, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 326–335 | Cite as

New Uses of Anticonvulsant Drugs in Psychosis

  • Charles Van Valkenburg
  • John Kluznik
  • Robert Merrill
Review Article


Psychotic patients not adequately relielved by neuroleptic drugs often improve when anticon-vulsants are added. In bipolar disorders and organic psychoses, anticonvulsants can sometimes be used to replace neuroleptics. No individual anticonvulsant is clearly, consistently superior. Patients who fail on one agent may improve on the next.

Clonazepam is an excellent adjunct to neuroleptic therapy, but there is little evidence that it is effective as monotherapy. However, it is safe, sedates rapidly, and has an excellent patient tolerability profile. Carbamazepine is the best established drug for patients with bipolar disorders, particularly for rapid cyclers, and is often effective monotherapy. The therapeutic profile of valproic acid (sodium valproate) is similar to that of carbamazepine, but its side effects are quite different and are often preferred. Other anticonvulsants are little studied, but might be chosen to avoid certain side effects, or after better-studied drugs have failed.

The pharmacological basis behind using anticonvulsants in psychoses is primarily empirical. In almost every case it has been clinicians who have first noted the beneficial effects of these drugs. Theories such as that of Post have followed.


Bipolar Disorder Carbamazepine Valproic Acid Valproate Clinical Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altamura AC, Basile R, Mauri M, Cazzullo CL. Le valpromide (Depamide) dans le traitement d’etats psychotiques aigus. Une etude clinique ouverte. [Valpromide (Depamide) in the treatment of acute psychotic states. Open clinical study.] Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 86: 297–304, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altamura AC, Mauri MC, Mantero M, Brunetti M. Clonazepam/ haloperidol combination therapy in schizophrenia: a double blind study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 76: 702–706, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronson TA, Shukla S, Hirschowitz J. Clonazepam treatment of five lithium-refractory patients with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 146: 77–80, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballard CG. Successful therapeutic intervention in a schizophrenic patient with blepharospasm. Correspondence; comment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52: 1312, 1989Google Scholar
  5. Ballenger JC. The use of anticonvulsants in manic-depressive illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.): 21–25, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatia MS, Balkrishna, Singhai PK, Kaur N. Psychosis associated with anticonvulsant toxicity. Indian Pediatrics 24: 516–518, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandwejn J, Shriqui C, Koszycki D, Meterissian G. Double-blind comparison of the effects of clonazepam and lorazepam in acute mania. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 10: 403–408, 1990Google Scholar
  8. Brodsky L, Shah A, Casenas E. Two distinct ‘paradoxical’ reactions to neuroleptics. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 9: 61–64, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown R. U.S. experience with valproate in manic depressive illness: a multicenter trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50 (Suppl.): 13–16, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Budman CL, Vandersall TA. Clonazepam treatment of acute mania in an AIDS patient. Correspondence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51: 212, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Calabrese JR, Delucchi GA. Spectrum of efficacy of valproate in 55 patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 147: 431–434, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Calabrese JR, Markovitz PJ, Kimmel SE, Wagner SC. Spectrum of efficacy of valproate in 78 rapid cycling bipolar patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 12 (Suppl. 1): 53S–56S, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter WT Jr, Kurz R, Kirkpatrick B, Hanlon TE. Summerfelt AT, et al. Carbamazepine maintenance treatment in outpatient schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 48: 69–72, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen PJ. Chung-Hua Shen Ching Ching Shen Ko Tsa Chih. [The efficacy and blood concentration monitoring of carbamazepine on mania.] Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry 23: 261–265, 318, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chouinard G. Clonazepam in acute and maintenance treatment of bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 48: 29–37, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chouinard G. The use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of manic-depressive illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.): 15–20, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clothier J, Swann AC, Freeman T. Dysphoric mania. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 12 (Suppl. 1): 13S–16S, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen S, Khan A, Johnson S. Pharmacological management of manic psychosis in an unlocked setting. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 7: 261–264, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen LS, Rosenbaum JF. Clonazepam: new uses and potential problems. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 48 (Suppl.): 50–56, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cold JA, Wells BG, Froemming JH. Seizure activity associated with antipsychotic therapy. DICP 24: 601–606, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coxhead N, Silverstone T, Cookson J. Carbamazepine versus lithium in the prophylmaxis of bipolar affective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85: 114–118, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. de Bard ML. Diazepam withdrawal syndrome: a case with psychosis, seizure, and coma. American Journal of Psychiatry 136: 104–105, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. de la Gandara Martin JJ, de Dios Francos A, Lopez Gomez I, Hernandez-Herrero H, Redondo-Martinez AL. Tratamiento de trastornos afectivos con clonazepan. [Treatment of affective disorders with clonazepam]. Actas Luso Espanolas de Neurologia, Psiquiatria y Ciencias Afines 19: 88–96, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. di Costanzo E, Schifano F. Lithium alone or in combination with carbamazepine for the treatment of rapid cycline bipolar affective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 83: 456–459, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Diehl LW. Psychosen bei Epilepsien. (Psychoses in epilepsy.) Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie (Leipzig) 42: 513–537, 1990Google Scholar
  26. Dose M, Apelt S, Emrieh HM. Carbamazepine as an adjunct of antipsychotic therapy. Psychiatry Research 22: 303–310, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dommisse J. Organic mania induced by phenytoin. Correspondence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 35: 457, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Edwards R, Stephenson U, Flewett T. Clonazepam in acute mania: a double blind trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 25: 238–242, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Engel J Jr. A practical guide for routine EEG studies in epilepsy. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 1: 109–142, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fawcett J. Valproate use in acute mania and bipolar disorder: an international perspective. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50 (Suppl.): 10–12, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Franks RD, Richter AJ. Schizophrenia-like psychosis associated with anticonvulsant toxicity. American Journal of Psychiatry 136: 973–974, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freeman TW, Clothier JL, Pazzaglia P, Lesem MD, Swann AC. A double blind comparison of valproate and lithium in the treatment of acute mania. American Journal of Psychiatry 149: 108–111, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Freyhan FA. Effectiveness of diphenylhydantoin in management of non-epileptic psychomotor excitement states. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 53: 370–374, 1945Google Scholar
  34. Frykholm B. Clonazepam-antipsychotic effect in a case of schizophrenia-like psychosis with epilepsy and in three cases of atypical psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 71: 539–542, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fukuzako H, Tominaga H, Izumi K, Koja T, Nomoto M, et al. Postural myoclonus associated with long-term administration of neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 27: 1116–1126, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gerson SL, Lieberman JA, Friedenberg WR, Lee D, Marx JJ Jr, Meltzer H. Polypharmacy in fatal clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. Correspondence. Lancet 338: 262–3, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gross M. Pseudoepilepsy: a study in adolescent hysteria. American Journal of Psychiatry 136: 210–213, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross RA, Herridge P. A maniclike illness associated with right frontal arteriovenous malformation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49: 119–120, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hauser P, Devinsky O, De Bellis M, Theodore WH, Post RM. Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Occurrence in patients with partial seizure disorders. Archives of Neurology 46: 696–699, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Heh CW, Sramek J, Herrera J, Costa J. Exacerbation of psychosis after discontinuation of carbamazepine treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry 145: 878–879, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Herrera JM, Sramek JJ, Costa JF. Efficacy of adjunctive carbamazepine in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 21: 355–358, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Horiguchi J, Inami Y, Effect of clonazepam on neuroleptic-in-duced oculogyric crisis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 80: 521–523, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Iivanainen M, Bergstrom L, Nuutila A, Viukari-M. Psychosis-like absence status of elderly patients: successful treatment with sodium valproate. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 47: 965–969, 1984Google Scholar
  44. Jarecke CR, De Moya VF, Ware MR. A case of mania secondary to hemodialysis: successful treatment with clonazepam. Correspondence. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 10: 298–299,1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kallinowsky LB, Putnam TJ. Attempts at treatment of schizophrenia and other non-epileptic psychomotor psychoses with Dilantin. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 49: 414–420, 1943Google Scholar
  46. Karson CN, Weinberger DR, Bigelow L, Wyatt RJ. Clonazepam treatment of chronic schizophrenia: negative results in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 139: 1627–1628, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kato H. Antiepileptic drugs and psychiatric disorders: mechanism involved in manifestation of psychic symptoms of high blood level of antiepileptics. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica 37: 283–289, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Keats MM, Mukherjee S. Antiaggressive effect of adjunctive clonazepam in schizophrenia associated with seizure disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49: 117–118, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Klosterkotter J, Penin H. Epilepsiepsychosen und ihre medikamentose Behandlung. [Epileptic psychoses and their drug treatment.] Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie 57: 61–69, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kluznik, JK: Diminution of polydypsia in schizophrenia following treatment with clozapine. American Psychiatric Association, Annual Meeting, May 15, 1991Google Scholar
  51. Kostiukova EG. Sravnitel’nye osobennosti profilakticheskogo de-istviia karbamazepina i uglekislogo litiia pri affektivnykh i shi-zoaffektivnykh psikhozakh. [Comparative features of the preventive action of carbamazepine and lithium carbonate in affective and schizoaffective psychoses.] Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova 89: 64–71, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kramer MS. Menstrual epileptoid psychosis in an adolescent girl. American Journal of Diseases of Children 131: 316–317, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kramlinger KG, Post RM. Adding lithium carbonate to carbamazepine: antimanic efficacy in treatment-resistant mania. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79: 378–385, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kubanek JL, Rowell RC. The use of Dilantin in the treatment of psychotic patients unresponsive to other treatments. Diseases of the Nervous System 7: 47–50, 1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kutcher S, Williamson P, MacKenzie S, Marton P, Ehrlich M. Successful clonazepam treatment of neuroleptic-induced ak-athisia in older adolescents and young adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 9: 403–406, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Leibovici A, Tariot PN. Carbamazepine treatment of agitation associated with dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 1: 110–112, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Leinonen E, Lillsunde P, Laukkanen V, Ylitalo P. Effects of carbamazepine on serum antidepressant concentrations in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 11: 313–318, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu ZZ, Mei QY, Wan Y. Hua-Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao. [A follow-up study on rapid cycling affective disorders.] Journal of West China University of Medical Sciences 20: 335–337, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Marchevsky S, Isaacs G, Nitzan I. Behavioral disinhibition with clonazepam. Correspondence. General Hospital Psychiatry 10: 447, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Martin-Munoz JC, Morinigo-Dominguez AV, Mateo-Martin I, Guajardo-Fajardo-Ibarra I, Noval-Lamos D. La carbamacepina: un tratamiento adjunto eficaz en las esquizofrenias. [Carbamazepine: an effective adjuvant treatment in the schizophrenias.] Actas Luso-Espanolas de Neurologia, Psiquiatria y Ciencias Afines 17: 245–250, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mauri M-C. Percudani M. Regazzetti M-G. Altamura A-C. Alternative prophylactic treatments to lithium in bipolar disorders. Clinical Neuropharmacology 13 (Suppl. 1): S90–96, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McDanal Jr CE, Bolman WM. Delayed idiosyncratic psychosis with diphenylhydantoin. Journal of the American Medical Association 231: 1063, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McElroy SL, Keck Jr PE, Pope Jr HG, Hudson JI, Morris D. Correlates of antimanic response to valproate. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 27: 127–133, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, Pope HG Jr, Hudson JI. Valproate in the treatment of bipolar disorder: literature review and clinical guidelines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 12 (Suppl. 1): 42S–52S, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. McFarland BH, Miller MR, Straumfjord AA. Valproate use in the older manic patient. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51: 479–481, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. McKee RJ, Larkin JG, Brodie MJ. Acute psychosis with carbamazepine and sodium valproate. Correspondence. Lancet 1(8630): 167, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McKenna PJ, Kane JM, Parrish K. Psychotic syndromes in epilepsy. American Journal of Psychiatry 142: 895–904, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Moller HJ, Kissling W, Riehl T, Bauml J, Binz U, Wendt G. Doubleblind evaluation of the antimanic properties of carbamazepine as a comedication to haloperidol. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 13: 127–136, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Monroe RR. Limbic ictus and atypical psychoses. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 170: 711–715, 1982Google Scholar
  70. Morinigo A, Martin J, Gonzalez S, Mateo I. Treatment of resistant schizophrenia with valproate and neuroleptic drugs. Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11: 199–207, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mosolov SN. [Comparative effectiveness of preventive use of lithium carbonate, carbamazepine and sodium valproate in affective and schizoaffective psychoses.] Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakova 91: 78–83, 1991Google Scholar
  72. Okuma T, Yamashita I, Takahashi R, Itoh H, Kurihara M, et al. Clinical efficacy of carbamazepine in affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry 22: 47–53, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Okuma T, Yamashita I, Takahashi R, Itoh H, Otsuki S, et al. A double-blind study of adjunctive carbamazepine versus placebo on excited states of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 80: 250–259, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Okuma T, Yamashita I, Takahashi R, Itoh H, Otsuki S, et al. Comparison of the antimanic efficacy of carbamazepine and lithium carbonate by double-blind controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry 23: 143–150, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pakalnis A, Drake ME Jr, John K, Kellum JB. Forced normalization. Acute psychosis after seizure control in seven patients. Archives of Neurology 44: 289–292, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Patten SB, Klein GM, Lussier C, Sawa R. Organic mania induced by phenytoin: a case report. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie 34: 827–828, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Patterson JF. A preliminary study of carbamazepine in the treatment of assaultive patients with dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 1: 21–23, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Peet M, Collier J. Use of carbamazepine in psychosis after neuroleptic malignant syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry 156: 579–581, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pleak RR, Birmaher B, Gavrilescu A, Abichandani C, Williams DT. Mania and neuropsychiatric excitation following carbamazepine. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 27: 500–503, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pope HG Jr, McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, Hudson JI. Valproate in the treatment of acute mania. A placebo-controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 48: 62–68, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Post RM. Time course of clinical effects of carbamazepine: implications for mechanisms of action. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.): 35–48, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Post RM, Weiss SR, Chuang DM. Mechanisms of action of anticon vulsants in affective disorders: comparisons with lithium. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 12 (Suppl. 1): 23S–35S, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Post RM. Sensitization and kindling perspectives for the course of affective illness: toward a new treatment with the anticon-vulsant carbamazepine. Pharmacopsychiatry 23: 3–17, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Post RM, Leverich GS, Rosoff AS, Altshuler LL. Carbamazepine prophylaxis in refractory affective disorders: a focus on long-term follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 10: 318–327, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Post RM, Uhde TW, Roy-Byrne PP, Joffe RT. Correlates of antimanic response to carbamazepine. Psychiatry Research 21: 71–83, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Richard P, Brenner RP. Absence status. Case reports and a review of the literature. Encephale 6: 385–392, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sandy R. Neuroleptic-induced, painful legs and moving toes, syndrome: successful treatment with clonazepam and baclofen. Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences 11: 573–576, 1990Google Scholar
  88. Savard G, Andermann F, Olivier A, Remillard GM. Postictal psychosis after partial complex seizures: a multiple case study. Epilepsia 32: 225–231, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Scher M, Neppe V. Carbamazepine adjunct for nonresponsive psychosis with prior hallucinogenic abuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177: 755–757, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schnetzler JP, Preaubert G, Schnetzler F. L’association acide valproique-Diazepam (1) comme alternative au traitement neuroleptique. [A valproic acid-diazepam combination as an alternative to neuroleptic treatment.] Annales Medico-Psycho-logiques 146: 325–339, 1988Google Scholar
  91. Small JG, Klapper MH, Milstein V. Kellams JJ, Miller MJ, et al. Carbamazepine compared with lithium in the treatment of mania. Archives of General Psychiatry 48: 915–921, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Simopoulos AM, Pinto A, Ulenhuth EH, et al. Diphenylhydantoin: Effectiveness in the treatment of chronic schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 30: 106–111, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sitland-Marken PA, Rickman LA, Wells BG, Mabie WC. Pharmacologic management of acute mania in pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 9: 78–87, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Smeraski PJ. Clonazepam treatment of multi-infarct dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 1: 47–48, 1989Google Scholar
  95. Sovner R. The use of valproate in the treatment of mentally retarded persons with typical and atypical bipolar disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50 (Suppl.): 40–43, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stevens JR. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.): 49–57, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Stone MH. The role of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 25: 564–571, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stuppaeck C, Barnas C, Miller C, Schwitzer J, Fleischhacker WW. Carbamazepine in the prophylaxis of mood disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 10: 39–42, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sultan S, Chouinard G, Beaudry P. Antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 14: 431–438, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Tran-Johnson T, Herrera J, Sramek JJ, Costa JF, Heh C, Pi E. Time-dependent autoinduction of carbamazepine in schizophrenia. Correspondence. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 21: 835, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Trimble MR. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Psychiatric Developments 5: 285–300, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Trimble MR. Cognitive hazards of seizure disorders. Epilepsia 29 (Suppl.): S19–24, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tyrer P, Seivewright N. Pharmacological treatment of personality disorders. Clinical Neuropharmacology 11: 493–499, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Van Putten T, Marder SR, Wirshing WC, Aravagiri M, Chabert N. Neuroleptic plasma levels. Schizophrenia Bulletin 17: 197–216, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Van Valkenburg C., Kluznik J, Merrill R, Erickson W. Therapeutic levels of valproate for psychosis. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 26: 254–255, 1990Google Scholar
  106. Vencovsky E, Peterova E, Kabes J. [Preventive effect of dipro-pylacetamide in bipolar manic-depressive psychoses]. Die prophylaktische Wirkung von Dipropylazetamid bei bipolaren manisch-depressiven Psychosen. Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie 39: 362–364, 1987Google Scholar
  107. Vieweg WV, Weiss NM, David JJ, Rowe WT, Godleski LS, Spradlin WW. Treatment of psychosis, intermittent hypona-tremia, and polydipsia (PIP syndrome) using lithium and phenytoin. Biological Psychiatry 23: 25–30, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Viswanathan R, Glickman L. Clonazepam in the treatment of steroid-induced mania in a patient after renal transplantation [letter]. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 319–320, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Vovin R Ya, Skorik AI, Aksenova IO, Digilov AG, Firulev AA. Effektivnost’ finlepsina pri profilakticheskoi terapii fazno pro-tekaiushchikh affektivnykh psikhozov. [Effectiveness of finlepsin in the prophylactic therapy of phasic affective psychoses.] Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S. S. Korsakova 87: 1396–1400, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wada Y, Kim Y, Yamaguchi N. Monosymptomatic hypochon-driacal psychosis: paroxysmal discharge in sleep and successful treatment with carbamazepine. Clinical Neuropharmacology 10: 568–572, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wells CE. Transient ictal psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 32: 1201–1203, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wessely P, Mayr N, Binder H, Klingler D. Neurologische Ausfallserscheinungen bei Diphenylhydantoin-Intoxikation. [Neurological signs in diphenylhydantoin intoxication (case reports and review) (author’s transl).] Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 93: 315–321, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wetterling T. Open clinical trial of carbamazepine in chronic schizophrenic inpatients. Pharmacopsychiatry 20: 127–130, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wolf P. Acute behavioral symptomatology at disappearance of epileptiform EEG abnormality. Paradoxical or forced, normalization. Advances in Neurology 55: 127–142, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wolf P, Trimble MR. Biological antagonism and epileptic psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 146: 272–276, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Van Valkenburg
    • 1
    • 4
  • John Kluznik
    • 2
  • Robert Merrill
    • 3
  1. 1.Nevada Department of PrisonsCarson CityUSA
  2. 2.Minnesota Security HospitalSt PeterUSA
  3. 3.Saint Peter Regional Treatment CenterSt PeterUSA
  4. 4.Veterans Affairs Outpatient ClinicEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations