A Practical Guide to the Management of Oesophageal Varices
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Bleeding oesophageal varices are a frequent and sometimes fatal complication of portal hypertension. Prompt resuscitation and arrest of haemorrhage are the immediate short term priorities. Vasoactive therapy to reduce portal pressure is administered on presentation. Early endoscopy is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy; usually emergency sclerotherapy or banding. After the acute bleeding episode, follow-up therapy is instituted either to obliterate the varices by sclerotherapy or banding, or to chronically lower portal pressure and hence reduce the risk of bleeding pharmacologically; a combination of both strategies may be also used. Active surveillance of those at risk of developing varices is advocated. Long term β-blocker therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in both the primary prevention of variceal haemorrhage and the prevention of rebleeding in those who have already bled. Despite a multitude of therapeutic regimes and ongoing clinical trials, mortality from this condition remains disappointingly high.
KeywordsAdis International Limited Octreotide Portal Hypertension Esophageal Varix Variceal Haemorrhage
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