Drugs

, Volume 62, Issue 16, pp 2377–2397 | Cite as

New Approaches to Atrial Fibrillation Management

A Critical Review of a Rapidly Evolving Field
  • Stanley Nattel
  • Paul Khairy
  • Denis Roy
  • Bernard Thibault
  • Peter Guerra
  • Mario Talajic
  • Marc Dubuc
Review Article

Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, the prevalence of which is increasing with the aging of the population. Because of its clinical importance and the lack of highly satisfactory management approaches, AF is the subject of active clinical and research efforts. This paper reviews recent and on-going developments in pharmacological and non-drug management of AF.

The ideal therapeutic goal for AF is the production and maintenance of sinus rhythm. Comparative studies suggest that available class I and III drugs have comparable and modest efficacy for sinus rhythm maintenance. Amiodarone, with actions of all antiarrhythmic classes, has recently been shown to have clearly superior efficacy compared with other available drugs. Newer agents are in development, but their advantages are as yet unclear and appear limited. A potentially interesting approach is the prescription of drugs upon the occurrence of an attack, rather than on a continuous basis. Recent insights into AF mechanisms may permit therapy to prevent development of the AF substrate.

An alternative to sinus rhythm maintenance is a rate control approach, with no attempt to prevent AF. Drugs to effect rate control include digitalis, β-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Digitalis has limited value for control of exercise heart rate and for paroxysmal AF, but is particularly well suited for patients with concomitant AF and congestive heart failure. AV-nodal ablation and pacing is an effective alternative for rate control but leaves the patient pacemaker dependent. The relative merits of rate versus rhythm control are being evaluated in ongoing trials, preliminary results of which indicate no statistically significant differences in primary endpoints but highlight the risks of rhythm control therapy.

In patients requiring pacemakers, physiological pacing (dual chamber devices or atrial pacing) has an advantage over purely ventricular pacemakers in AF prevention. Newer pacing modalities that produce more synchronised atrial activation, as well as pacemakers that prevent excessive atrial rate swings, show promise in AF prevention and may soon see wider use. The usefulness of automatic atrial defibrillators is presently limited by discomfort during shocks.

Targeted destruction of pulmonary vein foci by radiofrequency catheter ablation suppresses paroxysmal AF. Efficacy in persistent AF is lower and still under study. Problems include potential recurrence in other veins and a small but non-trivial risk of pulmonary vein stenosis. Surgical division of the atria into zones with limited electrical connection, the MAZE procedure, is highly effective in AF prevention but is a major intervention that is not applicable to most patients.

In conclusion, significant advances are being made in the management of patients with AF but much more work remains to be done.

Keywords

Atrial Fibrillation Amiodarone Pulmonary Vein Flecainide Propafenone 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Quebec Heart and Stroke Foundation and the Mathematics of Information Technology and Complex Systems Network of Centers of Excellence. There are no relationships that would result in significant conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Nattel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul Khairy
    • 1
  • Denis Roy
    • 1
  • Bernard Thibault
    • 1
  • Peter Guerra
    • 1
  • Mario Talajic
    • 1
  • Marc Dubuc
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Research CenterMontreal Heart Institute and University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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