Advertisement

Drugs

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 95–106 | Cite as

Current Status of Postmenopausal Oestrogen Therapy

  • Ronald L. Young
  • Joseph W. Goldzieher
Leading Article

Keywords

Oestrogen Deficiency Uterine Bleeding Conjugate Equine Oestrogen Cypionate Vaginal Epithelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barlow DH, Abdalla HI, Roberts ADG, Azzawi FA, Leggate I, et al. Long-term hormone implant therapy — hormonal and clinical effects. Obstetrics and Gynecology 67: 321–325, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumgardner SB, Condrea H, Daane TA, Dorsey JH, Jurow HN, et al. Replacement estrogen therapy for menopausal vasomotor flushes. Obstetrics and Gynecology 51: 445–452, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burnier AM, Martin PL, Yen SSC, et al. Sublingual absorption of micronized estradiol. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 140: 146–150, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bush TL, Cowan LD, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui MH, Karon JM, et al. Estrogen use and all-cause mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association 249: 903–906, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Callantine MR, Martin PL, Bolding OT, Warner PO, Greaney MO. Micronized 17β-estradiol for oral estrogen therapy in menopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 46: 37–41, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark JH. Biochemical and morphological changes stimulated by the nuclear binding of the estrogen receptor. In Busch (Ed.) Effects of drugs on the cell nucleus, p. 382, Academic Press, New York, 1979Google Scholar
  7. Gambrell RD. Hormones in the etiology and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. Southern Medical Journal 77: 1509–1515, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gordan GS, Vaughan C. Sex steroids in the clinical management of osteoporosis. Current Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology 5(11): 1–45, 1982Google Scholar
  9. Gordon WE, Hermann HW, Hunter DC. Treatment of atrophic vaginitis in postmenopausal women with micronized estradiol cream — a follow-up study. Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association 77(7): 337–339, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Henderson BE, Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Mack TM. Estrogen use and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 154: 1181–1186, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Horsman A, Jones M, Francis R, Nordin C. The effect of estrogen dose of postmenopausal bone loss. New England Journal of Medicine 309: 1405–1407, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jensen GF, Christiansen C, Transbol I. Fracture frequency and bone preservation in postmenopausal women treated with estrogen. Obstetrics and Gynecology 60: 493–496, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaplan NM, Mishell DR. Management of the postmenopausal woman with hypertension. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 30: 821–826, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Laufer LR, DeFazio JL, Lu JKH, Meldrum DR, Eggena P, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy by transdermal estradiol administration. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 146: 533–540, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lauritzen C. Transdermal resorption of 17β-estradiol. Archives of Gynecology 237 (Suppl.): 271, 1985Google Scholar
  16. Lindsay R, MacLean A, Kraszewski A. Bone response to termination of estrogen treatment. Lancet 2: 1325, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lobo RA, Brenner P, Mishell DR. Metabolic parameters and steroid levels in postmenopausal women receiving lower doses of natural estrogen replacement. Obstetrics and Gynecology 62: 94–98, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Magos AL, Brincat M, Studd WW, Wardle P, Schlesinger P, et al. Amenorrhea and endometrial atrophy with continuous oral estrogen and progestogen therapy in postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 65: 496–499, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mandel FP, Geola FL, Lu JK, Eggena P, Sambhi MP, et al. Biologic effects of various doses of ethinyl estradiol in postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 59: 673–678, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Marshall RW, Selby PL, Chilvers DC, Hodgkinson L. The effect of ethinyl oestradiol on calcium and bone metabolism in periand postmenopausal women. Hormone and Metabolic Research 16: 97–99, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martin PL, Burnier AM, Greaney MO. Oral menopausal therapy using 17β estradiol. Obstetrics and Gynecology 39: 771, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin PL, Yen SS, Burner AM, Hermann H. Systemic absorption and sustained effects of vaginal estrogen creams. Journal of the American Medical Association 242: 2699–2700, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mashchak CA, Lobo RA. Estrogen replacement therapy and hypertension. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 30 (Suppl.): 805–810, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mattsson LA, Cullberg G, Samsoie G. Evaluation of a continuous oestrogen-progestogen regimen for climacteric complaints. Maturitas 4: 95–102, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oriowo MA, Landgren BM, Stenstrom B, Diczfalusy E. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic properties of three estradiol esters. Contraception 21: 415–424, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Place VA, Powers M, Darley PE, Schenkel L, Good WR. A double-blind comparative study of Estraderm and Premarin in the amelioration of postmenopausal symptoms. Archives of Gynecology 237 (Suppl.): 271, 1985Google Scholar
  27. Powers MS, Schenkel L, Darley PE, Good WR, Balstra JC, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of transdermal dosage forms of 17β-estradiol: comparison with conventional oral estrogens used for hormone replacement. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 152: 1099–1106, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Realini JP, Goldzieher JW. Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease: a critique of the epidemiological studies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 152: 729–798, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rigg LA. Estrogen replacement therapy for atrophic vaginitis. International Journal of Fertility (Suppl.): 29–34, 1986Google Scholar
  30. Rigg LA, Hermann H, Yen SC. Absorption of estrogens from vaginal creams. New England Journal of Medicine 298: 195–197, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rigg LA, Milanes B, Villanueva B, Yen SS. Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized estradiol-17β. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 45: 1261–1267, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schiff I, Tulchinsky D, Ryan KJ, Kadner S, Levitz M. Plasma estriol and its conjugates following oral and vaginal administration of estriol to postmenopausal women: correlations with gonadotrophin levels. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 138: 1137–1141, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Semmens JP, Tsai CC, Semmens EC, Loadholt AA, Loadholt CB. Effects of estrogen therapy on vaginal physiology during menopause. Obstetrics and Gynecology 66: 15–18, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Siddle NC, Padwick ML, Endacott JA. Continuous combined treatment with conjugated estrogens and either medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethisterone. Archives of Gynecology 237 (Suppl.): 352, 1985Google Scholar
  35. Sporrong T, Hellgren M, Mattsson LA, Samsioe G. Four different regimens of continuous estrogen-progestogen for climacteric complaints. Archives of Gynecology 237 (Suppl.): 210, 1985Google Scholar
  36. Steingold KA, Laufer L, Chetkowski RJ, DeFazio JD, Matt DW, et al. Treatment of hot flushes with transdermal estradiol administration. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 61: 627, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wren BG, Brown LB, Routledge DA. Differential clinical response to oestrogens after menopause. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 329–332, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wren BG, Routledge DA. The effect of type and dose of estrogen on the blood pressure of post-menopausal women. Maturitas 5: 135–142, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yen SSC, Martin PL, Burnier AM, Czekala NM, Greaney MO, et al. Circulating estradiol, estrone and gonadotrophin levels following the administration of orally active 17β-estradiol in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 40: 518–520, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald L. Young
    • 1
  • Joseph W. Goldzieher
    • 1
  1. 1.Endocrine Division, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologySt Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations