Sports Medicine

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 151–159 | Cite as

The Functional Performance of Children in Relation to Growth, Maturation and Exercise

Leading Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpert BS, Dover EV, Booker DL, Martin AM, Strong WB. Blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in healthy children — black vs white. Journal of Pediatrics 99, 556–560, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arensman FW, Christiansen JL, Strong WB. Juvenile hypertension and exercise. In Bar-Or (Ed.) Advances in pediatric sport sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 203–222, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1989Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong N, Davies B. The metabolic and physiological responses of children to exercise and training. Physical Education Review 7(2): 90–105, 1984Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong N, Balding J, Gentle P, Williams J, Kirby B. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity in 11 to 16 year olds. Pediatric Exercise Science 2: 349–358, 1990Google Scholar
  5. Åstrand PO. Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation of sex and age, EJ Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1952Google Scholar
  6. Åstrand PO. The child in sport and physical activity: physiology. In Albinson JG & Andrew GM (Eds) Child in sport and physical activity, International Series on Sports Science, Vol. 3, pp. 19–33, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1977Google Scholar
  7. Åstrand PO, Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  8. Bale P. Pre- and post-adolescents physiological response to exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 246–249, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bale P. Running performance and physiological characteristics of one man over a twenty year period. British Journal and Sports Medicine 22: 39–40, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bale P, Mayhew JL, Piper FC, Ball TE, Willman MK. Biological and performance variables in relation to age in male and female adolescent athletes. Presented at 14th International Seminar on Pediatric Work Physiology, Leuven, Belgium, 1989Google Scholar
  11. Bar-Or O. Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bar-Or O. Children exercise and training: possibilities and limits. In Saris WH (Ed.) Pediatric work physiology XI, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1984Google Scholar
  13. Bar-Or O, Zwiren LD. Physiological effects of increased frequency of physical education classes and endurance conditioning on 9 to 10 year old girls and boys. In Bar-Or O (Ed.) Pediatric work physiology, pp. 183–198. Wingate Institute, Natanya, 1973Google Scholar
  14. Bass A, Gutmann E, Hanzikova V, Syrovy I. Sexual differentiation of enzyme pattern and its conversion by testosterone in the temporal muscle of the guinea-pig. Physiologica Bohemeslovaca 20: 423–431, 1971Google Scholar
  15. Blimkie CJ, Roche P, Bar-Or O. The adolescent anaerobic to aerobic power ratio in adolescent boys and girls. In Rutenfranz J et al. (Eds) Children and exercise XII, pp. 31–37, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1986Google Scholar
  16. Borms J. The child and exercise: an overview. Journal of Sports Sciences 4: 3–20, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braden DS, Strong WB. Cardiovascular responses and adaptions to exercise in childhood. In Gisolfi CF & Lamb DR (Eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol. 2, pp. 293–330, Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, 1989Google Scholar
  18. Brown CH, Harrower JR, Deefer MF. The effects of crosscountry running on pre-adolescent girls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4: 1–5, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caine DJ. Growth plate injury and bone growth: an update. Pediatric Exercise Science 2: 209–229, 1990Google Scholar
  20. Cooper DM, Weiler-Ravell D, Whipp BJ, Wasserman K. Aerobic parameters of exercise as a function of body size during growth in children. Journal of Applied Physiology 561: 528–634, 1984Google Scholar
  21. Cunningham DA, Eynon RB. The working capacity of young competitive swimmers 10–16 years of age. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 5: 227–231, 1973Google Scholar
  22. Cunningham DA, Paterson DH. Physiological characteristics of young active boys. In Brown EW & Branta CF (Eds) Competitive sports for children and youth, pp. 159–169, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1988Google Scholar
  23. Daniels JT, Oldridge N. Changes in oxygen consumption of young boys during growth and running training. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 3: 161–165, 1971Google Scholar
  24. Davies CT, Barns C, Godfrey S. Body composition and maximal exercise performance in children. Human Biology 44; 195–214, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Di Prampero PE, Ceretelli P. Maximum muscular power (aerobic and anaerobic) in African natives. Ergonomics 12: 57–59, 1969Google Scholar
  26. Donovan CM, Brooks GA. Endurance training affecting lactate clearance, not lactate production. American Journal of Physiology 244(1) 83–92, 1983Google Scholar
  27. Dux L, Dux E, Guba F. Further data on the androgenic dependency of the skeletal musculature: the effect of prepubertal castration on the structural development of the skeletal muscles. Hormone and Metabolic Research 14: 191–194, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ekblom B. Effect of physical training on adolescent boys. Journal of Applied Physiology 27: 350–358, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Eriksson BO. Physical training oxygen supply and muscle metabolism in 11–15 year old boys. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 384): 1–48, 1972Google Scholar
  30. Eriksson BO, Gollnick PD, Saltin B. Muscle metabolism and enzyme activities after training in boys 11–13 years old. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 87): 485–497, 1973Google Scholar
  31. Eriksson BO, Grimby G, Saltin B. Cardiac output and arterial blood gases during exercise in pubertal boys. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 348, 1979Google Scholar
  32. Eriksson BO, Koch G. Effect of physical training on hemodynamic response during submaximal exercise in 11–13 year old boys. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 87): 27–39, 1973Google Scholar
  33. Eriksson BO, Staltin B. Muscle metabolism during exercise in boys aged 11 to 16 years compared to adults. Acta Paediatrica Belgica (Suppl. 28): 257–265, 1974Google Scholar
  34. Falgairette G, Bedu M, Fellmann N, Van Praagh E, Jarrige JF, et al. Modifications of aerobic and anaerobic capacities in active boys during puberty. Presented at 14th International Seminar on Pediatric Work Physiology, Leuven, Belgium, 1989Google Scholar
  35. Falkner F & Tanner JM (Eds). Human growth 2 — postnatal growth, Plenum Press, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  36. Fellmann N, Bedu M, Spielvogel H, Falgairette G, Van Praagh E, et al. Anaerobic metabolism during pubertal development at high altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology 64: 1382–1386, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fournier M, Ricci J, Taylor AW, Ferguson RJ, Montpetit PR, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptation in adolescent boys: sprint and endurance training and detraining. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 453–456, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaisl G, Hofman P. Heart rate determination of anaerobic threshold in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 2: 29–36, 1990Google Scholar
  39. Green HG, Hughson RL, Orr GW, Rainney DA. Anaerobic threshold, blood lactate and muscle metabolites in progressive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 54: 1032–1038, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gutin B, Trinidad A, Norton C, Giles A, et al. Morphological and physiological factors related to endurance performance of 11–12 year old girls. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 49: 44–52, 1978Google Scholar
  41. Hollmann W, Rost R, Gerhardus G, Liesen H. Longitudinal study of the aerobic capacity and the heart size in children during an 11 year high performance training. In Demirjian A (Ed.) Human growth, pp. 235–242, Taylor and Francis, 1986Google Scholar
  42. Inbar O, Bar-Or O. Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18(3): 264–269, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kemper HCG (Ed.). Growth, health and fitness of teenagers, longitudinal research in international perspective. Medicine and Science in Sport Science 20, Karger, Basel, 1985Google Scholar
  44. Kemper HCG, Verschuur R, Ritmeester JW. Maximal aerobic power in early and late maturing teenagers. In Mocellin R & Klimt F (Eds) Children and exercise XII, pp. 213–224, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1986Google Scholar
  45. Kemper HCG, Verschuur R, de May L. Longitudinal changes of aerobic fitness in youth aged 12–23. Pediatric Exercise Science 1(3): 257–270, 1987Google Scholar
  46. Kobayashi K, Kitamura K, Miura M, Sodeyama H, Murase Y, et al. Aerobic power as related to body growth and training in Japanese boys: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 44: 666–671, 1978Google Scholar
  47. Koch G. Lung dimensions, ventilatory capacity and muscle blood flow in 12–16 year old boys with high physical activity. In Berg K & Ericksson BO (Eds) Children and exercise IX, pp. 99–108, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1980Google Scholar
  48. Koch G. Development of maximal cardio-respiratory oxygen transport capacity under the influence of intensive physical training in boys during the age period 12 to 17 years. In Borms J et al. (Eds) Human growth and development, pp. 541–560, Plenum Press, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  49. Krahenbuhl GS, Skinner JS, Kohrt WM. Developmental aspects of maximal aerobic power in children. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 13: 503–538, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lewes DA, Kama E, Hodgson JL. Physiological differences between genders: implications for sports conditioning. Sports Medicine 3: 357–369, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Slaughter MH. Body composition in children and youth. In Boileau RA (Ed.) Advances in pediatric sports science, Vol. 1, Champaign Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., 1984Google Scholar
  52. Loucks AB. Athletics and menstrual dysfunction in young women. In Gisolfi CV & Lamb DR (Eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol. 2, pp. 513–535, Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, 1989Google Scholar
  53. Lussier L, Buskirk ER. Effect of an endurance training programme on assessment of work capacity in prepubertal children. Annals of New York Academy of Science 301: 734–741, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Macek M, Varva J. Relation between aerobic and anaerobic energy supply during maximal exercise in boys. In Lavallee H & Shephard RJ (Eds) Frontiers of activity and child health, 157–159, Pelican, Quebec, 1977Google Scholar
  55. Macek M, Vavra J. Anaerobic threshold in children. In Binkhorst RA et al. (Eds) Children and exercise XI, pp. 110–113, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1985Google Scholar
  56. Macek M, Varva J, Novosadova J. Prolonged exercise in prepubertal boys. European Journal of Applied Physiology 35: 291–298, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malina RM. Growth and maturation: normal variation and effect of training. In Gisolfi CV & Lamb DR (Eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol. 2, pp. 223–265, Benchmark Press, Indianopolis, 1989Google Scholar
  58. Matejkova J, Koprivova Z, Placheta Z. Changes in acid-base balance after maximal exercise. In Placeta Z (Ed.) Youth and physical activity, pp. 190–191, JE Purkyne Uni, Brno, 1980Google Scholar
  59. Matusi H, Miyashita M, Mura M, Kobayashi K, Hoshikawa T, et al. Maximal oxygen uptake and its relation to body weight of Japanese adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4: 29–32, 1972Google Scholar
  60. Mayers N, Gutin B. Physiological characteristics of elite prepubertal cross country runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 11: 172–176, 1979Google Scholar
  61. McKeag DB. Longitudinal cardiorespiratory performance testing in young swimmers. In Brown EW & Branta CF (Eds) Competitive sports for children and youth, pp. 259–270, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1988Google Scholar
  62. McMiken DF. Maximal aerobic power and physical dimensions of children. Annals of Human Biology 3: 141–147, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mero A. Blood lactate production and recovery from anaerobic exercise in trained and untrained boys. European Journal of Applied Physiology 57: 660–666, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mirwald RL, Bailey DA. Longitudinal comparison of aerobic power and heart rate responses at submaximal and maximal workloads in active and inactive boys aged 8 and 16 years. In Borms J et al. (Eds) Human growth and development, pp. 561–569, Plenum, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  65. Mirwald RL, Bailey DA, Cameron N, Rasmussen RL. Longitudinal comparison of aerobic power in active and inactive boys aged 7.0 to 17.0 years. Annals of Human Biology 8(5): 405–414, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mocellin R, Wasmind U. Investigations on the influence of a running-training programme on the cardiovascular and motor performance capacity in 53 boys and girls of a second and third primary school class. In Bar-Or O (Ed.) Pediatric work physiology, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, pp. 279–285, Wingate Institute, Netanya, 1973Google Scholar
  67. Pate RR, Blair SN. Exercise and prevention of atherosclerosis: pediatric implications. In Strong WB (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: its pediatric aspects, pp: 251–286, Grune and Stralton, New York, 1978Google Scholar
  68. Pate RR, Kiska A. Physiological basis of the sex difference in cardiorespiratory endurance. Sports Medicine 1: 87–98, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pate RR, Shephard RJ. Characteristics of physical fitness in youth, in Gisolfi CV & Lamb DR (Eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol. 2, Youth, exercise and sport, pp. 1–43, Benchmark Press, Indianopolis, 1989Google Scholar
  70. Paterson DH, Cunningham DA, Bumstead LA. Recovery O2 and blood lactic acid: longitudinal analysis in boys aged 11 to 15 years. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 93–99, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pirnay F, Crielaard JM. Anaerobic power in children and adolescents. Proceedings of the 2nd European Seminar on Testing Physical Fitness, pp. 39–44, University of Birmingham, England, 1980Google Scholar
  72. Placheta Z. Youth and physical activity, JE Purkyne Uni, Brno, 1980Google Scholar
  73. Renson R. Comparison of athletes versus non-athletes among Belgian secondary school boys aged 12 to 19. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 11: 213–221, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Reybrouck TM. The use of the anaerobic threshold in pediatric exercise testing. In Bar-or O (Ed.) Advances in pediatric sport sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 131–150, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1989Google Scholar
  75. Reybrouck TM, Weymans M, Stijns H, Knop J, Van der Hauwaert L. Ventilatory anaerobic threshold in healthy children. Age and sex differences. European Journal of Applied Physiology 54: 278–284, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rotstein A, Dotan R, Bar-Or O, Tenenbaum G. Effect of training on anaerobic threshold, maximal aerobic power and anaerobic performance of preadolescent boys. International Journal of Sports Medicine 7: 281–286, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rowland TW. Aerobic response to endurance training in prepubescent children: a critical analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17(5): 493–497, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rutenfranz J. Longitudinal approach to assessing maximal aerobic power during growth: the European experience. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18: 270–275, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sady SP. Cardiorespiratory exercise in children. In Katch F & Freedson P (Eds) Clinics in sports medicine, pp. 493–513, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986Google Scholar
  80. Sargeant AJ. Short-term muscle power in children and adolescents, In Bar-Or O (Ed.) Advances in pediatric sport sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 41–66, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1989Google Scholar
  81. Sargeant AJ, Dolan P. Optimal velocity of muscle contraction for short-term (anaerobic) power output in children and adults. In Rutenfranz J et al. (Eds) Children and exercise XII, pp 39–42, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1986Google Scholar
  82. Sargeant AJ, Dolan P, Thorne A. Isokinetic measurement of maximum leg force and anaerobic power output in children. In Ilmarinen J & Valimaki I (Eds) Children and sport, pp. 93–98, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1985Google Scholar
  83. Schmucker B, Hollam W. The aerobic capacity of trained athletes from 6 to 7 years of age on. Acta Paediatrica Belgica (Suppl. 28): 92–101, 1974Google Scholar
  84. Shephard RJ. Physical activity and growth, Yearbook Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1982Google Scholar
  85. Shephard RJ, Allen C, Bar-Or O, Davies CT, Deare S, et al. The working capacity of Toronto School Children Part I. Canadian Medical Association Journal 100: 560–566, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stewart K, Gutin B. Effects of physical training on cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport 47: 110–120, 1976Google Scholar
  87. Suurankki T, Illmarinen J, Nygard GH, Komi PV, Karlsson J. Anaerobic strain in children during a cross-country skiing competition. In Rutenfranz J et al. (Eds) Children and exercise XII, pp. 67–75, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1986Google Scholar
  88. Vaccaro P, Clarke DH. Cardiorespiratory alterations in 9 to 11 year old children following a season of competitive swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 10(3): 204–207, 1978Google Scholar
  89. Vaccaro P, Clarke DH, Morris AF. Physiological characteristics of young well trained swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology 44: 61–66, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vaccaro P, Mahon A. Cardiorespiratory responses to endurance training in children. Sports Medicine 4: 352–363, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Praagh E, Fellman N, Bedu M, Falgairette G, Coudert J. Gender difference in the relationship of anaerobic power output to body composition in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 2: 336–348, 1990Google Scholar
  92. Vanfraechem JH, Vanfraechem-Ravey R. The influence of training upon physiological and psychological parameters in young athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 18: 175–182, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Washington PL. Anaerobic threshold in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 1(3): 244–256, 1989Google Scholar
  94. Washington RL, Von Gundy JC, Cohen C, Sandheimer HM, Wolfe RR. Normal aerobic and anaerobic exercise data for North American school-age children. Journal of Pediatrics 112: 223–233, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wells Cl. The limits of female performance. In Clarke DH & Eckert HM (Eds) American Academy of Physical Education Papers 18, pp. 81–92, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1985Google Scholar
  96. Yoshida T, Ishiko I, Muraoka I. Effect of endurance training on cardiorespiratory functions of 15 year old children. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1: 91–94, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yoshizawa S, ishizaki T, Hinda H. Aerobic power and endurance running in young children. In Rutenfranz J et al. (Eds) Children and exercise XII, pp. 77–90, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., 1986Google Scholar
  98. Zwiren LD. Anaerobic and aerobic capacities of children. Pediatric Exercise Science 1(1): 31–44, 1989Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Bale
    • 1
  1. 1.Chelsea SchoolBrighton PolytechnicEastbourneUK

Personalised recommendations