Sports Medicine

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 11–37 | Cite as

Sleep, Biorhythms and Human Performance

  • Roy J. Shephard
Review Article


Synopsis: Biological functions show characteristic circadian (≈ 24h), circaseptan (≈7-day), circalunar (≈ 28-day) and circa-annual rhythms. Accurate biological clocks are important to the precise timing of both internal and external events, and also contribute to control processes. Various physiological and psychological factors affecting competitive performance influence the 4 classes of biological rhythm. Normally, there is a synchronisation with external signals (Zeitgebers), but such synchronisation can be upset by rapid time shifts (as in international travel), sleep deprivation, unusual work schedules, use of oral contraceptives, and total environmental control.

Sports scientists need to examine both normal times of optimum performance and the rate of adjustment after disturbance ofbiorhythm. Regular, moderate physical activity has surprisingly little influence upon the course of such adaptation.

Biological Rhythms: Biological rhythms are important in timing competitions and in arranging travel schedules for athletes. Many biological functions show characteristic circadian (≈ 24h), circaseptan (≈ 7d), circalunar (≈ 28d, in the female) [Minors and Water-house, 1981; Moore-Ede et al., 1982; Webb, 1982], and circa-annual rhythms. Some are truly endogenous, while others are secondary to changes of wakefulness and core temperature, or a response to environmental indicators of time (Zeitgebers). If normal time clues are removed, different individuals develop circadian cycles varying in length from 24 to 26 hours. Normally, cycles become synchronised with the solar rhythm of illumination and social Zeitgebers. The primary oscillators lie in the hypothalamus (supraoptic chiasmata and ventromedian or lateral nuclei).

Functional Importance: Biorhythms provide an internal clock that enables the coordination of rapid physiological processes and the precise timing of external events. Both attributes are vital to the skilled competitor. Longer intervals, e.g. the duration of sleep and (in animals) seasonal cycles, are also estimated with remarkable accuracy. High frequency oscillations provide the basis of fine control in many functions, ranging from focus of the eye and maintenance of balance to the adjustment of ventilation to increased CO2 production; however, it is less certain that circadian cycles contribute to normal control processes.

Changes of Physiology and of Performance: Arousal is maximal in the afternoon, with associated improvements in pattern recognition, reaction speed and muscle force. Perceived effort falls, fatigue is lessened and all-out effort is better tolerated. Because international competition is itself arousing, laboratory findings may not indicate any real advantage of competitive performance. Body temperature peaks in the late afternoon. Although this is in some respects the equivalent of a ‘warm-up’ it does not influence thermoregulation when exercising in the heat. Heart rate follows arousal and core temperature, so that PWC170 and predicted maximum oxygen intake reach a minimum in the afternoon. Respiratory responses to effort are also less in the afternoon. Metabolic efficiency changes little if allowance is made for diurnal variations of body mass. Any diurnal changes of maximum oxygen intake are small, and even their direction is disputed. Most authors find competitive performance is best in the late afternoon. Physical working capacity as predicted from heart rate (PWC170) shows some circaseptan variation, with the lowest values on Saturdays.

In women, the rise of core temperature in the second half of the oestrous cycle has little impact on maximum oxygen intake or anaerobic threshold; indeed, body temperature rises more if exercise is undertaken in the luteal phase. The premenstrual increase of body hydration has a small adverse effect on physical working capacity. Associated sensations may impair both skilled and all-out performance, although muscle force is often increased. Competitive results are uninfluenced by menstruation in the majority of athletes. Primary concerns are hygiene during the early stages of menstrual flow, and the risks of accidents or poor teamwork during premenstrual tension.

Humans show few well-established circa-annual rhythms; if the climate is severe, curtailment of activity in the winter can lead to some loss of fitness, while in some cultures seasonal changes of performance can be traced to participation in specific sports programmes.

Disturbances of Biorhythm: Diurnal rhythms are disturbed by shifts of time zone (latitudinal air travel) and sleep deprivation. Because circadian cycle length usually exceeds 24 hours, east to west travel is tolerated better than the reverse. There is difficulty in adjusting to a shift >5 hours, and at least 7 days should be allowed for resynchron-isation. Arousal is generally poor until adjustment is complete, and visiting athletes are at a particular disadvantage in the afternoons. Prior desynchronisation and Zeitgeber reinforcement speed adjustment, while short-acting sedatives that do not interfere with REM sleep may help re-establish appropriate cycles of wakefulness.

Sleep deprivation is stressful per se, but additional effects may arise from physical fatigue and emotional stress. Resting heart rate and respiratory rate fall, while the resultant acidosis causes some expansion of plasma volume. The heart rate response to submaximum exercise is reduced, but so also are Harvard step test scores, all-out performance, and maximum oxygen intake. Muscle tension tends to decline unless the subject makes strenuous efforts to sustain performance, and there is some decrease of isokinetic strength.

Psychomotor performance shows occasional lapses of attention. Accuracy is lost in team events, and self-paced tasks are performed more slowly; psychophysiological tests may also reveal a greater expenditure of effort in order to sustain normal performance. Athletic times usually deteriorate, although it may be difficult to distinguish the effects of sleep deprivation and fatigue. There also seems to be a progressive dampening of normal circadian rhythms.

The compression of the working week, use of oral contraceptives and the elimination of seasonal changes in man-made environments undoubtedly disturb circaseptan, circalunar and circa-annual rhythms, but there has been little investigation of functional consequences. The fluid retention resulting from regular oral contraceptive use may help cardiovascular performance, but muscular strength is apparently worsened.

Interactions with Exercise: Moderate physical activity should theoretically help synchronisation with new Zeitgebers, particularly if arousal is stimulated at appropriate times during the day In practice, added exercise has little impact upon physiological responses to sleep deprivation, while some authors have actually seen a worsening of psychomotor performance when the effects of sleep deprivation were compounded by vigorous physical activity.

Cycles of heavy physical activity play a large part in creating circaseptan rhythms. On the other hand, endurance training may suppress normal menstrual cycles.

Conclusion: Physiological and psychological biorhythms have sufficient influence upon performance that they merit close study; indeed, the rapid time shifts associated with translatitudinal travel have already influenced the outcome of some major international competitions.


Menstrual Cycle Circadian Rhythm Physical Fitness Sleep Deprivation Human Performance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe, K.; Kroning, J.; Greer, M.S. and Critchlow, V.: Effects of destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei on the circadian rhythms in plasma corticosterone, body temperature, feeding and plasma thyrotropin. Neuroendocrinology 29: 119–131 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, K.: Brain rhythm that correlates with obesity. British Medical Journal 2: 234–235 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahnve, S.; Theorell, T.; Akerstedt, T.; Fröberg, J.E. and Halberg, F.: Circadian variation in cardiovascular parameters during sleep deprivation. European Journal of Applied Physiology 46: 9–19 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akerstedt, T.: Altered sleep/awake patterns and circadian rhythms. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 469): 1–48 (1979).Google Scholar
  5. Akerstedt, T.; Palmblad, J.; de la Torre, B.; Marana, R. and Gill-berg, M.: Adrenocortical and gonadal steroids during sleep deprivation. Sleep 3: 23–30 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albers, H.E.: Gonadal hormones organize and modulate the cir-cadian system of the rat. American Journal of Physiology 241: R62–R64 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alpern, M.: Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at variance level of luminance. Journal of Optical Society of America 48: 193–197 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anend, B.K.: Nervous regulation of food intake. Physiological Reviews 41: 677–708 (1961).Google Scholar
  9. Angus, R.G. and Heslegrave, R.J.: The effects of sleep loss and sustained mental work: Implications for command and control performances. Paper presented to AGARD Aerospace Medical Symposium on Sustained Intensive Air Operations: Physiological and Psychological Aspects, Paris, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. Angus, R.G.; Myles, W.S.; Allen, C. and Forshaw, S.E.: Sleep deprivation and chronic exercise. Psychological performance. (Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Downsview, Ont. 1983).Google Scholar
  11. Antal, L.C.: The effects of the changes of the circadian rhythm on the sportshooter. British Journal of Sports Medicine 9: 9–12 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aschoff, J.: Exogenous and endogenous components in circadian rhythms. Cold Spring Harbour Symposium on Quantitative Biology 25: 11–26 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aschoff, J.: Circadian Clocks (North Holland, Amsterdam 1965).Google Scholar
  14. Asmussen, E.: Muscle fatigue. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 313–321 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Åstrand, P.O.; Engstrom, L.; Erickson, B.O.; Karlberg, P.; Nylander, I.; Saltin, B. and Thoren, C: Girl swimmers with special reference to respiratory and circulatory adaptation and gynaecological and psychiatric aspects. Acta Paediatrica Scan-dinavica (Suppl. 147): 1–75 (1963).Google Scholar
  16. Åstrand, P.O. and Rodahl, K.: Textbook of Work Physiology. (McGraw Hill, New York 1977).Google Scholar
  17. Atkinson, D.W.; Borland, R.G. and Nicholson, A.N.: Double crew continuous flying operations: A study of aircrew sleep patterns. Aerospace Medicine 44: 1121–1126 (1970).Google Scholar
  18. Ax, A. and Luby, E.D.: Autonomic response to sleep deprivation. American Medical Association Archives of General Psychiatry 4: 55–59 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ayers, A.B.; Davies, B.N. and Withrington, P.G.: Responses of the isolated, perfused human spleen to sympathetic nerve stimulation, catecholamines and polypeptides. British Journal of Pharmacology 44: 17–30 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baxter, C. and Reilly, T.: Influence of time of day on all-out swimming. British Journal of Sports Medicine 17: 122–127 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Benoit, O.; Foret, J.; Merle, B. and Reinberg, A.: Circadian rhythms (temperature, heart rate, vigilance, mood) of short and long term sleepers: Effects of sleep deprivation. Chronobiologica 8: 341–350 (1981).Google Scholar
  22. Bjerner, N.: Alpha depression and lowered pulse rate during delayed actions in a serial reaction test. A study in sleep deprivation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 19 (Suppl. 65): 5–93 (1949).Google Scholar
  23. Blake, M.J.F.: Temperament and time of day; in W.P. Colquhoun (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, pp. 109–148 (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  24. Bliss, E.L.; Clark, L.D. and West, C.D.: Studies of sleep deprivation — relationship to schizophrenia. American Medical Association Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 81: 348–359 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bonen, A.; Ling, W.; Neil, R. and McGrail, J.: FSH, LH, progesterone and estradiol responses to exercise before and after training. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science 2: 225 (1977).Google Scholar
  26. Bonen, A.; Belcastro, A.N.; Simpson, A.A. and Ling, W.Y.: Comparisons of LH and FSH concentrations in age group swimmers on moderately active girls and adult women: IV International Conference on Sports Sciences. Swimming Medicine 6: 70–78 (1978).Google Scholar
  27. Brisson, G.R.; Voile, M.A.; Desharnais, M.; DeCarufel, D. and Audet, A.: Exercise-induced blood prolactin response and sports habits in young women. Medicine and Science in Sports 12: 99 (1980).Google Scholar
  28. Broadbent, D.E. and Gregory, M.: Psychological refractory period and the length of time required to make a decision. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 168: 181–193 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brodan, V. and Kuhn, E.: Physical performance in man during sleep deprivation. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1: 28–30 (1967).Google Scholar
  30. Brodan, V.; Vostechovsky, M.; Kuhn, M. and Cepelak, J.: Changes of mental and physical performance in sleep-deprived, healthy volunteers. Activitas Nervosa Superior 11: 175–181 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brozek, J. and Taylor, H.L.: Tests of motor function in investigations on fitness. American Journal of Psychology 67: 590–611 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bruce, V.G.: Environmental entrapment of circadian rhythms; in Cold Spring Harbour Symposium on Quantitative Biology. Biological Clocks 25: 29–48 (1960).Google Scholar
  33. Brunelli, F. and Rottini, E.: Infortunistica sportiva nelle competizioni dell’eta evolutiva. Medicina dello Sport 5: 822–832 and 832–841 (1965).Google Scholar
  34. Buck, L.: Psychomotor test performance and sleep patterns of aircrew flying transmeridianal routes. Aviation Space Environmental Medicine 47: 979–986 (1976).Google Scholar
  35. Bunning, E.: The Physiological Clock (Springer Verlag, Berlin 1964).Google Scholar
  36. Burton, A.C.: The clinical importance of the physiology of temperature regulation. Canadian Medical Association Journal 75: 715–720 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Burwell, C.S.; Robin, E.D.; Whaley, R.D. and Bickelman, A.G.: Extreme obesity associated with alveolar hypoventilation. A Pickwickian syndrome. American Journal of Medicine 21:811–818 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cabanac, M.; Hildebrandt, G.; Massonnet, B. and Strempel, H.: A study of the nycthemeral cycle of behavioured temperature regulation in man. Journal of Physiology 257: 275–291 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cappon, D. and Banks, R.: Studies in perceptual distortion. Archives of General Psychiatry 2: 346–349 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chapman, D. and Horvath, S.M.: Unpublished observations, cited by Drinkwater, B.: Physiological responses of women to exercise; in J.H. Wilmore (Ed.) Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, pp. 125–153 (Academic Press, New York 1973).Google Scholar
  41. Cinkotai, F.F. and Thompson, M.L.: Diurnal variation in pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. Journal of Applied Physiology 21: 539–541 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen, C.J.: Human circadian rhythms in heart rate responses to a maximal exercise stress. Ergonomics 23: 591–595 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cohen, C.J. and Muehl, G.E.: Human circadian rhythms in resting and exercise pulse rates. Ergonomics 20: 475–479 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Colquhoun, W.P.: Circadian variations in mental efficiency; in W.P. Colquhoun (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  45. Conlee, R.K.; Rennie, M.J. and Winder, W.W.: Skeletal muscle glycogen: Diurnal variation and effects of fasting. American Journal of Physiology 231: 614–618 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Conroy, R.T.W.L. and Mills, J.N.: Human Circadian Rhythms. (J.A. Churchill, London 1970).Google Scholar
  47. Cooper, K.R. and Phillips, B.A.: Effects of short term sleep loss on breathing. Journal of Applied Physiology, Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 53: 855–858 (1982).Google Scholar
  48. Copes, K. and Rosentswieg, J.: The effects of sleep deprivation upon motor performance of ninth grade students. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 12: 47–53 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Corcoran, D.W.J.: Noise and loss of sleep. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 14: 178–182 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Corcoran, D.W.F.: Changes in heart rate and performance as a result of loss of sleep. British Journal of Psychology 55: 307–314 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Coyle, E.F.; Costill, D.L. and Lesines, G.R.: Leg extension, power, and muscle fibre composition. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 12–15 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cranston, W.I. and Brown, W.: Diurnal variation in plasma volume in normal and hypertensive subjects. Clinical Science 25: 107–114 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Crockford, G.W. and Davies, C.T.M.: Circadian variations in responses to submaximal exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Journal of Physiology (London) 201: 94–95 (1969).Google Scholar
  54. Cseffalvay, T.: Cited by Redgrove (1971). Medicin Sportiv (Berlin) 6: 1–5 (1966).Google Scholar
  55. Czeisler, C.A.; Richardson, G.S.; Zimmerman, J.C.; Moore-Ede, M.C. and Weitzman, E.D.: Entrainment of human circadian rhythms by light-dark cycles: a reassessment. Photochemistry and Photobiology 34: 239–247 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dale, E. and Goldberg, D.L.: Implications of nutrition in athletes’ menstrual cycle irregularities. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science 7: 74–78 (1982).Google Scholar
  57. Dalton, K.: Menstruation and accidents. British Medical Journal 2: 1425–1426 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dalton, K.: Menstruation and examinations. Lancet 2: 1386–1388 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dalton, K. and Williams, J.E.P.: Women in sport; in Williams, J.G.P. and Sperryn, P.N. (Eds) Sports Medicine (2nd ed.), pp.200–225 (Edward Arnold, London 1976).Google Scholar
  60. Davies, C.T.M. and Sargeant, A.J.: Circadian variations in physiological responses to exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 32: 110–114 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Davies, B. and Daggett, A.: Physiological responses to exercise during selected phases of the menstrual cycle. International Congress of Women and Sport, Rome (1980).Google Scholar
  62. Davies, B. and Daggett, A.: Physiological responses to exercise during selected phases of the menstrual cycle. International Congress of Women and Sport, Rome (1980).Google Scholar
  63. DeCoursey, P.J.: Daily light sensitivity rhythm in a rodent. Science 131: 33–35 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Desmedt, J.E. and Godaux, E.: Ballistic contractions in fast or slow human muscles: Discharge patterns of single motor units. Journal of Physiology (London) 285: 185–196 (1978).Google Scholar
  65. Dodge, R.: Circadian rhythms and fatigue. A discrimination of their effects on performance. Aviation, Space Environmental Medicine 53: 1131–1137 (1982).Google Scholar
  66. Douglas, N.J.; White, D.P.; Weil, J.V.; Pickett, C.K. and Zwillich, C.W.: Overnight sleep deprivation decreases ventilatory drive. (Abstract). Thorax 37: 791 (1982).Google Scholar
  67. Eagelson, H.E.: cited by Redgrove (1971): Comparative Psychology Monographs 4(20): 65 (1927).Google Scholar
  68. Edholm, D.G. and Lewis, H.E.: Terrestrial animals in cold: Man in polar regions; in Dill, D.B. (Ed.) Handbook of Physiology, section 4, pp.435–446 (American Physiology Society, Washington DC 1964).Google Scholar
  69. Edwards, A.S.: Effects of the loss of one hundred hours of sleep. American Journal of Psychology 54: 80–91 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Erdelyi, G.J.: Gynecological survey of female athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2: 174–179 (1962).Google Scholar
  71. Faria, I.E. and Drummond, B.J.: Orcadian changes in resting heart rate and body temperature, maximal oxygen consumption and perceived exertion. Ergonomics 25: 381–386 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Feicht, C.B.; Johnson, T.S.; Martin, B.J.; Sparkes, K.E. and Wagner, W.W.: Secondary amenorrhoea in athletes. Lancet 2: 1145–1146 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ferrario, V.F.; Aghemo, P.; Pedrabissi, L.; Vizzotto, L.; Fornaroli, E.; Verga, M.; Giovanelli, F.; Calori, R. and Miani, A.: Ritmi circadiani in atleti militari. Medicina dello Sport 35: 227–239 (1982).Google Scholar
  74. Fichero, C. and Romana, S.: a Sull’influenza delle regole mes-truali sulla capacita di lavoro fisico in giovani atlete. b) Influenza dell’attivita ginnico — sportiva sulle tre fasi del ciclo mestruale in giovani atlete. Medicina dello Sport 5: 406–411 and 412–414 (1965).Google Scholar
  75. Finkelstein, J.W.; Roffwarg, H.P.; Boyar, R.M.; Kream, J. and Hellman, L.: Age related changes in the twenty-four hour spontaneous secretion of growth hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 35: 665–670 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fiorica, V.; Higgins, E.A.; Lampietro, P.F.; Lategola, M.T. and Davis, A.W.: Physiological responses of men during sleep deprivation. Journal of Applied Physiology 24: 167–176 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Flink, E.B. and Doe, R.P.: Effect of sudden time displacement by air travel on synchronization of adrenal function. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology, New York 100: 498–501 (1959).Google Scholar
  78. Folkard, S.; Minors, D.S. and Waterhouse, J.M.: Is there more than one internal clock in man? Journal of Physiology 341: 50p (1983).Google Scholar
  79. Frisch, R.: Menarche and fatness: Re-examination of the critical body composition hypothesis. Science 200: 1506–1513 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Froberg, J.; Karlsson, C.C.; Levi, L. and Lidberg, L.: Orcadian variations in performance, psychological ratings, catecholamine excretion and diuresis during prolonged sleep deprivation. International Journal of Psychobiology 2: 23–36 (1972).Google Scholar
  81. Fulton, J.F. and Bailey, P.: Tumors in the region of the third ventricle: Their diagnosis and relation to pathological sleep. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 69: 1–25, 145–164 and 261–277 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Garlick, M.A. and Bernauer, E.M.: Exercise during the menstrual cycle: Variations in physiological baselines. Research Quarterly 39: 533–542 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gaultier, C; Reinberg, A. and Girard, F.: Circadian rhythms in lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance of healthy children. Effect of two bronchodilators. Respiratory Physiology 31: 169–182 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gerritzen, F.: The diurnal rhythm in water, chloride, sodium and potassium excretion during a rapid displacement from east to west and vice-versa. Aerospace Medicine 33: 697–701 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gertsch, P. and Rodriguez, M.: Disponibilita alia performance della donna nel corso del ciclo mestruale. Medicina dello Sport 33: 107–112 (1980).Google Scholar
  86. Gifford, S. and Murawshi, B.J.: Minimal sleep deprivation alone and in small groups: Effects of ego functioning and 24 hours body temperature and adrenocortical patterns; in Symposium on Medical Aspects of Stress in the Military Climate, pp. 157–185 (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 1964).Google Scholar
  87. Gillespie, R.D.: Sleep and the Treatment of its Disorders (William Wood, New York 1930).Google Scholar
  88. Glaser, E.M. and Shephard, R.J.: Simultaneous experimental acclimatisation to heat and cold in man. Journal of Physiology 169: 592–603 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Goodman, J.M.: Cardiovascular adjustments to prolonged sleep deprivation at rest and during maximal exercise (Master of Science Thesis, Department of Community Health, University of Toronto 1983).Google Scholar
  90. Grad, B.; Rosenberg, G.M.; Liberman, H.; Trachtenberg, J. and Krai, V.A.: Diurnal variation of the serum Cortisol level of geriatric subjects. Journal of Gerontology 26: 351–357 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Guberan, E.; Williams, M.K.; Walford, J. and Smith, M.M.: Circadian variations of FEV in shift workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 26: 121–125 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Halberg, F.; Frank, G.; Harner, R.; Matheys, J.; Aaker, H.; Gravein, H. and Melby, J.: The adrenal cycle in men on different schedules of motor and mental activity. Experientia 17: 282–284 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Halberg, F.; Nelson, W.; Runge, W. and Schmitt, O.H.: Delay of circadian rhythm by phrase shift of lighting regimen is faster than advance. (Abstract). Federation Proceedings 26: 599 (1967).Google Scholar
  94. Halberg, F.; Vallbona, C.; Dietlein, L.F.; Rummell, J.A.; Berry, C.A.; Pitts, G.C. and Nunneley, S.A.: Human circadian rhythms during weightlessness in extra-terrestrial flight or bed rest with and without exercise. Space Life Science 2: 18–32 (1970).Google Scholar
  95. Hall-Jurkowski, J.E.: Hormonal and physiological responses to exercise in relation to the menstrual cycle. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science 7: 85–89 (1982).Google Scholar
  96. Hart, L.M.: Endocrine responses to 54 hours of sleep deprivation and sustained mental work (Master of Science Thesis, Department of Community Health, University of Toronto 1983).Google Scholar
  97. Hartman, B.O.: Field study of transport aircrew workload and rest. Journal of Aerospace Medicine 42: 817–821 (1971).Google Scholar
  98. Haslag, W.M. and Hertzman, A.B.: Temperature regulation in young women. J. Applied Physiology 20: 1283–1288 (1965).Google Scholar
  99. Haslam, D.R.: The military performance of soldiers in continuous operations. Exercises Early Call I and II; in Johnson, L.C. et al. (Eds) Advances in Sleep Research 7 (Spectrum Press, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  100. Hauty, G.T. and Adams, T.: Phase shifts of the human circadian system and performance deficit during the periods of transition. I. East-west flight. II. West-east flight. United States Federal Aviation Administrative Reports 65: 28–29 (1965).Google Scholar
  101. Hay, E.: Considerations on women’s sport. Olympic Review 12: 684–687 (1977).Google Scholar
  102. Hedlin, A.M.; Milojevic, S. and Korey, A.: Hemostatic changes induced by exercise during oral contraceptive use. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 56: 316–320 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hildebrandt, G.: Circadian variations of thermoregulatory response in man; in Scheving, L.E.; Halberg, F. and Pauly, J.E. (Eds) Chronobiology (Igaku Shoin, Tokyo 1974).Google Scholar
  104. Ho, A.; Fekete-Mackintosh, A.; Resnikoff, A.M. and Grinker, J.: Sleep timing changes after weight loss in the severely obese. (Abstract). Sleep Research 7: 69 (1978).Google Scholar
  105. Holland, G.J.: Effect of limited sleep deprivation on performance of selected motor tasks. Research Quarterly 39: 285–294 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Home, J.A.: A review of the biological effects of total sleep deprivation. Biological Psychiatry 7: 55–102 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Horvath, S.M.: The physiological stimuli to training in a normal climate. Proceeding from the International Symposium on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. Canadian Medical Association Journal 96: 791–793 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Howitt, J.S.; Balkwill, J.S.; Whiteside, T.C.D. and Whittingham, P.D.G.: A preliminary study of flight deck work loads in civil air transport aircraft (UK Ministry of Defence F.P.R.C, 1240, 1966).Google Scholar
  109. Ikai, M.; Ishii, K.; Miyamura, M.; Kusano, K.; Bar Or, O.; Kollias, J. and Buskirk, E.F.: Aerobic capacity of Ainu and other Japanese on Hokkaido. Medicine and Science in Sports 3: 6–11 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ilmarinen, J.; Rutenfranz, J.; Kylian, J. and Klint, F.: Untersuchungen zur tagesperiodik verschiedener Kreislauf und Atemgrossen bei submaximalen und maximalen Leistungen am Fahrradergometer. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 34: 255–267 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ilmarinen, J.; Ilmarinen, R.; Korhonen, O. and Nurminen, M.: Circadian variation of physiological functions related to physical work capacity. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 6: 112–122 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ingman, O.: Menstruation in Finnish top-class sportswomen; in Karvonen, M.J. (Ed.) Sports Medicine (Finnish Association of Sports Medicine, Helsinki 1953).Google Scholar
  113. Itoh, S.: Physiology of cold adapted man (Hokkaido University Medical Library Series, vol. 7, 1973).Google Scholar
  114. Johnson, L.C. et al.: cited by Keradazic, V.T.: Physiologic changes resulting from total sleep deprivation; in Koella, W.P. et al. (Eds) Sleep, Physiology, Biochemistry, Psychology, Pharmacology, Clinical Implications, pp. 165–174 (Karger, Basel 1973).Google Scholar
  115. Johnson, L.C; Naitoh, P.; Moses, M.J. and Lubin, A.: Variations in sleep schedules. Waking and Sleeping 1: 133–137 (1977).Google Scholar
  116. Karadzic, J.T.: Physiologic changes resulting from total sleep deprivation, in Koella, W.P. et al. (Eds) Sleep, Physiology, Biochemistry, Psychology, Pharmacology, Clinical Implications, pp. 165–174 (Karger, Basel 1973).Google Scholar
  117. Kawahata, A.: Sex differences in sweating; in Yoshimura, H.; Ogata, K. and Itoh, S. (Eds) Essential Problems in Climatic Physiology, pp. 169–184 (Nakado, Kyoto, Japan 1960).Google Scholar
  118. Klein, K.E.; Wegmann, H.M. and Bruner, H.: Circadian rhythms in indices of human performance, physical fitness and stress resistance. Aerospace Medicine 39: 512–518 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Klein, K.E. and Wegmann, H.M.: The resynchronization of human circadian rhythms after transmeridian flights as a result of flight direction and mode of activity; in Scheving, L.E.; Halley, F. and Pauly, J. (Eds) Chronobiologica, pp.564–570 (Igaku Shoin, Tokyo 1974).Google Scholar
  120. Klein, K.E. and Wegmann, H.M.: Circadian rhythms of human performance and resistance: Operational aspects; in Nicholson, A.N. (Ed.) Agard Lecture Series 105. Sleep, Wakefulness and Circadian Rhythm (RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hants 1979).Google Scholar
  121. Kleitman, N.: Sleep and Wakefulness (University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1963).Google Scholar
  122. Kleitman, N. and Kleitman, E.: Effect of non-24 hour routines of living on oral temperature and heart rate. Journal of Applied Physiology 6: 283–291 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Knauth, P.; Rutenfranz, J.; Herrmann, G. et al.: Re-entrainment of body temperature in experimental shift work studies. Ergonomics 21: 775–783 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Knoerchen, R.; Gundlach, E.M. and Hildebrandt, G.: Tagesrhythmische Schwankungen der visuellen und vegetativen Lichtempfindlichkeit beim Menschen; in Hildebrandt, G. (Ed.) Biologische Rhythmen und Arbeit (Springer Verlag, Vienna 1976).Google Scholar
  125. Kollar, E.J.; Slater, G.R.; Palmer, J.O.; Docter, R.F. and Mandell, A.L.: Stress in subjects undergoing sleep deprivation. Psychosomatic Medicine 28: 101–113 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Krai, J. and Markalous, E.: cited by Jokl, E.; in The Clinical Physiology of Physical Fitness and Rehabilitation, p. 105 (C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois 1930).Google Scholar
  127. Kuhn, E.; Brodan, V.; Brodanova, M. and Rysanek, K.: Metabolic reflection of sleep deprivation. Activitas Nervosa Superior 11: 165–174 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. LaDou, J.: Circadian rhythms and athletic performance. Physician and Sports Medicine 7: 87–93 (1979).Google Scholar
  129. LaFontaine, E.; Ghata, J.; Laverne, J.; Courillon, J.; Bellanger, G. and LaPlane, R.: Rhythmes biologiques et decalages horaires (I) Étude expérimentale au cours de vols commerciaux longs courriers. Concours Medicine 89: 3963–3976 (1967).Google Scholar
  130. Langdon, D.E. and Hartman, B.: Performance upon sudden awakening. US School of Aviation Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base Rep. 62: 17 (1961).Google Scholar
  131. Lavernhe, J.; LaFontaine, E. and LaPlane, R.: Subjective effects of time shifts (an enquiry among flight personnel of Air France). Revue de Medicine Aeronautique 4: 30–36 (1965).Google Scholar
  132. Lehtovirta, P.; Kvikka, J. and Pyorala, T.: Hemodynamic effects of oral contraceptives during exercise. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 15: 35–37 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Levi, L.: Physical and mental stress reactions during experimental conditions simulating combat. Forsvarsmedicin 2: 1–7 (1966).Google Scholar
  134. Levi, L.: Psychological and physiological reactions to and psychomotor performance during prolonged and complex stressor exposure. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 528): 119–142 (1969).Google Scholar
  135. Lewis, H.E.; Masterton, J.P. and Rosenbaum, S.: Body weight and skinfold thickness of men on a polar expedition. Clinical Science 19: 551–561 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lewis, P.R. and Lobban, M.C.: Dissociation of diurnal rhythms in human subjects living on abnormal time reactions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 42: 371–386 (1957).Google Scholar
  137. Lobban, M.C.: Time, light and diurnal rhythms; in Edholm, D.G. and Bacharach, A.L. (Eds) The Physiology of Human Survival (Academic Press, London 1965).Google Scholar
  138. Lobban, M.C.; Aim, N.O. and Edwards, A.C.: Shiftwork in the high Arctic; in Harvald, B. and Hart Hansen, J.P. (Eds) Circumpolar Health 81, pp.578–581 (Nordic Council for Arctic Medical Research Report Series 33, Copenhagen 1982).Google Scholar
  139. Lonsdorfer, J.; Meunier-Carus, J.; Lampert-Benignus, E.; Kurtz, D.; Bapst-Reiter, J.; Fletto, R. and Micheletti, G.: Aspects hémodynamiques et réspiratoires du syndrome Pickwickien. Bulletin de Physio-Pathologil Respiratoire 8: 1181–1192 (1972).Google Scholar
  140. Loucks, J. and Thompson, H.: Effect of menstruation on reaction time. Research Quarterly 39: 407–408 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Loveland, N.T. and Williams, H.L.: Adding, sleeping loss and body temperature. Perceptual and Motor Skills 16: 923–929 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lubin, A.; Hord, D.J.; Tracy, M.L. and Johnson, L.C.: Effects of exercise, bed rest and napping on performance decrement during 40 hours. Psychophysiology 13: 334–339 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Luby, E.D.; Grisell, J.L.; Frohman, C.E.; Lees, H.; Cohen, B.D. and Gotlieb, J.S.: Biochemical, psychological and behavioural responses to sleep deprivation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 96: 71–79 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Magolnicka, E.; Arbillar, S.; Depoortere, H. and Langer, S.Z.: Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation decreases the density of 3H-dehydro alprenolol and 3H-incipramine binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex. European Journal of Pharmacology 65: 289–292 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Malmo, R.B. and Surwillo, W.W.: Sleep deprivation: Changes in performance and physiological indicants of activation. Psychology Monographs 74 (15, No 502): 1–24 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mangold, R.; Sokoloff, L.; Conner, E.; Kleinerman, J.; Therman, P. and Kety, S.: The effects of sleep on the normal cerebral circulation and metabolism of normal young men. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34: 1092–1100 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Martens, R.: Arousal and motor performance. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 2: 155–188 (1974).Google Scholar
  148. Martin, B.J.: Effects of sleep deprivation on tolerance of prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 49: 79–86 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Martin, B.J. and Gaddis, G.M.: Exercise after sleep deprivation. Medicine and Science in Sports 12: 220–224 (1981).Google Scholar
  150. Martin, B. and Haney, R.: Self-selected exercise intensity is unchanged by sleep loss. European Journal of Applied Physiology 49: 79–86 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McCracken, D.H.; Takeuchi, L.; Davis, G.; Plyley, M.; Goode, R.C. and Shephard, R.J.: Sleep deprivation and chronic exercise. I. Isokinetic strength. European Journal of Applied Physiology (In press, 1984).Google Scholar
  152. McFarland, R.A.: Influence of changing time zones on aircrews and passengers. Aerospace Medicine 45: 648–658 (1974).Google Scholar
  153. Milan, F.A.: The Human Biology of Circumpolar Populations (Cambridge University Press, London 1980).Google Scholar
  154. Miles, L.E.M.; Raynal, D.M. and Wilson, M.A.: Blind man living in normal society has circadian rhythm of 24.9 hours. Science 198: 421–423 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mills, J.N.: Human circadian rhythms. Physiological Reviews 46: 128–171 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mills, J.N.: Diurnal rhythm in urine flow. Journal of Physiology 113: 528–536 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Mills, J.N.: Biological aspects of circadian rhythms (Plenum Press, London 1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Minors, D.S. and Waterhouse, J.M.: Circadian Rhythms and the Human, pp. 1–332 (Wright, Bristol 1981).Google Scholar
  159. Mohler, S.R.; Dille, J.R. and Gibbons, H.L.: The time zone and circadian rhythms in relation to aircraft occupants taking long distance flights. American Journal of Public Health 58: 1404–1409 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Moore-Ede, M.C.; Sulzman, F.M. and Fuller, C.A.: The Clocks that Time Us (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1982).Google Scholar
  161. Morimoto, T. and Shiraki, K.: Circadian variation in circulating blood volume. Japanese Journal of Physiology 20: 550–559 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mosko, S.S. and Moore, R.Y.: Neonatal SCN ablation: Effects on the development of the pituitary gonadal axis in the female rat. Neuroscience Abstracts 4: 350 (1978).Google Scholar
  163. Murray, E.J.; Williams, H.L. and Lubin, A.: Body temperature and physiological ratings during sleep deprivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56: 271–273 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Murray, E.J.; Williams, H.L. and Lubin, A.: Body temperature and physiological ratings during sleep deprivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56: 271–273 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Naitoh, P.: Sleep deprivation in human subjects: A reappraisal. Waking and Sleeping 1: 53–60 (1976).Google Scholar
  166. Naitoh, P.; Pasnau, R.O. and Kollar, E.J.: Psychophysiological changes after prolonged deprivation of sleep. Biological Psychiatry 3: 309–320 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Newman, E.A. and Evans, C.R.: Human dream processes as analogous to computer programme clearance. Nature (London) 206: 534 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Noack, H.: Die Sportliche Leistungsfahigkeit der Frau im Menstrualzyklus. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 79 (2): 1523–1525 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Oatley, K. and Goodwin, B.C.: The explanation and investigation of biological rhythms; in Colquhoun, W.P. (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  170. Osmond, D.H.; Hoskin, R.W.; Loh, A.Y.; Hedlin, A.M.; Radomski, M.W. and Goode, R.C.: Sleep deprivation and chronic exercise. Plasma prorenin and renin activity (In preparation, 1983).Google Scholar
  171. Palmblad, J.; Akerstedt, T.; Froberg, J.; Melander, A. and Von Schenk, H.: Thyroid and adrenomedullary reactions during sleep deprivation. Acta Endocrinologia 90: 233–299 (1979).Google Scholar
  172. Panksepp, J.: Hypothalamic regulation of energy balance and feeding behavior. Federation Proceedings 33: 1150–1165 (1973).Google Scholar
  173. Parry, E.H.O. and Dollery, C.T.: Diurnal changes in plasma volume in hypertensive patients: Effects of posture and sodium depletion. Clinical Science 35: 373–380 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Patrick, G.T. and Gilbert, J.A.: On the effects of loss of sleep. Psychological Reviews 3: 476–483 (1896).Google Scholar
  175. Pavlidis, T.: A model for circadian clocks. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 29: 781–791 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Pavlidis, T.: Biological Oscillators: Their Mathematical Analysis (Academic Press, New York 1973).Google Scholar
  177. Phillips, J.L.M. and Mikulka, P.J.: The effects of restricted food access upon locomotor activity in rats with suprachiasmatic nucleus lesions. Physiology of Behavior 23: 257–262 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Phillips, M.: Effect of the menstrual cycle on pulse rate and blood pressure before and after exercise. Research Quarterly 39: 327–333 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Pickett, G.F. and Morris, A.F.: Effects of acute sleep deprivation on total body response time and cardiovascular performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 15: 49–56 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pierson, W.R. and Lockhart, A.: Effect of menstruation on simple movement and reaction time. British Medical Journal 1: 796–797 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Pittendrigh, C.S. and Caldarola, P.C.: General homeostasis of the frequency of circadian oscillations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 70: 2697–2701 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Pittendrigh, C.S. and Daan, S.: A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents. IV. Entrainment: Pacemaker as clock. Journal of Physiology 106: 291–331 (1976).Google Scholar
  183. Plyley, M.J.; Davis, G.; Shephard, R.J.; Goode, R.C. and Allen, C: Sleep deprivation and cardiorespiratory function — influence of intermittent exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology (In press, 1984).Google Scholar
  184. Priban, L.P. and Fincham, W.F.: Self adaptive control and the respiratory system. Nature (London) 208: 339–343 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Redgrove, J.A.: Menstrual cycles; in Colquhoun, W.P. (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, pp.211–240 (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  186. Reid, I.A.; Morris, B.J. and Ganong, W.F.: The renin-angiotensin system. Annual Reviews of Physiology 40: 377–410 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Reilly, T. and Baxter, C: Influence of time of day on reactions to cycling at a fixed high intensity. British Journal of Sports Medicine 17: 128–130 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Reilly, T. and Brooks. G.A.: Investigation of circadian rhythms in metabolic responses to exercise. Ergonomics 25: 1093–1107 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Reilly, T. and Walsh, T.J.: Physiological, psychological and performance measures during an endurance record for 5-a-side soccer play. British Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 122–128 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reinberg, A.: Rythmes circadiens et circannuels chez l’homme adulte sain; in Nicholson, A.N. (Ed.) Agard Lecture Series 105. Sleep, Wakefulness and Circadian Rhythm (RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, Hants. 1979).Google Scholar
  191. Reinberg, A. and Gervais, P.: Circadian rhythms in respiratory functions with special reference to human chronophysiology and chronopharmacology. Bulletin de Physiopathologie Respiratoire 8: 663–675 (1972).Google Scholar
  192. Renbourn, E.T.: Variation, diurnal and over longer periods of time, in blood haemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood chloride. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 45: 455–467 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ribisl, P.M.; Miller, H.S. and Masseo, R.: Diurnal variation in exercise prescription. Medicine and Science in Sports 9: 68 (1977).Google Scholar
  194. Richter, C.P.: Sleep and activity: Their relation to the 24-hour clock. Proceedings of the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases 45: 8–27 (1967).Google Scholar
  195. Robinson, E.S. and Herrman, S.O.: Effects of loss of sleep. Journal of Experimental Psychology 5: 19–32 (1922).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rodahl, A.; O’Brien, M. and Firth, P.G.R.: Diurnal variation in performance of competitive swimmers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 16: 72–76 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rode, A. and Shephard, R.J.: Fitness of the Canadian Eskimo — the influence of season. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 170–173 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Rubin, R.T.; Kollar, E.J.; Slater, G.G. and Clark, B.R.: Excretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroid and vanillylmandelic acid during 205 hours of sleep deprivation in man. Psychosomatic Medicine 31: 68–79(1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Rusak, B.: The role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the generation of circadian rhythms in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Journal of Comparative Physiology 118: 145–164 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ryhming, I.: A modified step test for the evaluation of physical fitness. Arbeitsphysiologie 15: 235–250 (1954).Google Scholar
  201. Sanford, A.J.: A periodic.basis for perception and action; in Colquhoun, W.P. (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, pp. 179–209 (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  202. Sargent, F. and Weinman, K.P.: Eccrine sweat gland activity during menstrual cycle. Journal of Applied Physiology 21: 1685–1687 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sasaki, T.: Effect of rapid transposition around the earth on diurnal variation in body temperature. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology, New York 115: 1129–1131 (1964).Google Scholar
  204. Sasaki, T.: Effects of jet-lag on sports performance; in Schering, L.E. and Halberg, F. (Eds) Chronobiology: Principles and Application to Shifts in Schedules. NATO Advanced Studies Series (Sythoff and Noordhoff, Netherlands 1972).Google Scholar
  205. Sassin, J.F.: Psychological changes resulting from total sleep deprivation; cited by Karadzic, V.T.; in Sleep Physiology, Biochemistry, Psychology, Pharmacology, Clinical Implications, pp. 165–174. Proceedings, 1st European Congress of Sleep Research (Karger, Basel 1970).Google Scholar
  206. Sassin, J.F.; Parker, D.C.; Mace, J.W.; Gothin, R.W.; Johnson, L.C. and Rossman, L.G.: Human growth hormone release: Relation to slow-wave sleep and sleep-waking cycles. Science 165: 513–515 (1969a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Sassin, J.F.; Parker, D.C.; Johnson, L.C; Rossman, L.G.; Mace, J.W. and Gothin, R.W.: Effects of slow wave sleep deprivation on human growth hormone release in sleep: Preliminary study. Life Sciences 8: 1299–1307 (1969b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sassin, J.F.; Frantz, A.G.; Kapen, S. and Wertzman, E.D.: The nocturnal rise of human prolactin is dependent on sleep. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 73: 436–440 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Schoene, R.B.; Robertson, H.T.; Pierson, D.J. and Peterson, A.P.: Respiratory drives and exercise in menstrual cycles of athletic and non athletic, women. Journal of Applied Physiology 50: 1300–1305 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Semar, M.; Skoza, L. and Johnson, A.J.: Partial purification and properties of plasminogen activator from human erythrocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 48: 1777–1785 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Shangold, M.: The relationship between long distance running and plasma progesterone and luteal phase length. Fertility and Sterility 31: 130–133 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Shangold, M.M.: Menstrual irregularity in athletes: Basic principles, evaluation and treatment. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 7: 68–73 (1982).Google Scholar
  213. Shangold, M.M.; Gatz, M.L. and Thysen, B.: Acute effects of exercise on hormone concentrations in trained women runners. Medicine and Science in Sports 12: 83 (1980).Google Scholar
  214. Sharp, G.W.G.: Reversal of diurnal rhythms of water and electrolyte excretion in man. Journal of Endocrinology 21: 97–106 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sharp, G.W.G.: Persistence of the diurnal rhythm of flow of urine. Nature 193: 37–41 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Shephard, R.J.: Normal levels of activity in Canadian city dwellers. Canadian Medical Association Journal 96: 912–914 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Shephard, R.J.: Men at Work. Applications of Ergonomics to Performance and Design (C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois 1974).Google Scholar
  218. Shephard, R.J.: Human Physiological Work Capacity (Cambridge University Press, London 1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Shephard, R.J.; Lavallee, H.; Jequier, J.C.; LaBarre, R.; Rajic, M. and Beaucage, C: Seasonal differences in aerobic power; in Shephard, R.J. and Lavallee, H. (Eds) Physical Fitness Assessment (C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois 1978).Google Scholar
  220. Siegel, P.V.; Gerathewohl, S.T. and Mohler, S.R.: Time zone effects. Science 164: 1249–1255 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Sjostrand, T.: Volume and distribution of blood and their significance in regulating the circulation. Physiological Reviews 33: 202 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Sloan, A.W.: Effect of training on physical fitness of women students. Journal of Applied Physiology 16: 167–169 (1961).Google Scholar
  223. Sollberger, A.: Biological Rhythm Research (Elsevier, New York 1965).Google Scholar
  224. Sondergaard, W. and Strande, C.S.: Diurnal variations in extracellular fluid volume in man detected by constant infusion technique. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Investigation 25: 65–69 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Soule, R.G. and Goldman, R.F.: Pacing of intermittent work during 31 hours. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 128–131 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Southam, A.L. and Gonzaga, F.P.: Systemic changes during the menstrual cycle. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 91: 142–165 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Stancer, H.C.; Warsh, J.J.; Tang, S.W.; Takahashi, S. and Shephard, R.J.: Blood versus urinary MHPG as indicator of brain NE metabolism in man; in Usdin, E.; Sourkes, T.L. and You-dim, M.B.H. (Eds) Enzymes and Neurotransmitters in Mental Disease, pp.221–228 (John Wiley, New York 1980).Google Scholar
  228. Stein, R.B. and Milner Brown, H.S.: Contractile and electrical properties of normal and modified human motor units; in Stein, R.B.; Pearson, K.G.; Smith, R.S. and Redford, J.B. (Eds) Control of Posture and Locomotion, pp.73–86 (Plenum Press, New York 1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A. and Wilkerson, J.E.: Perceived exertion and anaerobic threshold during the menstrual cycle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 216–222 (1982a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A. and Wilkerson, J.E.: Metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to exercise during the human menstrual cycle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 270–275 (1982b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Stockton, I.D.; Reilly, T.; Sanderson, F.H. and Walsh, T.J.: cited by Reilly, T. and Brooks, G.A. (1982): Investigation of circadian rhythm in selected components of sports performance. Paper presented at Society of Sports Sciences Conference, Crewe (1978).Google Scholar
  232. Stroud, J.M.: in Quastler, H. (Ed.) Information Theory in Psychology, pp. 174–207 (Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois 1955).Google Scholar
  233. Strughold, H.: The physiological clock in aeronautics and astronautics. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 134: 413–422 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Summers, S.P.: The effect of partial sleep loss on motor and cardiovascular fitness, pp. 1–86 (M.Sc. Thesis Physical Education, University of Illinois 1964).Google Scholar
  235. Sweeney, B.M. and Hastings, J.W.: Effect of temperature upon diurnal rhythms. Cold Spring Harbor Symposiums in Quan-titative Biology 25: 87–104 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Takahashi, Y.; Kipnis, D.M. and Daughaday, W.H.: Growth hor-mone secretion during sleep. Journal of Clinical Investigation 47: 2079–2090 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Taub, J.M.: Effects of daytime napping on performance and mood of a college student population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85: 210–217 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Thor, D.H.: Diurnal variability in time estimation. Perceptual and Motor Skills 15: 451–454 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Thor, D.H.: Time of day, circadian; in Larson, L. (Ed.) Encyclopaedia of Sports Sciences and Medicine, pp. 124–125 (MacMillan, New York 1968).Google Scholar
  240. Trinder, J.; Stevenson, J.; Paxton, S.J. and Montgomery, I.: Fitness, exercise and REM sleep cycle length. Psychophysiology 19: 89–93 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Trussell, J.: Menarche and fatness: re-examination of the critical body composition hypothesis. Science 200: 1506–1513 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Tune, G.S.: Sleep and wakefulness in normal human adults. British Medical Journal 1: 269–271 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Van Atta, L. and Sutin, J.: The response of single lateral hypothalamic neurons to ventromedial nucleus and limbic stimulation. Physiology of Behavior 6: 523–536 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Viitasalo, J.T. and Komi, P.V.: Effects of fatigue on isometric force and relaxation — time characteristics in human muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 111: 87–95 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Voigt, E.D.; Engel, P. and Klein, H.: Tages rhythmische Schwankungen des Leistungspulsindex. Deutsche Medizinische Monatschrift 12: 394–395 (1967).Google Scholar
  246. Völker, H.: Über die tagesperiodischen Schwankungen einiger Lebensvorgäuge des Menschen. Pflügers Archivs gesamte Physiologic 215: 43–77 (1927).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Vondra, K.; Brodan, V.; Bass, A.; Kuhn, E.; Teisinger, J.; Audel, M. and Veselkora, A.: Effects of sleep deprivation on the activity of selected metabolic enzymes in skeletal muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 41–46 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Vrâncianu, R.; Filcescu, V.; Lonescu, V.; Groza, P.; Persson, J.; Kadefors, R. and Petersen, I.: The influence of day and night work on the circadian variations of cardiovascular performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 11–23 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wahlberg, I. and Åstrand, I.: Physical work capacity during the day and at night. Work and Environmental Health 10: 65–68 (1973).Google Scholar
  250. Walford, J.; Lammers, B.; Schilling, R.S.F.; Van den Hoven van Genderen, D. and Van der Veen, Y.G.: Diurnal variation in ventilatory capacity. An epidemiological study of cotton and other factory workers employed on shift work. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 23: 142–148 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Wearing, M.P.; Yuhasz, M.D.; Campbell, R. and Love, E.I.: The effect of the menstrual cycle on tests of physical fitness. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 12: 38–41 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Webb, J.L.; Millan, D.L. and Stolz, S.J.: Gynecological survey of American female athletes competing at the Montreal Olympic Games. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 19: 405–412 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Webb, W.B.: Sleep: An Experimental Approach (MacMillan, New York 1968).Google Scholar
  254. Webb, W.B.: Sleep behaviour as a biorhythm; in Colquhoun, W.P. (Ed.) Biological Rhythms and Human Performance, pp. 149–177 (Academic Press, London 1971).Google Scholar
  255. Webb, W.B.: Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Performance, pp. 1–279 (John Wiley, Chichester 1982).Google Scholar
  256. Webb, W.B. and Agnew, H.W.: Effects on performance of high and low energy expenditure during sleep deprivation. Perceptual and Motor Skills 37: 511–514 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Webb, W.B. and Agnew, H.W.: Sleep and waking in a time free environment. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 45: 617–622 (1974).Google Scholar
  258. Webb, W.B.; Kaufman, D.A. and Devy, C.M.: Sleep deprivation and physical fitness in young and older subjects. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 21: 198–202 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Weissler, A.M.: Non-invasive methods for assessing the left ventricular performance in man. American Journal of Cardiology 34: 111–114 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Weitzman, E.D.: Circadian rhythms and episodic hormone secretion in man. Annual Reviews of Medicine 27: 225–243 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Weitzman, E.D.; Fukushima, D.; Nogetre, D.; Roffward, H.; Gallacher, T.F. and Hellman, L.: Twenty four hour pattern of the episodic secretion of Cortisol in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 33: 14–22 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Wells, C.L.: The menstrual cycle and physical activity; in Harris, D.V. (Ed.) DGWS Research Reports: Women in Sports, pp.71–80 (AAHPER, Washington, DC 1971).Google Scholar
  263. Wenger, C.B.; Roberts, M.F.; Stolwijk, J.A.J, and Nadel, E.R.: Nocturnal lowering of thresholds for sweating and vasodilation. Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 15–19 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Wertheimer, L.; Hassen, A.; Delman, A. and Yaseen, A.: Cardiovascular circadian rhythm in man; in Scheving, L.E.; Halberg, F. and Panly, J.E. (Eds) Chronobiology, pp.742–747 (George Thieme, Stuttgart 1974).Google Scholar
  265. Wesson, L.G.: Electrolyte excretion in relation to diurnal cycles of renal function. Medicine 43: 547–592 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wever, R.A.: The circadian system of man. Results of experiments under temporal isolation (Springer Verlag, New York 1979).Google Scholar
  267. Wilkinson, R.T.: Muscle tension during mental work under sleep deprivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64: 565–571 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Wilkinson, R.T.: Sleep deprivation; in Edholm, O.G. and Bacharach, A.L. (Eds) The Physiology of Human Survival (Academic Press, London 1965).Google Scholar
  269. Winfree, A.T.: in Gerstenhaber, M. (Ed.) Lectures on Mathematics in the Life Sciences, vol. II, pp.111–150 (American Mathematical Society, Providence 1970).Google Scholar
  270. Wirth, J.C. and Lohman, T.G.: The relationship of static muscle function to use of oral contraceptives. Medicine and Science in Sports 14: 16–20 (1982).Google Scholar
  271. Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, J. and Banaszkiewicz, A.: Physical work capacity during the day and at night. Ergonomics 17: 193–198 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wolf, W.: Rhythmic functions in living systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 98: 753–1326 (1962).Google Scholar
  273. Wright, V.; Dowson, D. and Longfield, M.D.: Joint stiffness — its characterisation and significance. Biology and Medicine in Engineering 4: 8–14 (1969).Google Scholar
  274. Yamaji, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Nakaguchi, M.; Kitamura, K. and Shephard, R.J.: Biological rhythms of PWC170 and maximal oxygen intake. Journal of Human Ergology (Tokyo) 10: 213–219 (1981).Google Scholar
  275. Yamamoto, W.S.: Looking at the regulation of ventilation as a signalling process; in Dempsey, J.A. and Reed, C.E. (Eds) Muscular Exercise and the Lung (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison 1977).Google Scholar
  276. Zaharieva, E.: Survey of sportswomen at the Tokyo Olympics. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 5: 215–219 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Zimmerman, E. and Parlee, M.B.: Behavioural changes associated with the menstrual cycle; an experimental investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 3: 335–344 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Ltd 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy J. Shephard
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Physical and Health EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations