, Volume 33, Supplement 4, pp 23–31 | Cite as

Various Administration Forms of Nitrates and Their Possibilities

  • U. E. Jonsson
Section 1: Pharmacokinetics of Nitrates


This article reviews the development and pharmacokinetics of a number of new dosage formulations (e.g. transdermal patches and buccal tablets) and new active substances (e.g. isosorbide 5-mononitrate) which have recently been introduced to overcome some of the problems inherent in conventional formulations of organic nitrates.


Dosage Form Organic Nitrate Administration Form Buccal Tablet Imdur 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams J. Nitrate delivery systems in perspective. A decade of progress. American Journal of Medicine 76 (Suppl. 6a): 38–46, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams J. New nitroglycerin formulations: transdermal and transmucosal nitroglycerin. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 74 (Suppl. 4): 10–15, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abshagen U. Pharmacokinetics of ISDN, sustained-release ISDN and IS-5-MN. In Cohn & Rittinghausen (Eds) Mononitrates, pp. 53–66, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogentoft C, Sjögren J. Controlled release from dosage forms. In Breimer (Ed.) Towards better safety of drugs and pharmaceutical products, pp. 229–246, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, 1980Google Scholar
  5. Charash B, Scheldt SS. The controversy over transdermal nitroglycerin: an update. American Heart Journal 112: 207–215, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Erb R, Stoltman W. Evaluation of two nitroglycerin dosage forms. A metered spray and a soft gelatin capsule. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 6: 611–621, 1983Google Scholar
  7. Evans L, Spelman M. The problem of non-compliance with drug therapy. Drugs 25: 63–76, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fung H-L. Nitrate formulations and drug delivery systems —an overview. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 74 (Suppl. 4): 4–9, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gatlin KA. Comparative patient preference for 2 transdermal nitroglycerin patches. Current Therapeutic Research 38: 733–737, 1985Google Scholar
  10. Heidemann R, Menke G, Letzel H, Rietbrock N. Serumkonzentration von Glyceroltrinitrat (GTN) bei transdermalen Applikation von GTN-Pflastern unterschiedlicher Provenienz. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 110: 1568–1572, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Knoch A, Merkle HP. Theorie und Praxis transdermaler Freigabesysteme. Acta Pharmaceutica Technologica 31: 197–209, 1985Google Scholar
  12. Leeson LJ, Adair D, Clevenger J, Chiang N. The in vitro development of extended-release solid oral dosage forms. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 13: 493–514, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McAllister A, Mosberg H, Settlage JA, Steiner JA. Plasma levels of nitroglycerin generated by three nitroglycerin patch preparations, Nitradisc, Transiderm-Nitro and Nitro-Dur and one ointment formulation, Nitrobid. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 365–369, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nigam R, Loveday BJ, Grainger SL, Maxton DG. Three times daily or 8-hourly. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 79: 15–16, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Noonan PK, Gonzales MA, Ruggirello D, Tomlinson J, Babcock-Atkinson E, et al. Relative bioavailability of a new transdermal nitroglycerin delivery system. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 75: 688–691, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parikh NH, Babar A, Plakogiannis FM. Transdermal therapeutic systems (part 1). Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetica 59: 290–292, 1984Google Scholar
  17. Parikh NH, Babar A, Plakogiannis FM. Transdermal therapeutic systems (part 2). Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetica 60: 34–38, 1985Google Scholar
  18. Parker JO. Nitrate tolerance. American Journal of Cardiology 56: 281–311, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Parker JO, Vankonghnett KA, Farrell B. Nitroglycerin lingual spray: clinical efficacy and dose-response relation. American Journal of Cardiology 57: 1–5, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Prescott LF, Nimmo WD (Eds). Rate control in drug therapy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1985Google Scholar
  21. Shah VP, Tymes NW, Yamamoto LA, Skelly JP. In vitro dissolution profile of transdermal nitroglycerin patches using paddle method. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 32: 243–250, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sjögren J. Studies on a sustained release principle based on an inert plastic matrix. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecia 8: 153–168, 1971Google Scholar
  23. Sjögren J. Controlled release oral formulation technology. In Prescott & Nimmo (Eds) Rate control in drug therapy, pp. 38–47, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1985Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. E. Jonsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical R & D, AB HassleMölndalSweden

Personalised recommendations