33, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stone MH. Muscle conditioning and muscle injuries. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22: 457–462, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Warren RF, Otis JT, Murray SM, Kroll M. Torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in individuals sustaining injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 117, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. White AA, Raphael IG. The effect of quadriceps loads and knee position on strain measurements of tibial collateral ligament. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 43: 176–187, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wyatt MP, Edwards AM. Comparison of quadriceps and hamstring torque values during isokinetic exercise. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 3: 48–56, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Knapik
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bruce H. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  • Connie L. Bauman
    • 1
    • 2
  • John McA. Harris
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Occupational Medicine DivisionUS Army Research Institute of Environmental MedicineNatickUSA
  2. 2.Wellesley CollegeWellesleyUSA

Personalised recommendations