Fluconazole is a bis-triazole antifungal drug with novel pharmacokinetic properties (metabolic stability, relatively high water solubility) which contribute to its therapeutic activity. Clinical experience is limited to a relatively small number of mycoses and, as might be expected at this early stage of development, optimal dosage and duration of treatment for some serious mycoses is not yet established. Further study to evaluate higher dosages and to establish the efficacy of fluconazole relative to more established antifungal agents is required.
In patients with oropharyngeal or oesophageal candidiasis, fluconazole produces rapid relief and eradicates the yeast in 50 to 90% of patients. Relapse of oral infection is common in chronically immunocompromised patients regardless of the antifungal used, and adequate primary therapy plus long term prophylaxis appears necessary in patients with AIDS. A single oral dose of fluconazole was comparable to standard topical azole therapy in women with acute vaginal candidiasis.
Preliminary reports of success against deep-seated candidiasis are encouraging; moreover, experience in noncomparative clinical trials suggests that fluconazole 200 to 400mg once daily resolves infection in the majority of seriously ill patients. Clinical improvement has been reported in a few cases of pulmonary Aspergillus infection but the overall efficacy of conventional dosages of fluconazole in this mycosis has not been as impressive. Early experience in coccidioidosis, predominantly meningitis, suggests a beneficial clinical effect with oral fluconazole in this difficult to treat mycosis but relapse remains a problem.
Fluconazole is a promising treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. The rate of clinical resolution and eradication of Cryptococcus neoformans from cerebrospinal fluid has been similar between fluconazole and amphotericin B treatment groups in comparative trials. Comparative trials of maintenance therapy indicate a similar low rate of relapse among patients given oral fluconazole once daily and intravenous amphotericin B once weekly. However, these results are preliminary and further study is required.
Fluconazole has been well tolerated to date but wider clinical experience is needed, especially with regard to the rare occurrence of hepatotoxicity and exfoliative skin reactions.
The promising clinical response of patients with various forms of candidiasis or cryptococcosis — together with convenient administration regimens — recommends fluconazole as a useful addition to currently available systemic antifungal therapies, in particular for the treatment of mycoses in patients with AIDS.
Results of in vitro susceptibility tests do not accurately reflect the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole. Relatively good activity against yeasts has been shown in specialised media (tissue culture agar and synthetic amino acid medium-fungal) but the MICs obtained in conventional media are generally many times greater for fluconazole than for ketoconazole. In contrast, fluconazole is the more potent azole in animal models of fungal infection. Studies in vivo have shown fluconazole to improve the survival of animals challenged with lethal inocula of Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and Histoplasma. Fluconazole 40 to 120 mg/kg/day reduced the fungal burden of animals with systemic mycoses and lower dosages (25 to 10 mg/kg/day) cured 50 to 100% of animals with vaginal candidiasis or dermatophytoses.
The antifungal activity of azole derivatives relates to their inhibition of membrane sterol synthesis by fungal cytochrome P450 enzymes. While ketoconazole also inhibits mammalian cytochrome P450 enzymes, supratherapeutic concentrations of fluconazole have a minimal effect on mammalian enzymes and, thus, fluconazole appears to be free of adverse effects on steroid hormone production.
Fluconazole is very well absorbed after oral administration even in the presence of food, or antacid or H2-receptor antagonist pretreatment, and its bioavailability exceeds 90%. The peak plasma concentrations achieved after single oral doses of fluconazole 100mg and 400mg are 1.9 mg/L and 6.7 mg/L, respectively, in healthy volunteers. Continued oral administration of fluconazole for 6 to 10 days leads to an increase in peak plasma concentration of 2.5 times that achieved after a single dose.
Fluconazole is widely distributed and its apparent volume of distribution (0.8 L/kg) approximates that of total body water. Concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, sputum and vaginal fluid approximate those attained in the plasma. In contrast to other azole antifungals which are highly bound, fluconazole is only 11% protein bound.
The primary route of elimination is via renal excretion with up to 80% of the drug recovered in urine unchanged. The elimination half-life is approximately 30 hours and is prolonged in patients with decreased renal function, necessitating dosage modification. Fluconazole is removed by haemo- and peritoneal dialysis.
The majority of clinical experience with fluconazole has been in patients with candidiasis or cryptococcosis. Fluconazole 50 to 100mg daily produced rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with AIDS or the treatment of malignancy. 88 to 100% of patients were clinically cured and cultures became negative in 50 to 90% of patients. Comparisons of fluconazole 50 to 100 mg/day with ketoconazole 200 to 400 mg/day and clotrimazole troches 50 mg/day found a similar rate of clinical remission and mycological eradication between these azole antifungals. Relapse was common in patients with AIDS regardless of the success of acute therapy. Whether this reflects regrowth of sequestered Candida or new infection is not clear but antifungal maintenance therapy has been advocated for these patients. In patients with chronic atrophic oral candidiasis, lesions outside the denture-bearing mucosa responded well but palatal lesions tended to relapse. Soaking the dentures nightly in chlorhexidine 0.2% solution significantly reduced the rate of recolonisation. In large multicentre studies of acute vaginal candidiasis, fluconazole 150mg as a single oral dose resolved the signs and symptoms of infection in ⩾ 80% of women evaluated 1 to 2 months post-treatment and was comparable to the efficacy of clotrimazole or econazole intravaginally for 3 and 6 days, respectively, and ketoconazole orally for 5 days.
Oesophageal candidiasis responded well to treatment with fluconazole 50 or 100mg daily. Typically the drug eradicated Candida from the oesophagus of evaluable patients and produced rapid resolution of pain and dysphagia. However, mycological cure did not improve oesophageal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis in whom oesophageal dysmotility and antireflux medication predisposed to colonisation but not to invasive candidiasis. Preliminary results of a double-blind comparative trial suggest that fluconazole 100 to 200 mg/day produces mycological eradication rates equal to those of ketoconazole 200 to 400 mg/day and a greater degree of endoscopically confirmed healing.
Symptomatic urinary tract infection responded well to fluconazole, generally 50mg daily, but urinary tract candidiasis is an ill-defined entity and controlled clinical studies are needed to evaluate the role of fluconazole in its management.
Fluconazole 50mg daily was comparable to ketoconazole 200mg daily in a double-blind multicentre study of patients with various dermatophyte infections. Very few data are available on the efficacy of fluconazole in mycoses confined to keratinised tissue, including hair and nails, although therapeutic drug concentrations have been measured in skin and nail tissue.
In noncomparative premarketing clinical trials fluconazole 50 to 400mg daily was used to treat a small number of patients with deep-seated candidiasis, and satisfactory clinical response and mycological eradication was achieved in approximately 85 and 76% of patients, respectively. Moreover, fluconazole was used successfully in many patients unresponsive to or intolerant of more established antifungal treatment. Fluconazole 100 to 300 mg/day proved useful in the few patients treated for pulmonary candidiasis or candidaemia associated with haematological malignancy, but there are insufficient data to generalise about the efficacy of fluconazole in neutropenic patients. Fluconazole 50mg daily was comparable to oral polyene prophylaxis in preventing the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients at high risk of developing neutropenia but further study is needed to determine if fluconazole prophylaxis confers any protection against invasive fungal infection.
Use of fluconazole has been particularly promising in patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in whom conventional therapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine, while effective, is difficult to administer and carries considerable risk of toxicity. Success in individual patients and in noncomparative studies has prompted comparative studies between fluconazole and amphotericin B in patients with active cryptococcal meningitis. Preliminary analysis of ongoing trials found that fluconazole 200 to 400 mg/day cured or improved approximately 60% of patients treated to date and this response was similar to the success rate recorded for amphotericin B in all but 1 participating centre.
Fluconazole (generally 100 or 200 mg/day) has also been evaluated as maintenance therapy in patients with AIDS who had negative cerebrospinal fluid cultures after primary treatment. The median follow-up period varied between 10 weeks and 11 months, during which 7 clinical relapses occurred in 59 patients. A comparison between daily oral fluconazole (200mg) and weekly intravenous amphotericin B (1 mg/kg) is continuing.
Conventional dosages of fluconazole have been less impressive in pulmonary Aspergillus infection although experience is limited to small Japanese trials. Clinical improvement was achieved with fluconazole 50 or 100mg daily alone or in addition to intrathecal antifungals in patients with coccidioidal meningitis; however, the problem of relapse with this mycosis remains.
Fluconazole has generally been well tolerated. In clinical trials utilising dosages between 50 and 400mg daily, the overall incidence of adverse reactions was approximately 16%, with nausea, headache, skin rash, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea being reported most commonly. Only 1.5% of patients discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions and 1.3% discontinued due to laboratory abnormalities — most frequently liver function test abnormalities. Rarely, patients with AIDS have developed exfoliative skin reactions during treatment, but the role of fluconazole in this reaction is uncertain. Hepatotoxicity has also been reported rarely in patients with serious underlying disease receiving fluconazole in addition to other potentially hepatotoxic agents. The causal association of these reactions with fluconazole is uncertain but, because of their potential seriousness, patients who develop liver function abnormalities or skin rash during treatment should be monitored closely.
Dosage and Administration
The daily dosage of fluconazole is the same by oral or intravenous routes. The recommended dosage in patients with oropharyngeal or oesophageal candidiasis is 200mg on the first day followed by 100mg once daily for a minimum of 2 weeks in oropharyngeal infection and 3 weeks plus at least 2 weeks after symptoms resolve in oesophageal infection. A single oral dose of 150mg is recommended in women with acute vaginal candidiasis.
For the treatment of serious candidiasis or cryptococcal meningitis, the recommended dosage is 400mg on the first day followed by 200mg once daily. The dosage should be increased to 400mg if clinically indicated. The minimum recommended treatment interval for patients with deep-seated candidiasis is 4 weeks. Patients with cryptococcal meningitis should receive active treatment for 10 to 12 weeks after cultures of cerebrospinal fluid become negative; thereafter fluconazole 200mg once daily is recommended for suppression of relapse in patients with AIDS.
A small number of children greater than 3 years of age have been safely treated with 3 to 6 mg/kg/day.
The following dosage modification is recommended in patients with impaired renal function: full dosage if creatinine clearance exceeds 0.8 ml/sec (50 ml/min), half recommended dosage if creatinine clearance is 0.35 to 0.8 ml/sec (21 to 50 ml/min), and one-quarter recommended dosage if creatinine clearance is 0.18 to 0.35 ml/sec (11 to 20 ml/min). The full recommended dose should be given after each session of regularly scheduled haemodialysis. No change is necessary for single-dose treatment.
KeywordsFluconazole Candidiasis Ketoconazole Azole Cryptococcosis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allen SD, Mitchell JT, Jones WE. Comparison of fluconazole and ketoconazole in an immune compromised and immune normal model of systemic candidiasis. Abstract no. 63. 28th ICAAC Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Blum RA, Wilton JH, Hilligoss DM, Goulds G, Schentag JJ. The effect of fluconazole on the disposition of phenytoin. Conference abstract, Vancouver, Canada, August 19–23, 1989Google Scholar
- Bodey GP, Samonis G, Rolston K. Prophylaxis or oropharyngeal candidiasis with fluconazole. In fungal infections in the cancer patient: management with fluconazole, Washington, DC, May 8, 1989Google Scholar
- Borgers M, Vanden Bossche H. The mode of action of antifungal drugs. In Levine HB (Ed.) Ketoconazole in the management of fungal disease, pp. 25–47, ADIS Press, Sydney, 1982Google Scholar
- Bozzette SA, Larsen RA, Chiu J, Leal ME, Large K, et al. Fluconazole (FLU) treatment of persistent urinary cryptococcosis (PUC) after cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Abstract no. WBP9, 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Brammer KW, Faulkner JK, Jevons S, Tarbit MH. The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in man. Abstract no. 164, 4th International Symposium on Infections in the Immunocompromised Host. Ronneby Brunn, Jun 15–19, 1986Google Scholar
- Bru JP, Lebeau B, Stahl JP, Micoud M. Oral fluconazole treatment of urinary mycoses. Abstract, 10th Congress of the International Society of Human and Animal Mycology, Barcelona, June 1988Google Scholar
- Camera A, De Rosa G, Fontana R, Rotoli B. Fluconazole for systemic mycosis: a case report. 22nd Congress of the International Society of Hematology, Milan, Aug 28–Sep 2, 1988Google Scholar
- Catanzaro A, Fierer J. Fluconazole treatment of coccidiodomycosis. American Review of Respiratory Disease 137: 218, 1988Google Scholar
- Chave J-P, Vernazza P, Margalith D, Glauser MP. Single dose therapy for esophageal candidiasis with fluconazole: a pilot study. Abstract no. ThBP319. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Clissold SP. Safety in clinical practice. In Jones HE (Ed.) Ketoconazole today. A review of clinical experience, pp. 77–91, ADIS Press Ltd, Manchester, 1987Google Scholar
- Coppini M. Esperienza clinica con fluconazolo nelle dermatomicosi. 65th Congresso Nazionale Societa Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia, Palermo, 1–3 June 1989Google Scholar
- Dismukes W, Cloud G, Thompson S, Sugar A, Tuazon C. Fluconazole (FLU) versus amphotericin B (AMB) therapy (Rx) of acute cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Abstract no. 1065. 29th ICAAC, Houston, 1989Google Scholar
- Dupont B, Datry A, Hilmarsdottir I, Dellamonica P, Bernard E, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients. A pilot study of fluconazole therapy. Submitted for publication, 1990Google Scholar
- Eckhoff C, Bähr V, Oelkers W. Comparison of antisteroidogenic effects of ketoconazole and fluconazole on collagenase dispersed rat adrenal cells. Abstract. 31st Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie Symposium, Münster, 4–7 March, 1987Google Scholar
- Esposito R, Uberti Foppa C, Cernuschi M. Treatment of HIV+ patients with oropharyngeal and/or oesophageal candidiasis: the results of a double blind study. Abstract no. Th.BP348. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Faergemann J. The activity of triazole derivatives against Pityrosporum orbiculare in vitro and in vivo. Abstract from 1st International Conference on Drug Research in Immunologic and Infectious Diseases. Antifungal drugs: synthesis, preclinical and clinical evaluation, New York, Oct 8–10, 1987Google Scholar
- Fisher M, Tarry W, Lee PG, Padden S, O’Brien C. Fluconazole treatment of candidiasis in normal and diabetic rats, 27th ICAAC, abstract no. 776, New York, Oct 4–7, 1987Google Scholar
- Foulds G, Wajszczuk C, Weidler DJ, Garg DC, Gibson P. Steady state parenteral kinetics of fluconazole in man. First International Conference on Drug Research in Immunologic and Infectious Diseases. Antifungal drugs: synthesis, preclinical and clinical evaluation, abstract P-6, Oct 8–10, 1987Google Scholar
- Gascoigne EW, Barton GJ, Michiels M, Meuldermans W, Keykants J. The kinetics of ketoconazole in animals and man. Clinical Research Reviews 1: 177–187, 1981Google Scholar
- Gil A, Lavilla P, Gonzalez A, Valencia ME, Dupla JML, et al. Fluconazole treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Abstract no. MCP71. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Graybill JR, Griffin L. Fluconazole treatment of naturally occurring coccidioidomycosis in a colony of Japanese Macaques. 10th ISHAM Congress, abstract, Barcelona, June 1988Google Scholar
- Graybill JR, Sharkey PK, Watson C. Fluconazole treatment of funguria. Abstract, 10th ISHAM, Barcelona, June, 1988Google Scholar
- Graybill JR, Sharkey PK, Watson C. Fluconazole treatment of funguria. VA Practitioner 5: 52, 1989Google Scholar
- Gritti FM, Raise E, Vannini V, Di Giandomenico G, Laneoni G. Fluconazole treatment for fungal infections in ARC and AIDS. Abstract no. MBP 96. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Gull K, Marriott MS, Troke PF. The effect of fluconazole on the morphology and ultrastructure of Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. 26th ICAAC, abstract, New Orleans, Sep 29–Oct 1, 1986Google Scholar
- Hanger DP, Land G, Marriott MS, Pye GW, Richardson K, et al. The activity and selectivity of the novel, bis-triazole UK-49,858for fungal sterol 14-alpha demethylation. 25th ICAAC, abstract, Minneapolis, Sep 29–Oct 2, 1985Google Scholar
- Hay RJ. Recent developments in the treatment of dermatophyte infections. Abstract. 1st International Conference on Drug Research in Immunologic and Infectious Diseases. Antifungal drugs: synthesis, preclinical and clinical evaluation, New York, Oct 8–10, 1987Google Scholar
- Hobbs MM, Wright KA, Perfect JR, Tso CY, Durack DT. Efficacy of SCH 39304 and fluconazole in the treatment of experimental fungal infections. 28th ICAAC, abstract no. 166, Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Janssen PAJ. New antifungal agents: a result of target-oriented drug design. In De Clercq (Ed.) Frontiers in microbiology, pp. 29–45, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1987Google Scholar
- Janssen PAJ, Vanden Bossche H. Mode of action of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inhibitors. Focus on azole derivatives. Arch Pharm Chem Sci Ed 15: 23–40, 1987Google Scholar
- Jevons S, Lees L, Tarbit M. Early clinical experience with UK-49,858in human volunteers and patients. 14th ICC, abstract, Kyoto, June 23–28, 1985Google Scholar
- Jones HE. Ketoconazole. In Fleischmajor R (Ed.) Progress in diseases of the skin, 2, pp 217–249, Grune & Stratton, New York, 1984Google Scholar
- Just G, Schnellbach M, Bottinger C, Gentschew G, Helm EB, et al. Fluconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. Abstract no. ThBP334. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Kahotwa M, Kapita B, Colebunders B, Mungieri A, Perriêns J, et al. Efficacite du fluconazole comparee avec amphothericine B plus 5 flucytosine dans le traitement intensif et de maintien de la cryptococcose meningee associee au sida. Abstract no. WBP12. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Kayembe K, Desmet P. Fluconazole dans le traitement de la cryptococose meningee chez les patients atteints de SIDA. Abstract no. WBP13. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Krüger HU, Schuler U, Zimmerman R, Ehninger G. No severe drug interaction of fluconazole, a triazole antifungal agent, with cyclosporin. Bone Marrow Transplantation 3 (Suppl. 1): 271, 1988Google Scholar
- Larsen RA, Leal ME. Fluconazole compared to amphotericin B as treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. Abstract no. 1062. 29th ICAAC, Houston, 1989Google Scholar
- Lazar JD, Wilner KD. Key drug interaction studies with fluconazole. Conference abstract, Vancouver, Canada, August 19–23, 1989Google Scholar
- Lee JCH, Searcy C, Prakash G, Wang Y. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral and intravenous fluconazole in immunocompromised patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Abstract, 7th Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy, Barcelona, 20–25 May 1990Google Scholar
- Levine HB. Fluconazole in murine coccidioidomycosis. 26th ICAAC, abstract no. 786, New Orleans, Sep 28–Oct 1, 1986Google Scholar
- Lim SG, Hales M, Lee CA, O’Doherty M, Winter M, et al. Fluconazole for oropharyngeal candidiasis in anti-HIV positive haemophiliacs. Abstract no. Th BP355. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Lyman CA, Waldorf AR, Diamond RD. In vivo evaluation of a new antifungal agent, UK-49,858, in the treatment of pulmonary and disseminated aspergillosis. Abstract. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene A 262: 156, 1986Google Scholar
- Marriott MS, Andrews RJ, Richardson K, Troke PF. The antifungal activity of UK-49,858 in animal models of superficial infections. Abstract, 14th ICC, Kyoto, June 23–28, 1985Google Scholar
- Marriott MS, Humphrey MJ, Tarbit MH. UK-49,858: a new triazole antifungal drug with novel pharmacokinetic properties in laboratory animals. Presented at 14th ICC, Kyoto, June 23–28, 1985Google Scholar
- Marriott MS, Pye GW, Richardson K, Troke PF. In vitro activity of a novel, bis-triazole antifungal agent UK-49,858. 25th ICAAC, abstract no. 812, Washington, 1985Google Scholar
- Martin MV, Vicary KN, Connell RL, Goble ED, Thompson AG. A comparison of the efficacy of the systemically-administered azoles UK 49,858 and ketoconazole in the treatment of rat palatal candidosis. Abstract. Journal of Dental Research 64: 696, 1985Google Scholar
- Meunier F, Gerain J, Libotte F, Lambert C, Ceuppens AM. Therapy of oropharyngeal candidiasis with fluconazole in cancer patients. 26th ICAAC, abstract, New Orleans, Sep 29–Oct 1, 1986Google Scholar
- Milliken S, Powles R, Jones A, Helenglass G. Pharmacokinetics of oral fluconazole in autologous bone marrow transplantation recipients given TBI and high-dose melphalan. Transplantation Proceedings 21: 306, 1989Google Scholar
- Miyasaki SH, Polacheck I, Hicks J, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. The identification and tracking of Candida albicansisolates from oral lesions in HIV-seropositive individuals. Abstract no. ThBP323. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Naeyaert JM, De Bersaques J, de Cuyper C, Hindryckx P, Van Landuyt H. Fluconazole, a novel oral antifungal, in the treatment of fungal skin infections. 9th International Congress of Infectious Parasitic Diseases, abstract no. 213, Munich, July 20–26, 1986Google Scholar
- Nakashima M. The clinical study of fluconazole against pulmonary mycosis. Effects of fluconazole on pulmonary cryptococcosis and aspergillosis and its pharmacokinetics in patients. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 42: 127–137, 1989Google Scholar
- Odds FC. Candidosis of the genitalia. In Odds FC (Ed.) Candida and candidosis. A review and biography, pp. 124–135, Baillière Tindall, London, 1988Google Scholar
- Osinusi BO, Rotowa NA. Fluconazole as single-dose treatment of vulvo-vaginal candidosis. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 1014–1018, 1988Google Scholar
- Patterson TF, Miniter P, Andriole VT. Effects of fluconazole on Aspergillus antigenemia in rabbits. 28th ICAAC, abstract no. 61, Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Purba HS, Back DJ. Effect of fluconazole (UK-49,858) on antipyrine metabolism. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 603P, 1986Google Scholar
- Rakusan TA, Dreyer C, Rinaldi MG. Use of oral fluconazole (FLU) in treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) in a child. Clinical Research 37: 60A, 1989Google Scholar
- Rinaldi MG, Robinson PA, Graybill JR, Stern JJ, Sugar AM, et al. Fluconazole concentrations in patients undergoing antifungal therapy. 28th ICAAC, abstract no. 66, Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Rubin RH, Debruin MF, Knirsch AK. Fluconazole therapy for patients with serious Candidainfections who have failed standard therapies. Abstract no. 71. 29th ICAAC, Houston, 1989Google Scholar
- Rubin R, Robinson PA, Knirsch AK, Joseph JA. Fluconazole therapy of patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. Abstract no. WBP1. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Sanjana V, Davidson M, Mullen M, Boyle D, Raviglione M, et al. Intravenous and oral fluconazole (FCZ) for the treatment of acute cryptococcal meningitis. Abstract no. WBP5. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Schmitt HJ, Bernard EM, Hauser M, Armstrong D. Comparison of antifungal agents in a rat model of pulmonary aspergillosis. 28th ICAAC, abstract no. 171, Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Shaw JTB, Tarbit MH, Troke PF. Cytochrome P-450 mediated sterol synthesis and metabolism: differences in sensitivity to fluconazole and other azoles. In Fromtling RA (Ed). Recent trends in the discovery, development and evaluation of antifungal agents, pp. 125–139, J.R Prous Science Publishers, SA, 1987Google Scholar
- The Swiss Group for Clinical Studies on AIDS. Single dose therapy for oral candidiasis with fluconazole in HIV-infected adults. Abstract no. ThBP322. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Toon S, Ross CE, Gokal R. Effects of impaired renal function on the oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole. 10th ISHAM, abstract no. 0-95, Barcelona, June, 1988Google Scholar
- Troke PF, Smith MJ. The in vitro and in vivo activity of fluconazole against Cryptococcus neoformans.Abstract, 27th ICAAC, New York, Oct 4–7, 1987Google Scholar
- Tschechne B, Brunkhorst U, Schedel I, Deicher H. Treatment of therapy-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis with fluconazole in HIV-1-infected patients. Abstract no. MCP143. 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4–9, 1989Google Scholar
- Tulli A. Valutazione di un nuovo antimicotico orale: il fluconazolo. Submitted for publication, 1989Google Scholar
- Van Cutsem J, Van Gerven F, Janssen PAJ. Oral therapeutic treatment of vaginal candidosis in rats with itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole: comparison of one-, two- and three-day treatment schedules. In Berkard AB & Kuemmerle H-P (Eds) Progress in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Turkey, July 19–24, 1987, Vol. 1, pp. 879–881, Ecomed, Germany, 1987Google Scholar
- Van Cutsem J, Van Gerven R, Janssen PAJ. The in vitro evaluation of azoles. In Iwata K, Vanden Bossche H (Eds) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antifungal agents, pp. 51–64, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division), 1986Google Scholar
- Viviani MA, Tortorano AM, Carraro PS, Sallusti M, Basadonna G, et al. Therapie au fluconazole de la candidose profonde chez les malades soumis a traitement chirurgical. Bulletin de la Société Française de Mycologie et de Médecine 18: 65–68, 1989Google Scholar
- Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Peter J, Schaufele R, Rubin M, et al. SCH-39304 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic and non-granulocytopenic rabbits. 28th ICAAC, abstract no. 169, Los Angeles, Oct 23–26, 1988Google Scholar
- Wragg PF, Howell RA, Hardy P, Farrelly PJ, Martin MV. An open non-comparative trial of fluconazole a new systemically-administered antifungal. Abstract. Journal of Dental Research 65: 515, 1986Google Scholar
- Yagi S, Nakajima M, Umeki S. A case of pulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated by transbronchial infusion of fluconazole. Nippon Kyobu Rinsho 48: 564–569, 1989Google Scholar