Drugs

, Volume 65, Issue 12, pp 1611–1620 | Cite as

Critical Issues in the Clinical Management of Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Therapy in Practice

Abstract

Intra-abdominal infections differ from other infections through the broad variety in causes and severity of the infection, the aetiology of which is often polymicrobial, the microbiological results that are difficult to interpret and the essential role of surgical intervention. From a clinical viewpoint, two major types of intra-abdominal infections can be distinguished: uncomplicated and complicated. In uncomplicated intra-abdominal infection, the infectious process only involves a single organ and no anatomical disruption is present. Generally, patients with such infections can be managed with surgical resection alone and no antimicrobial therapy besides perioperative prophylaxis is necessary. In complicated intra-abdominal infections, the infectious process proceeds beyond the organ that is the source of the infection, and causes either localised peritonitis, also referred to as abdominal abscess, or diffuse peritonitis, depending on the ability of the host to contain the process within a part of the abdominal cavity. In particular, complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are more frequently associated with a poor prognosis. However, an early clinical diagnosis, followed by adequate source control to stop ongoing contamination and restore anatomical structures and physiological function, as well as prompt initiation of appropriate empirical therapy, can limit the associated mortality.

The biggest challenge with complicated intra-abdominal infections is early recognition of the problem. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage against enterococci is not recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions such as the presence of septic shock in patients previously receiving prolonged treatment with cephalosporins, immunosuppressed patients at risk for bacteraemia, the presence of prosthetic heart valves and recurrent intra-abdominal infection accompanied by severe sepsis. In patients with prolonged hospital stay and antibacterial therapy, the likelihood of involvement of antibacterial-resistant pathogens must be taken into account. Antimicrobial coverage of Candida spp. is recommended when there is evidence of candidal involvement or in patients with specific risk factors for invasive candidiasis such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. In general, antimicrobial therapy should be continued for 5–7 days. If sepsis is still present after 1 week, a diagnostic work up should be performed, and if necessary a surgical reintervention should be considered.

Keywords

Peritonitis Antibacterial Therapy Source Control Drotrecogin Alfa Secondary Peritonitis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Jan J. De Waele is supported by a Clinical Doctoral Fund of the Fund for Scientific Research — Flanders (FWO). The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intensive Care DepartmentGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Healthcare DepartmentHogeschool Gent, “Vesalius”GhentBelgium

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