Drugs

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 77–122 | Cite as

Salbutamol in the 1980s

A Reappraisal of its Clinical Efficacy
  • Allan H. Price
  • Stephen P. Clissold
Drug Evaluation

Summary

Synopsis

Salbutamol (albuterol) is a β2-selective adrenoceptor agonist which accounts for its pronounced bronchodilatory, cardiac, uterine and metabolic effects.

During the intervening years since salbutamol was first reviewed in the Journal (1971), it has become extensively used in the treatment of reversible obstructive airways disease. Numerous studies in this disease (including severe acute, childhood and exercise-induced asthma) have confirmed the bronchodilatory efficacy of salbutamol, and it has been shown to be at least as effective as most of the currently available bronchodilators, if not more effective.

The onset of maximum effect of salbutamol is dependent on the formulation used and the route by which it is administered. In most patients inhaled salbutamol is a first-line therapy, since it offers rapid bronchodilation, usually relieving bronchospasm within minutes. Although oral salbutamol has often proved to be less efficacious than the inhaled formulation, it still affords clinically significant bronchodilation, and it is particularly useful in those patients unable to coordinate the use of inhalers. Parenteral formulations of salbutamol are generally reserved for the treatment of severe attacks of bronchospasm and they are one of the treatments of choice in these life-threatening situations.

Studies of the concomitant use of salbutamol and other agents such as anticholinergics, methylxanthines and beclomethasone dipropionate have usually shown a complementary response in the majority of patients, as might be expected from the different mechanisms of action of these groups of drugs.

Salbutamol is generally well tolerated and any side effects observed are a predictable extension of its pharmacology. Since the frequency of side effects is dose related, and therefore dependent on the route of administration, it is not surprising that they are much more common following intravenous and oral rather than inhalation therapy. Tremor, tachycardia and hypokalaemia are the most frequently reported adverse effects.

After nearly 20 years of use, salbutamol is well established as a ‘first-choice’ treatment in reversible obstructive airways disease. Indeed, throughout this time many new bronchodilatory agents have been studied but none have proved more effective. Clinical evaluation of salbutamol in the treatment of premature labour, hyperkalaemia and cardiac failure awaits further studies, although to date some encouraging results have been reported.

Pharmacodynamic Studies

Salbutamol is a β2-selective adrenoceptor agonist which has demonstrated considerable bronchodilatory effects. In studies in healthy volunteers, inhaled salbutamol caused a rapid and significant bronchodilation by reducing bronchomotor tone in both the large and small airways, as reflected by increases in sGaw, FEV1, FEF25–75, FEF50, FEV3, FEF75–88 and FEF75, and effectively inhibited histamine-induced bronchospasm. As would be expected, the bronchodilatory effects of salbutamol are greatly diminished following coadministration of non-selective β-blockers such as propranolol, betaxolol and tertatolol. The selective β-blocker atenolol had no such effect. Lower doses of inhaled salbutamol are required to bring about maximum bronchodilation in normal volunteers than in asthmatic patients. Although salbutamol has effective antitussive properties, its clinical application in this area requires further investigation.

In common with other β2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol demonstrated vasodilatory and inotropic effects in healthy volunteers, and in patients with reversible obstructive airways disease or cardiovascular disease, particularly after intravenous administration. However, the clinical efficacy of salbutamol in the treatment of heart failure remains to be established.

Intravenous salbutamol causes a marked reduction in uterine tonicity in women suffering from primary dysmenorrhoea, and this was associated with pain relief in pregnancy. Furthermore, salbutamol by intravenous infusion reduced uteroplacental blood flow by 18 to 50%.

Salbutamol exerts a number of metabolic effects. Intravenous and nebulised salbutamol decrease serum potassium concentrations, although the effect is generally mild and transient. However, intravenous salbutamol has been used to treat hyperkalaemia in renal failure patients. Salbutamol possesses lipolytic activity which is manifested as significant increases in non-esterified fatty acid and high density lipid-cholesterol. Oral and intravenous salbutamol cause increases in blood glucose and insulin, by stimulating glycogenolysis in the liver and having a direct stimulatory effect on β2-receptors in insulin secretory pancreas cells. Studies in animals and humans indicate that maternally administered salbutamol exerts some effects on fetal metabolism, but the only change reported to date which could be of clinical significance is an increase in growth hormone levels.

Salbutamol possesses antidepressant properties, although the mechanism by which it exerts this activity is unclear. Other reported CNS effects in animals include anorexia, induced by mechanisms involving β-adrenergic sites in the brain of rats, and increased vasopressin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs.

Salbutamol has demonstrated some antiallergic activity. In vitro, salbutamol produces dose-related inhibition of histamine release from lung fragments. However, it has little or no effect on allergen-induced histamine release from leucocytes obtained from allergic patients and only weak activity at inhibiting anti-IgE-induced histamine release from human skin slices. Inhaled and oral salbutamol are potent inhibitors of mast cell mediator release; in addition, both effectively inhibit inhaled allergen-induced bronchoconstriction.

As with other β2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol stimulates mucus secretion and mucociliary transport. Nebulised solutions of salbutamol increase mucociliary rates by up to 36% in obstructive airways disease patients and 16% in healthy volunteers.

The mechanism of action of salbutamol is thought to be mediated via the stimulation of the production of cyclic adenosine-3′ 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) by activation of the enzyme adenyl cyclase. Cyclic AMP is then capable of triggering a sequence of intracellular events that ultimately leads to the physiological effects associated with salbutamol therapy.

Pharmacokinetic Studies

Despite its widespread use, pharmacokinetic information on salbutamol is limited, particularly with respect to newer formulations, and further studies are needed to fully define its pharmacokinetic profile in humans. The major portion of an inhaled dose of salbutamol is swallowed and handled orally; the small fraction that is delivered to the lung (approximately 10%) rapidly appears in the circulation as free drug. Salbutamol is well absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations occurring between 1 and 4 hours later. However, due to extensive presystemic metabolism in the gut wall its systemic bioavailability is only 50%. After multiple oral doses of salbutamol 4mg 4 times daily, steady-state plasma concentrations are attained by the third day of administration. Additionally, salbutamol 2mg 4 times a day was found to be bioequivalent to a controlled release formulation given at a dosage of 4mg twice daily over a 5-day period

In animal studies it has been shown that salbutamol is rapidly cleared from all tissues. In addition, the drug undergoes placental transfer from maternal to fetal plasma, and slightly penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The apparent volume of distribution of salbutamol in humans is 156L, indicating extensive extravascular uptake. The plasma protein binding of salbutamol over the concentration range 0.05 to 2.0 mg/L is 7 to 64%. The blood/plasma concentration ratio of salbutamol is about 1.

Salbutamol and its metabolite(s) are rapidly excreted in the urine and faeces, with about 80% of a dose being recovered in urine within 24 hours, irrespective of the route of administration.

Unchanged salbutamol accounts for approximately 30% of the excreted dose following oral and inhaled administration, and about 65% after intravenous administration. Unchanged salbutamol appears to undergo active tubular secretion. Salbutamol is almost exclusively metabolised by conjugation to a 4′-O-sulphate ester in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The metabolite possesses little or no β-adrenergic activity. The elimination half-life of salbutamol is 2.7 to 5.5 hours after oral and inhaled administration, and 2.4 to 4.2 hours after intravenous administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of salbutamol was generally very similar in patients receiving the drug for prevention of preterm labour, although renal clearance was significantly lower.

Therapeutic Studies

Many short and several long term studies have confirmed the therapeutic efficacy and good tolerability of salbutamol in reversible obstructive airways disease irrespective of the formulation or route of administration. Single and multiple doses of salbutamol were significantly superior to placebo in terms of improving respiratory function and, overall, inhaled salbutamol (usually 200 or 400µg) would seem to be the formulation of choice for the majority of patients with reversible obstructive airways disease. Inhalation produces peak bronchodilation within 10 minutes and the improvement in lung function has been reported to last for up to 6 hours. A similar bronchodilatory effect is obtained with nebulised salbutamol (usually 2.5mg); indeed, no significant difference was observed between inhaled and nebulised salbutamol, although a greater incidence of dose-related adverse effects occurred with the nebulised formulation. Peak bronchodilation after oral salbutamol (most frequently 4mg) usually occurred at about 2 hours, and lasted for up to 8 hours. After parenteral administration of salbutamol, rapid and effective bronchodilation occurred within 15 minutes and lasted for up to 3 hours, but this route of administration is often associated with cardiovascular-related side effects and is reserved for treating life-threatening attacks of severe acute asthma. A large number of short term studies comparing the efficacy of salbutamol and alternative bronchodilators in patients with reversible obstructive airways disease have been reported. Salbutamol was more effective than isoprenaline and isoetharine, and in general there were no major clinical differences compared with bitolterol, broxaterol, clenbuterol, fenoterol, orciprenaline (metaproterenol), procaterol, terbutaline and tulobuterol. Although some of these agents had longer durations of action than salbutamol, this was often offset by the rapid onset of bronchodilation and fewer adverse effects associated with the latter drug. In single-dose trials comparing salbutamol and anticholinergic drugs in reversible obstructive airwaysa disease, salbutamol was superior to atropine methonitrate and oxitropium, equivalent to atropine and ipratropium bromide, but, as might be expected, inferior to ipratropium bromide administered in combination with the β2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol. There have been few well-designed clinical trials comparing salbutamol with methylxanthine therapy in the long term management of reversible obstructive airways disease. In those studies that have been reported, usual oral doses of salbutamol (4mg 3 times daily) appeared to be as effective as oral aminophylline, choline theophyllinate and a combination of theophylline and hydroxyzine.

Studies evaluating the efficacy of salbutamol in combination with anticholinergic drugs or other agents such as theophylline or beclomethasone dipropionate have generally recorded superior improvements with combination therapy compared with the individual components alone, but such differences were not always statistically or clinically significant. Further well-designed studies are needed to confirm the apparent improvement in efficacy associated with combination therapy and to determine the most appropriate dosages for obtaining the greatest benefit.

Clinical studies in patients with severe acute asthma have confirmed that both nebulised and parenteral salbutamol are efficacious and relatively safe. Indeed, comparative studies in patients with severe acute asthma have shown that salbutamol is more effective than adrenaline (epinephrine) or aminophylline and equally as effective as terbutaline and ipratropium bromide.

Salbutamol has been successfully used in the treatment of childhood asthma and in short and long term studies it improved respiratory function to a significantly greater extent than placebo. Other comparative studies demonstrated that salbutamol was superior to isoprenaline, and at least as effective as terbutaline and fenoterol. Combination therapy with salbutamol and theophylline or ipratropium bromide was generally synergistic in childhood asthma.

Salbutamol administered by inhalation is a very effective agent in the prophylaxis of exertional asthma. In terms of protection against exercise-induced asthma, inhaled salbutamol was superior to sodium cromoglycate, theophylline, orciprenaline and ipratropium bromide, and it was at least as effective as terbutaline and fenoterol.

Clinical evaluation of salbutamol in the treatment of premature labour has tended to be of a preliminary nature, generally in uncontrolled trials. Firm conclusions regarding its relative efficacy await further research, although some encouraging results have been reported.

Adverse Effects

Salbutamol is a well-tolerated treatment for the majority of patients suffering from reversible obstructive airways disease. The most common adverse effects are dose related, and therefore dependent upon formulation and route of administration, and are characteristic of the sympathomimetic agents. Usual inhaled doses of salbutamol do not appear to produce significant adverse reactions. The principal adverse effects of the drug are mild skeletal muscle tremor and cardiovascular-related effects, including tachycardia, palpitations and peripheral oedema. Reported metabolic adverse effects include significant increases in plasma glucose and insulin, and dose-related decreases in plasma potassium concentrations, especially following intravenous therapy. The decrease in potassiuin concentrations is usually transient and supplemental potassium therapy is rarely required. The weight of evidence suggests that absolute clinical tolerance to the bronchodilatory effects of salbutamol does not develop, although some attenuation of bron-chodilatory response has been documented.

Dosage and Administration

Salbutamol is available in a wide range of formulations for the management of the various forms of reversible airways disease (in infants, children and adults) and threatened premature labour. The recommended dosage instructions are summarised in table VIII in section 6.

Keywords

Salbutamol Forced Vital Capacity Terbutaline Fenoterol Ipratropium Bromide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel MH, Hollingsworth M. The effects of long-term infusion of salbutamol, diltiazem and nifedipine on uterine contractions in the ovariectomised, post-partum rat. British Journal of Pharmacology 88: 577–584, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham WM, Perruchoud AP, Stevenson JS. Beat frequency and antigen-induced changes in tracheal mucus velocity in allergic sheep. 3rd Congress of the European Society of Pneumology, Basel, September 16–22, 1984Google Scholar
  3. Agüero R, Dal-Re R. Comparative trial of tulobuterol, a new beta2-agonist, and salbutamol in adult asthmatic patients. Clinical Trials Journal 25: 109–120, 1988Google Scholar
  4. AHFS Drug Information 87. Albuterol. In McEvoy G (Ed.) Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agents, pp. 567–569, American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Bethesda, 1987Google Scholar
  5. Ahrens RC, Harris JB, Milavetz G, Annis L, Ries R. Use of bronchial provocation with histamine to compare the pharmacodynamics of inhaled albuterol and metaproterenol in patients with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 79: 876–882, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahrens RC, Smith GC. Albuterol: an adrenergic agent for use in the treatment of asthma pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical use. Pharmacotherapy 4: 105–121, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Akam RM, Howarth PH. Differential effect of oral and inhaled salbutamol on mast cell-mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma. Abstract. 3rd Congress of the European Society of Pneumology, Basel, September 16–22, 1984Google Scholar
  8. Alanko K, Sahistrom K. Comparison of bronchodilator effects of salbutamol and theophylline and their combination with hydroxyzine. Annals of Clinical Research 15: 10–14, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Hillawi AH, Hayward R, Johnson NM. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients taking slow release salbutamol and slow release terbutaline for asthma. British Medical Journal 288: 367, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anandajeya C, Sirakumaran S. Single dose benefits by dry powder and aerosol inhalation of salbutamol in asthmatics. Abstract. 3rd Congress of the European Society of Pneumology, Basel, 16–22 September, 1984Google Scholar
  11. Anderson PB, Goude A, Peake MD. Comparison of salbutamol given by intermittent positive-pressure breathing and pressure packed aerosol in chronic asthma. Thorax 37: 612–616, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aquilina R, Bergero F, Noceti P, Mirabelli S, Luciani G. Protective effect of Duovent versus salbutamol in long-term treatment. Respiration 50 (Suppl. 2): 240–244, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arossa W, Spinaci S, Testi R. Salbutamol plus beclomethasone dipropionate versus theophylline for the prevention of methacholine-induced bronchospasm in patients with chronic bronchitis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 565–568, 1985Google Scholar
  14. Arulkumaran S, Kitchener HC, Balasingham S, Rauff M, Ratnam SS. Myocardial strain associated with intravenous salbutamol therapy for preterm labour: case report. Singapore Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 17: 54–58, 1986Google Scholar
  15. Asher MI, Dunn C. A comparison of inhaled powders of fenoterol and salbutamol in asthma. Australian Paediatric Journal 21: 119–121, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barclay J, Whiting B, Addis GJ. The influence of theophylline on maximal response to salbutamol in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 389–393, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnes PJ, Pride NB. Dose-response curves to inhaled β-adrenoceptor agonists in normal and asthmatic subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 677–682, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bateman JRM, Pavia D, Shearan NF, Newman SP, Clarke SW. Effects of terbutaline sulphate aerosol on bronchodilator response and lung mucociliary clearance in patients with mild asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 695–698, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Becker AB, Nelson NA, Simons FER. Inhaled salbutamol (albuterol) vs injected epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma in children. Journal of Pediatrics 102: 465–469, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bedell GN, Richardson RA. Safety and efficacy of albuterol aerosol in the relief of bronchospasm. Annals of Allergy 47: 392–393, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bell R, Sahay JN, Barber PV, Chatterjee SS, Cox G. A therapeutic comparison of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol in asthmatic patients. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8: 242–246, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Berezuk GP, Schondelmeyer SW, Seidenfeld JJ, Jones WN, Lyle Bootman J. Clinical comparison of albuterol isoetharine and metaproterenol given by aerosol inhalation. Clinical Pharmacy 2: 129–134, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Berg I-M, Berg T, Ringqvist I. Salbutamol in the treatment of asthmatic children: a comparison of oral and inhalation therapy alone and in combination. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 63: 305–309, 1981Google Scholar
  24. Berg I, Engstrom I, Graff-Lonnevig V, Hildebrand G, Hattevig G, et al. A multicentre comparison of a new inhalation device, the Diskhaler®, with Rotahaler® in the treatment of childhood asthma. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 1): 156S, 1988Google Scholar
  25. Berkowitz R, Schwartz E, Bukstein D, Grunstein M, Chai H. Al-buterol protects against exercise-induced asthma longer than metaproterenol sulphate. Pediatrics 77: 173–178, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Beskow R, Ericsson C-H, Gronneberg R, Sjogren I, Skedinger M. A comparison of sustained-release terbutaline with ordinary salbutamol in bronchial asthma. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 65: 509–511, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bianchi G. Treatment of asthma syndromes in pediatric patients using a combination of a β2-stimulant drug and a histamine antagonist. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 56–58, 1985Google Scholar
  28. Blasi A, Pezza A. Comparison of broxaterol, a new selective bronchodilator agent, with salbutamol. Current Therapeutic Research 37: 485–492, 1985Google Scholar
  29. Blom-Bülow B, Boe J, Bulow K, Hagelqvist I. A comparison of oral beta2-agonists clenbuterol and salbutamol in obstructive lung disease: a double blind crossover study. Current Therapeutic Research 37: 51–57, 1985Google Scholar
  30. Boe J. Domiciliary nebulised beta-agonists. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 65 (Suppl. 136): 193–203, 1984Google Scholar
  31. Bonn D, Kalloghlian A, Jenkins J, Edmonds J, Barker G. Intravenous salbutamol in the treatment of status asthmaticus in children. Critical Care Medicine 12: 892–896, 1984Google Scholar
  32. Boner AL, DeStefano G, Niero E, Vallone G, Gaburro D. Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide solution in the treatment of bronchospasm in asthmatic children. Annals of Allergy 58: 54–58, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Borsini F, Bendotti C, Samanin R. Salbutamol, ô-amphetamine and ô-fenfluramine reduce sucrose intake in freely fed rats by acting on different neurochemical mechanisms. International Journal of Obesity 9: 277–283, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Britton M. A multicentre comparison of 8mg salbutamol controlled release (SCR) tablets b.d. versus theophylline slow release tablets (300mg) b.d. in control of reversible airways obstruction. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 147S, 1988Google Scholar
  35. Bronsky E, Bucholtz GA, Busse WW, Chervinsky P, Condemi J, et al. Comparison of inhaled albuterol powder and aerosol in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 79: 741–747, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bundgaard A. Exercise-induced asthma. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 68 (Suppl. 143): 51–56, 1986Google Scholar
  37. Busse WW, Smith A, Bush RK. The use of a single daily theophylline dose and metered-dose albuterol in asthma treatment. Journal of Allergy and Immunology 78: 577–582, 1986Google Scholar
  38. Busse W, Smith A, Bush R, Maynard D. Treatment of asthma with subcutaneous albuterol. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 73 (Suppl.): 4, 1984Google Scholar
  39. Caccia S, Fong MH. Kinetics and distribution of the β-adrenergic agonist salbutamol in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 36: 200–202, 1983Google Scholar
  40. Callaghan B, Ryan W, Hagstad H, Tegner K, Kotaniemi J. A multicentre study of a new controlled-release formulation of salbutamol (salbutamol CR) compared with a titrated dose of slow-release theophylline (Theo-Dur) in the treatment of chronic obstructive airways disease. Bulletin European De Physio-pathologie Respiratoire 22 (Suppl. 8): 111S, 1986Google Scholar
  41. Casali L, Rossi A, Manazza P, Colombo ML, Zoia MC. A comparison of the bronchodilator effects of broxaterol and salbutamol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 26: 93–97, 1988Google Scholar
  42. Chan CS, Brown IG, Kelly CA, Dent AG, Zimmerman PV. Bronchodilator responses to nebulised ipratropium and salbutamol singly and in combination in chronic bronchitis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 103–105, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chang B, Sly MR, Eby D, Middleton HB. Delivery of albuterol aerosol by inhal-aid to young children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75 (Suppl.): 159, 1985Google Scholar
  44. Chazan R, Droszcz W, Bobilewicz D, Maruchin JE. Changes in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) after salbutamol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 427–429, 1985Google Scholar
  45. Cheong B, Reynolds SR, Rajan G, Ward MJ. Intravenous β-agonist in severe acute asthma. British Medical Journal 297: 448–450, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chung KF, Morgan B, Keyes SJ, Snashall PD. Histamine dose-response relationships in normal and asthmatic patients. Review of Respiratory Diseases 126: 849–854, 1982Google Scholar
  47. Church MK, Hiroi J. Inhibition of IgE-dependent histamine release from human dispersed lung mast cells by anti-allergic drugs and salbutamol. British Journal of Pharmacology 90: 421–429, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Church MK, Holgate ST, Pao GJ-K. Histamine release from mechanically and enzymically dispersed human lung mast cells: inhibition by salbutamol and cromoglycate. British Journal of Pharmacology 79 (Suppl.): 374P, 1983Google Scholar
  49. Church MK, Howarth PH, Durham SR, Lee TH, Kay AB, et al. Influence of salbutamol and sodium cromoglycate on mast cell mediator release in vivo. Abstract no. 361. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75: 195, 1985Google Scholar
  50. Church MK, Young KD. The characteristics of inhibition of histamine release from human lung fragments by sodium cromoglycate, salbutamol and chlorpromazine. British Journal of Pharmacology 78: 677–679, 1983Google Scholar
  51. Clegg LS, Church MK, Holgate ST. Histamine secretion from human skin slices induced by anti-IgE and artificial secretagogues and the effects of sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol. Clinical Allergy 15: 321–328, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cochrane GM. The role of bronchodilators in severe acute asthma. In Clark & Cochrane (Eds) Bronchodilator therapy, p. 167, ADIS Press, Auckland, 1984Google Scholar
  53. Cogo R, Zavanella A, Gini M. Treatment of intrinsic or extrinsic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an extempore combination of bronchodilator (salbutamol) with antihistamine (oxatomide). Clinical Trials Journal 21: 384–392, 1984Google Scholar
  54. Conolly ME, Tashkin DP, Hui KKP, Littner MR, Wolfe RN. Selective subsensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors in central airways of asthmatics and normal subjects during long term therapy with inhaled salbutamol. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 70: 423–431, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Corea L, Bentivoglio M, Verdecchia P, Motolese M, Sorbini CA, et al. Noninvasive assessment of chronotropic and inotropic response to preferential beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptor stimulation. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 776–781, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cowen PJ, Graham-Smith DG, Green AR, Heal DJ. β-adrenoceptor agonists enhance 5 hydroxy tryptamine-mediated behavioural responses. British Journal of Pharmacology 76: 265–270, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Crane J. Single-dose comparison of salbutamol and duovent-berodual in asthma. Respiration 50 (Suppl. 2): 285–289, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Creemers B. A multicentre comparative study of salbutamol controlled release (Volmax)® and sustained-release theophylline (Theo-dur)® in the control of nocturnal asthma. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 333S, 1988Google Scholar
  59. Crowe MJ, Counihan HE, O’Malley K. A comparative study of a new selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist, procaterol and salbutamol in asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 787–791, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Cundell DR, Davies RJ. NCA release from human blood lymphocytes: effects of salbutamol and sodium cromolyn on this release. Abstract no. 20. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75 (Suppl.): 109, 1985Google Scholar
  61. Dahl R. A multicentre trial of salbutamol controlled release tablets (Volmax)® and standard salbutamol tablets (Ventolin)® in the management of asthma and chronic bronchitis. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 306S, 1988Google Scholar
  62. Dal Negro RW, Pomari C, Zoccatelli O, Turco P. Airways flow limitation: acute responsiveness to combined salbutamol + be-clomethasone dipropionate. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 561–565, 1984Google Scholar
  63. Dawson JR, Bayliss J, Norell MS, Canepa-Anson P, Kuan P. Clinical studies with beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in heart failure. European Heart Journal 3 (Suppl. D): 135–141, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dawson KP, Allan J, Fergusson DM. A comparative study of the inhaled dry powders of salbutamol and fenoterol and their delivery systems. Australian Paediatric Journal 21: 173–174, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dawson KP, Unter CEM, Deo S, Fergusson DM. Inhalation powder and oral salbutamol combination. Archives of Disease in Childhood 61: 1111–1113, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. De Candussio G, Franchi D, Manini G, Arossa W, Castello D. Duration of oral procaterol protection from methacholine-induced bronchial obstruction. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 6: 403–407, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Delbarre B, Casset-Senon D, Baertschi AJ, Delbarre G. Involvement of vasopressin secretion in antidepressant activity of a beta adrenergic agonist, salbutamol. Neuroendocrinology 4(2): 67–72, 1982Google Scholar
  68. Dellenbach P, Gulkaraty JP, Munch F, Ragon A, Schlewer G, et al. Passage transplacentaire d’un anesthésique et d’un betamimétique: intérêt des isotopes stables et de la spectrométrie de masse. In Pontonnier & Cross (Eds) Pharmacologie perinatale (colloque in Serm), pp. 55–77, Paris, 1977Google Scholar
  69. Desche P, Cournot A, Duchier J, Prost JF. Airway response to salbutamol and to ipratropium bromide after non-selective and cardioselective beta-blocker. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 32: 343–346, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Desranges M-F, Moutquin J-M, Péloquin A. Effects of maternal oral salbutamol therapy on neonatal endocrine status at birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology 69(4): 582–584, 1987Google Scholar
  71. Dolvich MB, Ruffin RE, Roberts R, et al. Optimal delivery of aerosols from metered dose inhalers. Chest 80 (Suppl.): 911–915, 1981Google Scholar
  72. Douglas JG, Rafferty P, Fergusson RJ, Prescott RJ, et al. Nebulised salbutamol without oxygen in severe acute asthma: how effective and how safe? Thorax 40: 180–183, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Earley B, Leonard BE. The effect of salbutamol on the activity of olfactory bulbectomized rat in the ‘open-field’ apparatus. British Journal of Pharmacology 80: 670, 1983Google Scholar
  74. Edmonds DK, Letchworth AT. Prophylactic oral salbutamol to prevent premature labour. Lancet 1: 1310–1311, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Erdo SL, Kiss B, Rosdy B. Effect of salbutamol on the cerebral levels, uptake and turnover of serotonin. European Journal of Pharmacology 78: 357–361, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Evans ME, Walker SR, Brittain RT, Paterson JW. The metabolism of salbutamol in man. Xenobiotica 3(2): 113–120, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Fazio F, Lafortuna C. Effect of inhaled salbutamol on mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic bronchitis. Chest 80 (Suppl.): 827–830, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fergusson RJ, Carmicheal J, Rafferty P, Willey RF, Crompton GK. Nebulized salbutamol in life-threatening asthma: is IPPB necessary? British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 77: 255–261, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Filuk RB, Easton PA, Anthonisen NR. Responses to large doses of salbutamol and theophylline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 132: 871–874, 1985Google Scholar
  80. Fischbacher CM, Milroy R, Giannini D, Monie RDH. Comparison of Duovent and salbutamol inhalers in chronic stable asthma. Postgraduate Medical Journal 60 (Suppl. 1): 28–31, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Flint KC, Hockley B, Johnson NMcI. A comparison between a combination of ipratropium bromide plus fenoterol in a single metered dose inhaler (Duovent) and salbutamol in asthma. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59: 724–725, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fontana G, Mugnai M, Cresci F, Panuccio P. Histamine-induced bronchial response after administration of placebo, salbutamol and a combination of a beta-2-adrenergic drug (fenoterol) with an anticholinergic agent (ipratropium bromide) in asymptomatic asthma patients. Respiration 50 (Suppl. 2): 201–205, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fowler MB, Timmis AD, Crick JP, Vincent R, Chamberlain DA. Comparison of haemodynamic responses to dobutamine and salbutamol in cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. British Medical Journal 284: 73–76, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gaddie J, Skinner C, Palmer KNV. Intravenous indoramin and aerosol salbutamol in bronchial asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 855–875, 1981Google Scholar
  85. Garattini S, Samanin R. ô-fenfluramine and salbutamol: two drugs causing anorexia through different neurochemical mechanisms. International Journal of Obesity 8 (Suppl. 1): 151–157, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gardey-Levassort C, Richard MO, Hauguel S, Thiroux G, Olive G. [3H]-Salbutamol placental transfer in pregnant rats on the 19th day of gestation. Development Pharmacology and Therapeutics 4: 151–157, 1982Google Scholar
  87. Ghiringhelli G, Schiavi M. Controlled trial to evaluate the therapeutic properties of an extempore combination of a bronchodilator (salbutamol) and an anti-histamine agent (oxatomide) in the treatment of intrinsic asthma. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 1158–1164, 1984Google Scholar
  88. Ghiringhelli P. Bronchospasm: prevention and treatment. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 52–55, 1985Google Scholar
  89. Godfrey S. Stimuli to bronchoconstriction. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 18: 297–306, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Godfrey S. Bronchodilators in exercise-induced asthma. In Clark & Cochrane (Eds) Bronchodilator therapy, pp. 112–130, ADIS Press, Auckland, 1984Google Scholar
  91. Gough PM. Preterm labour. Obstetric Care 24: 2237–2245, 1982Google Scholar
  92. Granger SE, Hollingsworth M, Weston AH. A comparison of several calcium antagonists on uterine, vascular, and cardiac muscles from the rat. British Journal of Pharmacology 85: 255–262, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Greif J, Markovitz L, Topilsky M. Comparison of intravenous salbutamol (albuterol) and aminophylline in the treatment of acute asthmatic attacks. Annals of Allergy 55: 504–506, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Grimwood K, Fergusson DM, Dawson KP. Combination of salbutamol inhalation powder and tablets in asthma. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 58: 283–285, 1983Google Scholar
  95. Gummerus M. The management of premature labour with salbutamol. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 60: 375–377, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gummerus M. Best criterion for the assessment of efficacy of tocolysis and choice of most suitable beta-sympathomimetic. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 64: 561–565, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gummerus M, Halonen O. Prophylactic long-term oral tocolysis of multiple pregnancies. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 94: 249–251, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Habib MP, Campbell SC, Shon BY, Pinnas JL. A comparison of albuterol and metaproterenol nebulizer solutions. Annals of Allergy 58: 421–424, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hambleton G, Lewis H, Daly S. Is the combination inhaler of salbutamol and beclomethasone dipropionate as effective as the same agents from separate inhalers in the management of childhood asthma? Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 548–554, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Harrison BA, Pierce RJ. Comparison of wet and dry aerosol salbutamol. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 13: 29–33, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Harvey JE, Tattersfield AE. Airway response to salbutamol: effect of regular salbutamol inhalations in normal, atopic and asthmatic subjects. Thorax 37: 280–287, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hasham F, Kennedy JD, Jones RS. Actions of salbutamol disodium cromoglycate, and placebo administered as aerosols in acute asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood 56: 722–732, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hauguel S, Gilbert M, Cedard L. Action of salbutamol on carbohydrate metabolism in the rat fetus. Biology of the Neonate 42: 257–264, 1982aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hauguel S, Gilbert M, Cedard L. Maternal and fetal metabolic effects of various salbutamol treatments in the pregnant rat. Development Pharmacology and Therapeutics 4 (Suppl.): 150–156, 1982bGoogle Scholar
  105. Haukkama M, Gummerus M. Decrease of serum oestriol during intravenous hexoprenaline or salbutamol treatment. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 89: 917–920, 1982Google Scholar
  106. Hawker F. Five cases of pulmonary oedema associated with β2-sympathomimetic treatment of premature labour. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 12: 159–171, 1984aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hawker F. Pulmonary oedema associated with β2-sympathomimetic treatment of premature labour. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 12: 143–151, 1984bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hey AA, Gillies AJD. Fenoterol administered as an inhaled powder: a comparison with salbutamol powder. New Zealand Medical Journal 98: 74–75, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Higgs CMB, Laszlo G. The duration of protection from exercise-induced asthma by inhaled salbutamol and a comparison with inhaled reproterol. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 77: 262–269, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Higgs CMB, Richardson RB, Laszlo G. The effect of regular inhaled salbutamol on the airway responsiveness of normal subjects. Clinical Science 63: 513–517, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hoernke JA, Kemp JP, Meltzer EO, Welch MJ, Orgel HA. Subcutaneous albuterol and terbutaline: a single-dose, crossover comparison in acute asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75 (Suppl.): 300, 1985Google Scholar
  112. Holt J, Bolle R. The use of fenoterol powder for the treatment of children with asthma. European Journal of Respiratory Disease 64 (Suppl. 130): 28–30, 1983Google Scholar
  113. Howarth PH, Durham SR, Lee TH, Kay AB, Church MK, et al. Influence of albuterol, cromolyn sodium and ipratropium bromide on the airway and circulating mediator responses to allergen bronchial provocation in asthma. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 132: 986–992, 1985Google Scholar
  114. Hutchings MJ, Pauli JD, Morgan DJ. Determination of salbutamol in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography — Biomedical Applications 227: 423–426, 1983Google Scholar
  115. Hutchings MJ, Pauli JD, Wilson-Evered E, Morgan DJ. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of salbutamol in premature labour. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 69–75, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Huupponen R, Pihlajamäki K. Effect of the blood glucose level on the metabolic response of intravenous salbutamol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 374–376, 1986Google Scholar
  117. Isawa T, Teshima T, Hirano T, Ebina A, Konno K. Effect of oral salbutamol on mucociliary clearance mechanisms in lungs. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 150: 51–61, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. jaffé G, Grimshaw JJ. Clenbuterol and salbutamol in the symptomatic treatment of patients with reversible airways obstruction. Pharmatherapeutica 3: 492–495, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jenkins CR, Chow CM, Fisher BL, Marlin GE. Comparison of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol by aerosolized solution. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 11: 513–516, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jenkins SC, Heaton RW, Fulton TJ, Moxham J. Comparison of domiciliary nebulized salbutamol and salbutamol from a metered-dose inhaler in stable chronic airflow limitation. Chest 91: 804–807, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jenne JW, Valcarenghi G, Druz WS, Starkey PW, Yu C. Comparison of tremor responses to orally administered albuterol and terbutaline. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 134: 708–713, 1986Google Scholar
  122. Joad JP, Ahrens RC, Lindgren SD, Weinberger MM. Relative efficacy of maintenance therapy with theophylline, inhaled albuterol and the combination for chronic asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 79: 78–85, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Johson AJ, Nunn AJ, Somner AR, Stableforth DE, Stewart CJ. Circumstances of death from asthma. British Medical Journal 288: 1870, 1984Google Scholar
  124. Jones JG, Jordan C, Slavin B, Lehane JR. Prophylactic effect of aminophylline and salbutamol on histamine-induced broncho-constriction. British Journal of Anaesthesia 59: 498–502, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Jonkman JHG, Freie HMP, van der Boon WJV, Grasmeyer G. Single dose absorption profiles and bioavailability of two different salbutamol tablets. Arzneimittel-Forschung 36: 1133–1135, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Joubert JR, Burger G, Shephard E. Inhalation therapy during acute asthma. South African Medical Journal 68: 381–384, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Keaney NP, Churton S, Stretton TB. Failure to demonstrate tolerance to inhaled salbutamol in volunteers. Abstract no. 828. World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, London, August 3–9, 1980Google Scholar
  128. Kelly HW. Controversies in asthma therapy with theophylline and the β2-adrenergic agonists. Clinical Pharmacy 3: 386–395, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kemp JP, Orgel HA, Meltzer EO, Welch MJ. Comparison of subcutaneous albuterol, terbutaline, and epinephrine in acute asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75 (Suppl.): 232(S), 1985Google Scholar
  130. König P. The use of albuterol for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Annals of Allergy 47: 421–422, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. König P, Hordvik NL, Sunderrajan EV. A comparison of inhaled fenoterol and albuterol in asthma. Annals of Allergy 55: 691–693, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kotaniemi J, Callaghan B, Hagstad H, Tegner K. Salbutamol controlled release tablets (Volmax)® and individually titrated slow release theophylline (Theo-Dur)® in the management of chronic obstructive airways disease. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 196S, 1988Google Scholar
  133. Küng M, Croley SW, Phillips BA. Systemic cardiovascular and metabolic effects associated with the inhalation of an increased dose of albuterol. Chest 91: 382–387, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lafortuna CL, Fazio F. Acute effect of inhaled salbutamol on mucociliary clearance in health and chronic bronchitis. Respiration 45: 111–123, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lahdensuo A. Bronchodilator effects of fenoterol and salbutamol administered by intermittent positive pressure breathing to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive bronchitis. Respiration 45: 67–70, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lahdensuo A, Sovijäroi A, Muittari A. Inhaled powder and aerosol salbutamol in metacholine-induced bronchial obstruction. European Journal of Respiratory Disease 64 (Suppl. 128): 515–517, 1983Google Scholar
  137. Laitinen LA, Poppius H. A controlled trial of oral slow-release aminophylline and oral salbutamol in adult asthmatics. Current Therapeutic Research 31: 727–732, 1982Google Scholar
  138. Laitinen LA, Poppius H. Combination of oxitropium bromide and salbutamol in the treatment of asthma with pressurized aerosols. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 80: 179–186, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lalos O, Joelsson I. Effect of salbutamol on the non-pregnant human uterus in vivo. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scan-dinavica 60: 349–352, 1981Google Scholar
  140. Latimer KM, Roberts R, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Salbutamol: comparison of bronchodilating effect of inhaled powder and aerosol in asthmatic patients. Canadian Medical Association Journal 127: 857–859, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Leahy BC, Gomm SA, Allen SC. Comparison of nebulised salbutamol with nebulised ipratropium bromide in acute asthma. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 77: 159–163, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Lecrubier Y, Puech AJ, Jouvent R, Simon P, Widlocher D. A beta adrenergic stimulant salbutamol versus chlorimipramine in depression: a controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry 136: 354–358, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lee DA, Winslow NR, Speight ANP, Hey N. Prevalence and spectrum of asthma in childhood. British Medical Journal 286: 1256–1258, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Lee HS, Evans HE. Albuterol by aerosol and orally administered theophylline in asthmatic children. Journal of Pediatrics 101: 632–635, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lefkowitz RJ, De Lean A, Hoffmann BB, Stadel JM, Kent R, et al. Molecular pharmacology of adenylate cyclase coupled-and β-adrenergic receptors. Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research 14: 145–161, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Legris C, Boulet LP, Lafrance L, Bélanger J, Beaupré A. Étude comparative entre le procáterol et le salbutamol dans l’asthme bronchique léger à modéré. Therapie 42: 213–216, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lehtonen A, Viikari J, Sallinen V-P, Elo J. Effect of beta2-adrenergic stimulation on serum lipids. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 20: 530–531, 1982Google Scholar
  148. Leitch AG, Morgan A, Ellis DA, Bell G, Haslett C, et al. Effect of oral salbutamol and slow-release aminophylline on exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis. Thorax 36: 787–789, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lever AML, Corris PA, Gibson GJ. Nifedipine enhances the bronchodilator effect of salbutamol. Thorax 39: 576–578, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Light RW, Campbell SC, Degraff AC, Repsher L, Siegel SC. A multicenter 90 day study comparing the safety and efficacy of albuterol and isoproterenol nebulizer solutions. Abstracts of the 50th Annual Scientific Assembly. Chest 86: 328, 1984Google Scholar
  151. Lin C, Magat J, Calesnick B, et al. Absorption, excretion and urinary metabolic pattern of 3H-albuterol aerosol in man. Xenobiotica 6: 507–515, 1972Google Scholar
  152. Lipworth B, Clarke R, Parker C, Charter M, Palmer J, et al. The pharmacokinetics of controlled release tablets (SCR) in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 333S, 1988Google Scholar
  153. Littner MR, Tashkin DP, Siegel SC, Katz R. Double-blind comparison of acute effects of inhaled albuterol, isoproterenol and placebo on cardiopulmonary function and gas exchange in asthmatic children. Annals of Allergy 50: 309–316, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Louridas G, Kakoura M, Galanis N, Patakas D, Kastritsi K. Bronchodilatory effect of inhaled versus oral salbutamol in bronchial asthma. Respiration 44: 439–443, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Löwhagen O, Larsson S, Lindholm N, Svedmyr N. Tolerance to beta2-agonists after treatment with large doses of salbutamol? Abstract no. 171. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 63 (Suppl. 125): 82, 1982Google Scholar
  156. Lowry R, Higenbottam T, Johnson T, Godden D. Inhibition of artificially induced cough in man by bronchodilators. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 503–510, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Luneli NO, Joelsson I, Lewander R, Nylund L, Sarby B, et al. Utero-placental blood flow and the effect of β2-adrenoceptor stimulating drugs. Acta Obstetricia and Gynecologica Scan-dinavica 108 (Suppl.): 25–28, 1982Google Scholar
  158. Macaluso S, Del Torre L. Efficacy and compliance to prolonged Duovent treatment of bronchospasm. Respiration 50 (Suppl. 2): 222–225, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Macnee W, Douglas NJ, Sudlow MF. Effects of inhalation of β-sympathomimetic and atropine-like drugs on airway calibre in normal subjects. Clinical Science 63: 137–143, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Maconochie JG, Fowler P. Plasma concentrations of salbutamol after an oral slow-release preparation. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8(9): 634–639, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Macquin I, Harf A, Zerah F, Sabatier C, Lhoste F. Bronchorelaxation and plasma histamine after salbutamol inhalation. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 631–636, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Maesen FPV, Smeets JJ. Comparison of the effects of a combination inhaler containing salbutamol and atropine methonitrate. Journal for Drug Therapy and Research 10: 1000–1004, 1985Google Scholar
  163. Maesen FPV, Smeets JJ. Comparison of a controlled-release tablet of salbutamol given twice daily with a standard tablet given four times daily in the management of chronic obstructive lung disease. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 431–436, 1986aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Maesen FPV, Smeets JJ. Comparison between salbutamol controlled release tablets and slow release theophylline tablets in the management of chronic obstructive airways disease. Bulletin European De Physiopathologie Respiratoire 22 (Suppl. 8): 29S, 1986bGoogle Scholar
  165. Maesen FPV, Smeets JJ, Bernsen R, Cornelissen PJG. Comparative study of the bronchospasmolytic effect of fenoterol (0.2mg) and salbutamol (0.4mg) as powder inhalations in 20 patients with reversible bronchial obstruction. Respiration 45: 265–270, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mangiaracina A, Mancuso G, Salice P, Brunelli L. Treatment of bronchospastic conditions in children using a combination of a bronchodilating agent and an antihistamine. Current Therapeutic Research 37: 493–499, 1985Google Scholar
  167. Marangio E, Pesa A, Mori A, Marchioni M, Bertorelli G. Clinical physiological data on the bronchodilatory effect of Duovent versus salbutamol in chronic obstructive lung disease. Respiration 50 (Suppl. 2): 165–168, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Marshall SG, Pierson WE, Bierman CW, Shapiro GG, Furukawa CT, et al. Albuterol vs cromolyn therapy in the prevention of exercise induced bronchospasm. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75 (Suppl.): 173 (274), 1985Google Scholar
  169. Martelli NA, Raimondi AC, Lazzari JO. Asthma, cardiac arrhythmias, and albuterol aerosol. Chest 89: 192–194, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Martin LE, Hobson JC, Page JA, Harrison C. Metabolism studies of salbutamol-3H: a new bronchodilator, in rat, rabbit, dog and man. European Journal of Pharmacology 14: 183–199, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Martin P, Soubrie P, Simon P. Shuffle-box deficits induced by inescapable shocks in rats: reversal by the beta-adrenoceptor stimulants clenbutarol and salbutamol. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour 24: 177–181, 1986Google Scholar
  172. Massi-Benedetti M, Santeusanio F, Filipponi P, Nicoletti I, Santori P, et al. Effect of salbutamol infusion on insulin and glucagon secretion in normal man. Biochemistry 10: 12, 1982Google Scholar
  173. McFadden ER, Mills R. Prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm with aerosolized albuterol. Current Therapeutic Research 39: 112–118, 1986Google Scholar
  174. Mclntyre E, Fitzgibbon B, Otto H, Minson R, Alpers J, et al. Inhaled verapamil in histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 71: 375–381, 1983Google Scholar
  175. Mettauer B, Rouleau J-L, Burgess JH. Detrimental arrhythmogenic and sustained beneficial haemodynamic effects of oral salbutamol in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. American Heart Journal 109: 840–847, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mifune J, Kuramoto K, Ueda K, Matsushita S, Kuwajima I, et al. Haemodynamic effects of salbutamol, an oral long-acting beta-stimulant, in patients with congestive heart failure. American Heart Journal 104: 1011–1015, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Milner AD. Bronchodilators in childhood asthma. In Clark et al. (Eds) Bronchodilator therapy, pp. 93–111, ADIS Press, Auckland, 1984Google Scholar
  178. Milroy R, Carter R, Carlyle DL, Boyd G. Salbutamol controlled release: a clinical and pharmacokinetic study in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 334S, 1988Google Scholar
  179. Mita H, Shida T. Anti-allergic activity of formoterol, a new betaadrenoceptor stimulant, and salbutamol in human leukocytes and human lung tissue. Allergy 38: 547–552, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Mogilnicka E. The effects of acute and repeated treatment with salbutamol, a β-adrenoceptor agonist, on clonidine induced hypoactivity in rats. Journal of Neural Transmission 53: 117–126, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Molho M, Benzaray S, Lidji M, Karasik A, Steir S, et al. Salbutamol versus atropine: site of bronchodilation in asthmatic patients. Respiration 51: 26–34, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Montoliu J, Lens MX, Revert L. Potassium-lowering effect of albuterol for hyperkalemia in renal failure. Archives of Internal Medicine 147: 713–717, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Moore-Gillon J. Volmax® (salbutamol CR 8mg) in the management of nocturnal asthma: a placebo controlled study. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 306S, 1988Google Scholar
  184. Morgan DJ, Pauli JD, Richmond BH, Wilson-Evered E, Ziccone SP. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral salbutamol and its sulphate conjugate. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 587–593, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Morice AH, Schofíeld P, Keal EE, Sever PS. A comparison of the ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic effects of salbutamol, aminophylline and vasoactive intestinal peptide in normal subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 149–153, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Morin D, Milot J, Turcotte H, Boulet L-P. Un nouveau bronchodilatateur adrenergique en aérosol, le procatérol: étude comparative entre le salbutamol et le procatérol. l’Union Médicale du Canada 116: 215–218, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Nandakumaran M, Gardey CL, Challier JC, Richard MO, Panigel M, et al. Transfer of salbutamol in the human placenta in vitro. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 3: 88–98, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Neville E, Corris PA, Vivian J, Nariman S, Gibson GJ. Nebulised salbutamol and angina. British Medical Journal 285: 796–797, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Nielsen NH, Weeke B, Ostlerer L, Wilkinson P, Kay A, et al. Salbutamol controlled release (Volmax)® — A comparison with standard salbutamol tablets (ST) in the treatment of chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD). European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 306S, 1988Google Scholar
  190. Oosterhuis B, Braat MCP, van Boxtel CJ. Analysis of β-sympathicomimetics in man with high performance liquid chromatography using mode sequencing and electrochemical detection. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 65 (Suppl.): 153–156, 1984Google Scholar
  191. Orgel HA, Kemp JP, Tinkelman DG, Webb DR. Bitolterol and albuterol metered-dose aerosols: comparison of two long-acting beta2-adrenergic bronchodilators for treatment of asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 75: 55–62, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Pagliano F. Prevention and treatment of bronchospasm using an extempore combination of salbutamol and oxatomide. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 5: 71–74, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Palminteri R, Kaik G. Time course of the bronchial response to salbutamol after placebo, betaxolol and propranolol. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 741–745, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Papiris S, Galavotti V, Sturani C. Effects of beta agonists on breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiration 49: 101–108, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Peatfield AC, Richardson PS. The control of mucin secretion into the lumen of the cat trachea by α- and β-adrenoceptors and their relative involvement during sympathetic nerve stimulation. European Journal of Pharmacology 81: 617–626, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Pedersen B, Dahl R, Fauschbu P, Hyldebrandt N, Lorentzen K. A comparison of a new osmotic pressure mediated oral formulation of salbutamol controlled release tablets (Volmax®; SCR) and standard salbutamol tablets (SST) in the treatment of mild asthma in adults. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 333S, 1988Google Scholar
  197. Pedersen S. Treatment of acute bronchoconstriction in children with use of a tube spacer aerosol and a dry powder inhaler. Allergy 40: 300–304, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Peel ET, Anderson G, Scriven W, Cheong B. A comparison of terbutaline durules with salbutamol tablets in asthma. Acta Therapeutica 9: 85–91, 1983Google Scholar
  199. Perri G. Giovannini M, Spada E. Salbutamol plus beclomethasone dipropionate (Ventolin Flogo) vs fenoterol (Dosberotec) in chronic obstructive lung disease therapeutic strategy: a 4 week clinical trial. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 274–278, 1985Google Scholar
  200. Perruchoud AP, Bründler H, Godly R, Imhof E, Herzog H. Broxaterol (Z. 1170) a new oral β2-agonist compared with salbutamol. Respiration 51: 113–118, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pierson WE, Shapiro GG, Furukawa CT, Bierman CW. Albuterol syrup in the treatment of asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 76: 228–233, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Pihlajamäki K, Huupponen R. Insulin and glucose responses to salbutamol after carbohydrate loading. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 14: 614P, 1982Google Scholar
  203. Pomari C, Turco P, Trevisan F, Zoccatelli D, Dal Negro RW. Multiparametrical approach to fog-challenge-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatics — protective effects of salbutamol plus beclomethasone dipropionate. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 515–518, 1984Google Scholar
  204. Posner V, Posner B. Organizing a general practitioner therapeutic trial. Practitioner 226: 975–977, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Pover GM, Greger G, Kaspar P. Comparison of the effects of sequential or simultaneous administration of salbutamol and beclomethasone dipropionate. Respiration 50: 83–87, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Pover GM, Langdon CG, Jones SR, Fidler C. Evaluation of a breath operated powder inhaler. Journal of Medical Research 16: 201–203, 1988Google Scholar
  207. Powell ML, Chung M, Weisberger M, Gural R, Radwanski E, et al. Multiple-dose albuterol kinetics. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 643–646, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Powell ML, Weisberger M, Dowdy Y, Gural R, Symchowicz S, et al. Comparative steady state bioavariability of conventional and controlled-release formulations of albuterol. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 8: 461–468, 1987Google Scholar
  209. Powell ML, Weisberger M, Gural R, Chung M, Patrick JE, et al. Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three formulations of albuterol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 74(2): 217–219, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Prendiville A, Green S, Silverman M. Airway responsiveness in wheezy infants: evidence for functional β-adrenergic receptors. Thorax 42: 100–104, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Rachelefsky GS, Katz RM, Siegel SC. Albuterol syrup in the treatment of the young asthmatic child. Annals of Allergy 47: 143–146, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Rachelefsky GS, Katz RM, Siegel SC. Oral albuterol in the treatment of childhood asthma. Pediatrics 69: 397–403, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rebuck AS, Contreras M. Intramuscular and intravenous albuterol in the treatment of asthma. Clinical Therapeutics 5: 44–48, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Repsher LH, Anderson JA, Bush R, Falliers CJ, Kass I, et al. Assessment of tachyphylaxis following prolonged therapy of asthma with inhaled albuterol aerosol. Chest 85: 34–38, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Repsher LH, Miller TD, Smith S. The lack of tachyphylaxis following prolonged therapy of asthma with inhaled albuterol aerosol. Annals of Allergy 47: 405–409, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Riedel F, Van der Hardt H. Variable response to inhaled salbutamol of different lung function parameters in healthy children. Lung 164: 333–338, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Robertson CF, Smith F, Beck R, Levison H. Response to frequent low doses of nebulized salbutamol in acute asthma. Journal of Pediatrics 106: 672–674, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Rohr AS, Siegel SC, Katz RM, Rachelefsky GS, Spector SL, et al. A comparison of inhaled albuterol and cromolyn in the prophylaxis of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Annals of Allergy 59: 107–109, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Rohr AS, Spector SL, Rachelefsky GS, Katz RM, Siegel SC. Efficacy of parenteral albuterol in the treatment of asthma. Chest 89: 348–351, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rolf Smith S, Kendall MJ. Metabolic responses to beta2 stimulants. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 18: 190–194, 1984Google Scholar
  221. Rolf Smith S, Ryder C, Kendall MJ, Holder R. Cardiovascular and biochemical responses to nebulised salbutamol in normal subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 641–644, 1984Google Scholar
  222. Rolla G, Arossa W, Bucca C, Bugiani M. Effect of nifedipine on salbutamol-induced bronchodilation in partially reversible airway obstruction. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 6: 409–413, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Rosen JP, Chervinsky P, Renard RL, Kemp JP, Mendelson LM, et al. Duration of action of oral albuterol in an asthmatic population. Annals of Allergy 56: 28–33, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Rossi F, Accorsi T, Spezia D, Visca U. Evaluation of antibronchospastic action of a combination of a β2-stimulant (salbutamol) and a new anti-allergic drug (oxatomide). Clinical Trials Journal 21: 451–458, 1984Google Scholar
  225. Sahay JN, Bell R, Chatterjee SS, Jayaswal R. Comparative study of the effects of intravenous administration of aminophylline, salbutamol and terbutaline in patients suffering from reversible airways obstruction. Current Medical Research and Opinion 9: 1–6, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Sahay JN, Chatterjee SS. A 21-day double-blind study of the effect of adding sustained release theophylline (Nuelin SA) to inhaled salbutamol in patients with asthma. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 77: 66–70, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Saux JC, Girault J, Bouquet S, Fourtillan JB, Courtois Ph. Étude comparative des distribution Tissalaines de deux β-mimetiques le clenbutérol et le salbutamol chez le chien. Journal of Pharmacologie (Paris) 17: 692–698, 1986Google Scholar
  228. Scherrer M, Kyd K. Schutz vor Anstrengungsasthma (exercise-induced asthma) nach Salbutamol (Ventolin) in Pulverform mit dem Rotahaler inhaliert. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 111: 1643–1648, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Scremin S, Caprioglio L. Treatment of asthma with an extempore combination of a bronchodilator, salbutamol, and a new antihistamine drug oxatomide. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 6: 105–111, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Senderovitch M, Levin S, Seggev J, Schey G. The effectiveness of intravenous salbutamol and aminophylline alone and combined in acute severe asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 73 (Suppl.): 131 (S92), 1984Google Scholar
  231. Sheinman BD, Cundell D, Gomez F, Smart W, Davies RJ. Effects of inhaled salbutamol (S) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on mediator release in immediate asthma. Abstract. 3rd Congress of the European Society of Pneumology, Basel, September 16–22, 1984Google Scholar
  232. Shenfield GM. Combination bronchodilator therapy. Drugs 24: 414–439, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Shenfield GM, Brogden RN, Ward A. Pharmacology of bronchodilators. In Clark et al. (Eds) Bronchodilator therapy, pp. 17–46, ADIS Press, Auckland, 1984Google Scholar
  234. Shenfield GM, Evans ME, Patterson JW. Absorption of drugs by the lung. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 3: 583–589, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Shim CS, Williams MH. Bronchodilator response to oral aminophylline and terbutaline versus aerosol albuterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Medicine 75: 697–701, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Shiner RJ, Molho MI. Comparison between an α-adrenergic antagonist and a β2-adrenergic agonist in bronchial asthma. Chest 83: 602–606, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Slater RM, McLaren ID. Effect of salbutamol and suxamethonium on the plasma potassium concentration. British Journal of Anaesthetics 59: 602–605, 1987Google Scholar
  238. Soininen K, Allonen H, Posti J, Kleimola T. Pharmacokinetics of salbutamol. 2nd World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Washington. Abstract 79, 1983Google Scholar
  239. Sorbini CA, Grassi V, Tantucci C, Corea L, Bentivoglio M, et al. Ventilatory effects of selective β1-(prenalterol) or β2-(salbutamol) adrenoceptor agonism in man. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 570–575, 1984Google Scholar
  240. Sovijärvi ARA, Lahdensuo A, Muittari A. Bronchodilating effect of salbutamol inhalation powder and salbutamol aerosol after metacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Current Therapeutic Research 32: 566–573, 1982Google Scholar
  241. Spada EL, Donner CF, Fracchia C, Ioli F, Patessio A, et al. A comparative evaluation of salbutamol, disodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide in preventing exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Respiration 46 (Suppl. 1): 56, 1984Google Scholar
  242. Storms WW, Hudson LD, DeGraff AC, Mendelson LM, Greenstein S. Albuterol nebulizer solution for the treatment of asthma. Annals of Allergy 55: 779–782, 1986Google Scholar
  243. Stornello M, Di Rao G, Lachello M, Bosco V, Pantano S, et al. Effects of salbutamol, indomethacin and atenolol on insulin secretion. Drugs 25 (Suppl. 2): 255–256, 1983Google Scholar
  244. Sturani C, Schiavina M, Tosi I, Gunella G. Comparison of inhaled fenoterol and salbutamol in the prevention of exercise-induced asthma. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 64 (Suppl. 128): 526–528, 1983Google Scholar
  245. Sugrue MF. A study of the effects of chronic salbutamol on rat brain monoaminergic systems. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 34: 446–449, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Svedmyr N, Löfdahl C-G, Svedmyr K. The effect of powder aerosol compared to pressurized aerosol. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 63 (Suppl. 119): 81–88, 1982Google Scholar
  247. Svendsen UG, Hyldebrant N, Hindberg W, Lorentzen KA, Hoick F. A multicentre comparison of Diskhaler® inhaler with the Rotahaler® inhaler for administration of salbutamol. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 355S, 1988Google Scholar
  248. Sykes RS, Reese ME, Meyer MC. Pharmacokinetic properties of a new sustained-release albuterol preparation, Volmax. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 79: 152, 1987Google Scholar
  249. Tabas A, Rodriguez A, Lobera T, Diéguez I, Oehling A. Carbuterol, salbutamol and DSCG in exercise-induced asthma. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 13: 493–500, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Tan YK, Soldin SJ. Determination of salbutamol in human serum by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. Journal of Chromatography — Biomedical Applications 311: 311–317, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Tan YK, Soldin SJ. Analysis of salbutamol enantiomers in human urine by chiral high performance liquid chromatography and preliminary studies related to the stereoselective disposition kinetics in man. Journal of Chromatography 422: 187–195, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Tattersfíeld AE. Bronchodilators in the prevention of asthma. In Clark et al. (Eds) Bronchodilator therapy, pp. 76–92, ADIS Press, Auckland, 1984Google Scholar
  253. Taylor DB, Buick B, Kinney C, Lowry RC, McDevitt DG. The efficacy of orally administered theophylline, inhaled salbutamol, and a combination of the two as chronic therapy in the management of chronic bronchitis with reversible air-flow obstruction. American Review of Respiratory Disease 131: 747–751, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Tinkelman DG, Kemp J, Webb R, Mingo T. Comparison of aerosols bitolterol mesylate and albuterol. Abstract no. 150. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 71: 126, 1983Google Scholar
  255. Tinkelman DG. Comparison of oral, controlled-release albuterol (CRA) and theophylline (T) in the treatment of chronic asthma. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 334S, 1988Google Scholar
  256. Tomashefski JF. Pulmonary function and airways resistance studies on chronic stabilized asthma: comparison of acute and long-term effects of albuterol and isoproterenol aerosols. Annals of Allergy 47: 415–420, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Towns SJ, Sharota E, Simpson SJ, Mellis CM. Bronchodilator effects of salbutamol powder administered via Rotahaler and of terbutaline aerosol administered via Misthaler. Medical Journal of Australia 1: 633–636, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Trabacco M. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of an extempore combination of salbutamol and oxatomide in infantile allergic asthma. Clinical Trials Journal 21: 476–482, 1984Google Scholar
  259. Tsanakas JN, Bannister OH, Baxter P. Tachyphylaxis does not occur after long-term administration of salbutamol controlled release (Volmax® SCR). European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 202S, 1988Google Scholar
  260. Tsanakas JN, Baxter P. A comparison of salbutamol controlled release (SCR) and slow release theophylline (SRT) in exercise induced asthma. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 356S, 1988Google Scholar
  261. Tukiainen H, Terho EO. Comparison of inhaled salbutamol powder and aerosol in asthmatic patients with low peak expiratory flow level. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 645–647, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Tukiainen P, Salorinne Y. Oxitropium, salbutamol and their combination in asthma. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 67: 31–36, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Turpeinen M, Kuokkanen J, Backman A. Adrenaline and nebulised salbutamol in acute asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood 57: 666–668, 1984Google Scholar
  264. Van Asperen PP, Manglick P. A comparative study of the bron-chodilating effect of oral fenoterol and salbutamol in children with asthma. Australian Paediatric Journal 22: 43–44, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Vazquez C, Roman L, Azcarate MJ, Rodriguez Sariano J. Oral salbutamol vs fenoterol in childhood asthma. Helvetica Paediatrica Acta 42: 273–279, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Vincent HH, Boomsma F, Man in’t Veld AJ, Derkx FHM, Wenting GJ, et al. Effects of selective and non selective β-agonists on plasma potassium and norepinephrine. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6: 107–114, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Viskum K, Dahl R, Korsgaard J, Svedsen U. A comparison of controlled release salbutamol tablets (Volmax)® and sustained release terbutaline tablets (Bricanyl SA)®. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 305S, 1988Google Scholar
  268. Wager J, Fredholm BB, Lunell N-O, Persson B. Development of tolerance to oral salbutamol in the third trimester of pregnancy: a study of circulatory and metabolic effects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 489–495, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Wager J, Fredholm B, Lunell NO, Persson B. Metabolic and circulatory effects of intravenous and oral salbutamol in late pregnancy in diabetic and non diabetic women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 108: 41–46, 1982Google Scholar
  270. Walker SR, Evans ME, Richards AJ, Paterson JW. The clinical pharmacology of oral and inhaled salbutamol. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 13: 861–867, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Walters EH, Cockroft A, Griffiths T, Rocchicaoli K, Davies BH. Optimal doses of salbutamol respiratory solution: comparison of three doses with dose levels. Thorax 36: 625–628, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Ward MJ, Macfarlane JT, Davies D. A place for ipratropium bromide in the treatment of severe acute asthma. British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 79: 374–378, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Webber BA, Collins JV, Branthwaite MA. Severe acute asthma: a comparison of three methods of inhaling salbutamol. British Journal of Diseases of Chest 76: 69–74, 1982Google Scholar
  274. Weiler P. A comparison of a new osmotic pressure mediated oral formulation of salbutamol controlled release tablets (Volmax®: SCR) and standard salbutamol tablets (SST) in the treatment of childhood asthma — a multicentre trial. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 357S, 1988Google Scholar
  275. Whyte KF, Addis GJ, Whitesmith R, Reid JL. The mechanism of salbutamol-induced hypokalaemia. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 65–71, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Winter RJD, Langford JA, Rudd RM. Effects of oral and inhaled salbutamol and oral pirbuterol on right and left ventricular function in chronic bronchitis. British Medical Journal 288: 824–825, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Wolfe JD, Yamate M, Biederman AA, Chu TJ. Comparison of the acute cardiopulmonary effects of oral albuterol, metaproterenol and terbutaline in asthmatics. Journal of the American Medical Association 253: 2069–2072, 1985Google Scholar
  278. Zeitlin S. A comparison of salbutamol controlled release tablets (Volmax®; SCR) with slow release theophylline at individually titrated doses, in the treatment of childhood asthma — a multicentre study. European Respiratory Journal 1 (Suppl. 2): 202S, 1988Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan H. Price
    • 1
  • Stephen P. Clissold
    • 1
  1. 1.ADIS Drug Information ServicesAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations