Drugs

, Volume 33, Supplement 3, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction

A Perspective
  • Sol Sherry
Section 1: Introduction to Thrombolysis in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Summary

This paper deals with the history of thrombolytic therapy from its inception to its application in acute myocardial infarction. It describes the discovery of streptococcal fibrinolysin, followed by the elucidation of the plasma proteolytic enzyme system concerned with fibrinolysis. An outline is given of the therapeutic basis for the decision to concentrate on the development of activators of the enzyme, rather than the enzyme itself. Early attempts to demonstrate the value of streptokinase and urokinase in the treatment of myocardial infarction are examined. Finally, the more encouraging approaches in current use, especially the early application of thrombolytic therapy after the onset of the morbid event, are discussed.

Keywords

Acute Myocardial Infarction Streptokinase Thrombolytic Therapy Plasmin Fibrinolytic Activity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber CP, Bass NM, Berry CL, et al. Streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction: a controlled multicentre study in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal 11: 1100–1104, 1976Google Scholar
  2. Alderman EL, Jutsy KR, Berte LE, Miller RE, Friedman JP, et al. Randomized comparison of intravenous versus intracoronary streptokinase for myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 54: 14–19, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkjaersig N, Fletcher AP, Sherry S. The mechanism of clot dissolution by plasmin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38: 1086–1095, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amery A, Roeber G, Vermuelen HJ, Verstraete M. Single-blind randomized trial comparing heparin and streptokinase treatment in recent myocardial infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl.) 505: 5–35, 1967Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JL, Marshall HW, Bray BE, Lutz JR, Frederick PR, et al. A randomised trial of intracoronary streptokinase in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 1312–1318, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Australian Multicentre Trial of Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Medical Journal of Australia 1: 553, 1977Google Scholar
  7. Benda V, Haider M, Ambrosch P. Ergebnisse der Osterreichen Herzinfarkt Studie mit Streptokinase. Results of the Austrian myocardial infarction study of the effects of streptokinase. Klinische Wochenschrift 89: 779–783, 1977Google Scholar
  8. Bett JHN, Biggs JC, Castaldi PA, et al. Australian multicentre trial of streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 57–60, 1973Google Scholar
  9. Breddin K, Ehrly AM, Fechler L, et al. Die Kurzzeit-fibrinolyse beim akuten Myokardinfarkt. Deutsche Medizin Wochenschrift 98: 861–873, 1973Google Scholar
  10. Brochier M, Raynaud R, Planiol T, et al. Le traitement par l’urokinase des infarctus de myocarde et syndromes de menace. Etude randomisée de 120 cas. Archives Mal Coeur 68: 563, 1975Google Scholar
  11. Chandler AB, Chapman I, Erhardt L, Roberts WC, Schwartz CJ, et al. Coronary thrombosis in myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 34: 823–832, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen LR. The mechanism of streptococcal fibrinolysis. Journal of Bacteriology (Abstract) 47: 471–472, 1944Google Scholar
  13. Christensen LR. Streptococcal fibrinolysis: A proteolytic reaction due to a serum enzyme activated by streptococcal fibrinolysis. Journal of General Physiology 28: 363–383, 1945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Christensen LR. The activation of plasminogen by chloroform. Journal of General Physiology 30: 149–157, 1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Christensen LR, MacLeod CM. A proteolytic enzyme of serum: characterization, activation, and reaction with inhibitors. Journal of General Physiology 28: 559–583, 1945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cliffton EE, Cannamela DA, Grossi C. In vivo studies of human plasmin. Intravenous injection in dogs and rabbits. Journal of Applied Physiology 6: 143–150, 1953Google Scholar
  17. Collen D. On the regulation and control of fibrinolysis. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 45: 77–89, 1981Google Scholar
  18. Cowley MJ, Hastillo A, Vetrovec GW, Fisher LM, Garrett R, et al. Fibrinolytic effects of intracoronary streptokinase administration in patients with acute myocardial infarction and coronary insufficiency. Circulation 67: 1031–1038, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cribier A, Berland J, Champoud O, Moore N, Behar P, et al. Intracoronary thrombolysis in evolving myocardial infarction. Sequential angiographic analysis of left ventricular performance. British Heart Journal 50: 401–410, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dastre A. Fibrinolyse dans le sang. Archives de Physiologie Normales et Pathologique 5: 661, 1893Google Scholar
  21. Davies MC, Englert ME, DeRenzo EC. Interaction of streptokinase and human plasminogen. I. Combining of streptokinase and plasminogen observed in the ultracentrifuge under a variety of experimental conditions. Journal of Biological Chemistry 239: 2651–2656, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Delezene C, Pozerski E. Action du serum sanguin sur la gelatine en presence du chloroforme. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Biologie et de Ses Filiales (Paris) 55: 327, 1903aGoogle Scholar
  23. Delezene C, Pozerski E. Action kinasique du serum sanguin prealablement traite par le chloroforme. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Filiales (Paris) 55: 693, 1903bGoogle Scholar
  24. Denis PS. Essai sur l’application de la chimie a l’etude physiologique du sang de l’homme, et a l’etude physiologico — pathologique, hygienique et therapeutique des maladies de cette humeur. Bechet jne., p. 336 Paris, 1838Google Scholar
  25. Denys J, Marbaix H De. Les peptonisations provoquées par le chloroforme. Cellule 5: 197, 1889Google Scholar
  26. Dewar HA, Stephenson P, Horler AR, et al. Fibrinolytic therapy of coronary thrombosis. Controlled trial of 75 cases. British Medical Journal 1: 915–920, 1963Google Scholar
  27. DeWood MA, Spores J, Notske R, Mouser LT, Burroughs R, et al. Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 897–902, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dioguardi N, Mannucci PM, Lotto A, et al. Controlled trial of streptokinase and heparin in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 891–895, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. European Collaborative Study. Controlled trial of urokinase in myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 624–626, 1975Google Scholar
  30. European Cooperative Study Group for Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator. Randomized trial of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator versus intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 842–847, 1985Google Scholar
  31. European Cooperative Study Group for Streptokinase Treatment in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 301: 797–802, 1979Google Scholar
  32. European Cooperative Study Group. Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Extended report of the European Cooperative trial. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl.) 648: 7–57, 1981Google Scholar
  33. European Working Party. Streptokinase in recent myocardial infarction: a controlled multicentre trial. British Medical Journal 3: 325–331, 1971Google Scholar
  34. Fleisher MS, Loeb L. On tissue fibrinolysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 21: 477, 1915Google Scholar
  35. Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N, Smyrniotis FE, Sherry S. The treatment of patients suffering from early myocardial infarction with massive and prolonged streptokinase therapy. Transactions Association of American Physicians 71: 287–296, 1958Google Scholar
  36. Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N, Sherry S. The maintenance of a sustained thrombolytic state in man. I. Induction and effects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38: 1096–1110, 1959aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fletcher AP, Sherry S, Alkjaersig N, Smyrniotis FF, Jick S. The maintenance of a sustained thrombolytic state in man. II. Clinical observations on patients with myocardial infarction and other thrombo embolic disorders. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38: 1111–1119, 1959bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N, Sherry S, Genton E, Hirsh J, et al. The development of urokinase as a thrombolytic agent. Maintenance of a sustained thrombolytic state in man by its intravenous infusion. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 65: 713–738, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Frank (Zielinski) B. Traitement de l’infarctus du myocarde par la streptokinase. These pour le Doctorat en Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Bichat-Beaujon Universite Paris VII, 1975Google Scholar
  40. Ganz W, Buchbinder N, Marcus H, Mondkar A, Maddahi J, et al. Intracoronary thrombolysis in evolving myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 101: 4–13, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ganz W, Geft I, Shah PK, Lew AS, Rodriguez L, et al. Intravenous streptokinase in evolving acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 1209–1216, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Garner RL, Tillett WS. Biochemical studies on the fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci I. Isolation and characterization of fibrinolysin. Journal of Experimental Medicine 60: 239–254, 1934aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Garner RL, Tillett WS. Biochemical studies on the fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci II. Nature of the reaction. Journal of Experimental Medicine 60: 255–267, 1934bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldberg S, Urban PL, Greenspon A, Lebenthal M, Walinsky P, et al. Combination therapy for evolving myocardial infarction: Intracoronary thrombolysis and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. American Journal of Medicine 72: 994–997, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gormsen J, Tidstrom B, Feddersen C, et al. Biochemical evaluation of a low dose of urokinase in acute myocardial infarction. A double-blind study. Acta Medica Scandinavica 194: 191–198, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gormsen J, Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N, Sherry S. The enzymatic lysis of plasma clots: the influence of fibrin stabilization on lysis rates. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 120: 654–655, 1967Google Scholar
  47. Gruppo Italiano Per Lo Studio Delia Streptochinasi Nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI). Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 397–401, 1986Google Scholar
  48. Heikenheimo R, Ahrenberg P, Honkapohja H, et al. Fibrinolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica 189: 7–13, 1971Google Scholar
  49. Hiemeyer V, (Ed). Therapeutische and Experimentelle Fibrinolyse. Proceedings of International Symposium, FK Schattauer, Stuttgart, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  50. Hirsh J. The use of anticoagulation in patients treated with streptokinase. In New Concepts of Streptokinase Dosimetry. Martin et al. (Eds) pp 135–140, Hans Huber, Bern-Stuttgart-Vienna, 1978Google Scholar
  51. ISAM Study Group. A prospective trial of intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction (I.S.A.M.). Mortality, morbidity, and infarct size at 21 days. New England Journal of Medicine 314: 1465–1471, 1986Google Scholar
  52. Johnson AJ, McCarty WR. The lysis of artificially induced intravascular clots in man by intravenous infusions of streptokinase. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38: 1627–1643, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson AJ, Tillett WS. Lysis in rabbits of intravascular blood clots by the streptococcal fibrinolytic system (streptokinase). Journal of Experimental Medicine 95: 449–464, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan MH. Nature and role of the lytic factor in hemolytic streptococcal fibrinolysis. Proceedings Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 57: 40–43, 1944Google Scholar
  55. Klein W, Pavek P, Brandt D, et al. Resultate einer Doppelblindstudie beim Myokardinfarkt. In: Sailer S. (ed) Die Fibrinolysebehandlung des akuten Myokardinfarktes. Verlag Bruder Hollinek, pp. 65–73, Vienna, 1976Google Scholar
  56. Kline DL. Purification and crystallization of plasminogen (profibrinolysin). Journal of Biological Chemistry 204: 949–955, 1953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Koren G, Weiss AT, Hasin Y, Appelbaum D, Welber S, et al. Prevention of myocardial damage in acute myocardial ischemia by early treatment with intravenous streptokinase. New England Journal of Medicine 313: 1384–1389, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lasierra C, Vilades J, Fernandez C, et al. Estreptoquinasa en el infarto agudo de miocardio. Revista Clinica Espanola 144: 251–257, 1977Google Scholar
  59. Lee G, Amsterdam EA, Low R, Joye JA, Kimchi A, DeMaria AN and Mason DT. Efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary revascularization utilizing streptokinase thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 102: 1159–1167, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lippschultz EJ, Ambras JL, Ambras CM, et al. Controlled study on the treatment of coronary occlusion with urokinase-activated human plasmin. American Journal of Cardiology 16: 93–98, 1965Google Scholar
  61. MacFarlane RG, Biggs R. Fibrinolysis. Its mechanism and significance. Blood 3: 1167–1187, 1948Google Scholar
  62. Markis JE, Malagold M, Parker A, Silverman KJ, Barry WH, et al. Myocardial salvage after intracoronary thrombolysis with streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 305: 777–782, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Martin M, Schoop W, Hirsh J. (Eds) New Concepts in Streptokinase Dosimetry. Hans Huber, Bern-Stuttgart-Vienna, 1978Google Scholar
  64. Mathey DG, Kuck KH, Tilsner V, Krebber HJ, Bleifeld W. Nonsurgical coronary artery recanalisation in acute transmural myocardial infarction. Circulation 63: 489–497, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mayer G, Story WE, Seco JE, Nocero Jr MA. Myocardial infarction management with peripheral streptokinase. Annals of Emergency Medicine 13: 1000–1007, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Merx W, Dorr R, Rentrop P, Blanke H, Karsch KR, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of intracoronary streptokinase infusion in myocardial infarction: postprocedure management and hospital course in 204 patients. American Heart Journal 102: 1181–1187, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Milstone H. A factor in normal human blood which participates in streptococcal fibrinolysis. Journal of Immunology 42: 109–116, 1941Google Scholar
  68. Mullertz S, Lassen M. An activator system in blood indispensable for formation of plasmin by streptokinase. Proceedings Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 82: 264–268, 1953Google Scholar
  69. Ness PM, Simon TL, Cole C, Walston A. A pilot study of streptokinase therapy in acute myocardial infarction: observations on complications and relation to trial design. American Heart Journal 88: 705–712, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Neuhaus KL, Tebbe U, Sauer G, Kreuzer H, Kostering H. High dose intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Clinical Cardiology 6: 426–434, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nolf P. Des modifications de la coagulation du sang chez le chien après extirpation du foie. Archives Internationales Physiologie 3: 1, 1905Google Scholar
  72. Nydick I, Ruegsegger P, Bouvier C, Hutter RY, Aberequez R, et al. Salvage of heart muscle by fibrinolytic therapy after experimental coronary occlusion. American Heart Journal 61: 93–100, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Opie EL, Barker BI, Dochez AR. Changes in the proteolytic enzymes and anti-enzymes of the blood serum produced by substances (chloroform and phosphorus) which cause degenerative changes in the liver. Journal of Experimental Medicine 13: 162–185, 1911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ploug J, Kjeldgaard NO. Urokinase an activator of plasminogen from human urine. I. Isolation and properties. Biochemica Biophysica Acta. 24: 282–289, 1957Google Scholar
  75. Polwoda H, Schneider B, Aenarius HJ. Untersuchungen zum klinischen Verlauf des akuten Myokardinfarktes. Gemeinschaftsstudie an 26 Krankenhäusern in Nord Deutschland. Medizin Klinische 72: 451–58, 1977Google Scholar
  76. Reduto LA, Freund GC, Gaeta JM, Smalling RW, Lewis B, Gould KL. Coronary artery reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: beneficial effects of intracoronary streptokinase on left ventricular salvage and performance. American Heart Journal 102: 1168–1177, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rentrop P, Blanke H, Kostering K, Karsch KR. Acute myocardial infarction: intracoronary application of nitroglycerin and streptokinase in combination with transluminal recanalisation. Clinical Cardiology 2: 354–363, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Roberts WC, Buja LM. The frequency and significance of coronary arterial thrombi and other observations in acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Medicine 52: 425–444, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sawyer WD, Alkjaersig N, Fletcher AP, Sherry S. Comparison of fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic effects of plasminogen activators and proteolotic enzymes in plasma. Thrombosis et Diathesis Haemorrhagica 5: 149–191, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Schreiber TL, Miller DH, Silvasi DA, Moses JW, Borer JS. Randomized double-blind trial of intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 58: 47–52, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schroder R, Biamino G, Enz-Rudiger L, Linderer T, Bruggermann T, et al. Intravenous short-term infusion of streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 63: 536–548, 1983Google Scholar
  82. Schuler G, Schwartz F, Hofmann M, Mehmel H, Manthey J, et al. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction using intracoronary streptokinase: Assessment by thallium-201 scintigraphy. Circulation 66: 658–664, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Schulman S, Lockner D, Grandquist D, Bratt G, Paul G, Nyman D. A comparative randomized trial of low dose versus high dose streptokinase in deep vein thrombosis of the thigh. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 51: 261–265, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Schwarz F, Schuler G, Katus H, Hofmann M, Manthey J, et al. Intracoronary thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: Duration of ischaemia as a major determinant of late results after recanalisation. American Journal of Cardiology 50: 933–937, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sheehan FH, Mathey DG, Schofer J, Krebber H-J, Dodge HT. Effect of interventions in salvaging left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction: a study of intracoronary streptokinase. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 431–438, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sherry S. The fibrinolytic activity of streptokinase activated human plasmin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 35: 1054–1063, 1954Google Scholar
  87. Sherry S, Tillett WS. The local use of streptokinase-streptodornase in chronic refractory areas of suppuration with draining sinuses. Annals of Surgery 135: 479–488, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sherry S, Tillett WS, Read CT. The use of streptokinase-streptodornase in the treatment of hemothorax. Journal of Thoracic Surgery 20: 393–417, 1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sherry S, Titchener A, Gottesman L, Wasserman P, Troll W. Enzymatic dissolution of experimental arterial thrombi in the dog by trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activators. Journal of Clinical Investigation 33: 1303–1313, 1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sherry S, Lindemeyer RI, Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N. Studies on enhanced fibrinolytic activity in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 38: 810–822, 1959aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sherry S, Fletcher AP, Alkjaersig N. Fibrinolysis and fibrinolytic activity in man. Physiological Reviews 39: 343–382, 1959bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Spann JF, Sherry S, Carabello BA, Mann RH, McCann WD, et al. High-dose brief intravenous streptokinase early in acute myocardial infarction. American Heart Journal 104: 939–945, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Spann JF, Sherry S, Carabello BA, Denenberg BS, Mann RH, et al. Coronary thrombolysis by intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction: acute and follow-up studies. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 655–661, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Stack RS, Phillips HR, Grierson DS, Behar VS, Kong Y, et al. Functional improvement of jeopardised myocardium following intracoronary streptokinase infusion in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Clinical Investigation 72: 84–95, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Stampfer MJ, Goldhaber SZ, Yusuf S, Peto R, Hennekens CH. Effects of intravenous streptokinase on acute myocardial infarction. Results pooled from randomised trials. New England Journal of Medicine 307: 1178–1179, 1982Google Scholar
  96. Sutton JM, Taylor GT, Mikell FL, Moses HW, Korsmeyer C, et al. Thrombolytic therapy followed by early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 57: 1227–1231, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Symposium. Thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase. Australasian Annals of Medicine 19 (Suppl. 1), 1970Google Scholar
  98. Tagnon HJ, Davidson CS, Taylor FHL. The coagulation defect in hemophilia: A comparison of the proteolytic activity of chloroform preparations of hemophilic and normal plasma. Journal of Clinical Investigation 22: 127–129, 1942Google Scholar
  99. Taylor GJ, Mikell FL, Moses HW, Dove JT, Batchelder JE, et al. Intravenous versus intracoronary streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction in community hospitals. American Journal of Cardiology 54: 256–260, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Tillett WS. The fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci in relation to the source of strains and to cultural reactions. Journal of Bacteriology 29: 111–130, 1935aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tillett WS. The occurrence of antifibrinolytic properties in the blood of patients with acute hemolytic streptococcus infections. Journal of Clinical Investigation 14: 276–284, 1935bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tillett WS. The fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci. Bacteriological Reviews 2: 161–216, 1938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tillett WS, Garner RL. The fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci. Journal of Experimental Medicine 58: 485–502, 1933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tillett WS, Sherry S. The effect in patients of streptococcal fibrinolysin (streptokinase) and streptococcal desoxyribonuclease on fibrinous, purulent and sanguinous pleural exudations. Journal of Clinical Investigation 28: 173–190, 1949Google Scholar
  105. Tillett WS, Sherry S, Christensen LR, Johnson A, Hazlehurst G. Streptococcal enzymatic debridement. Annals of Surgery 131: 12–22, 1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tillett WS, Sherry S, Read CT. The use of streptokinase-streptodornase in the treatment of postpneumonic empyema. Journal of Thoracic Surgery 21: 275–297, 1951aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tillett WS, Sherry S, Read CT. The use of streptokinase-streptodornase in the treatment of chronic empyema. Journal of Thoracic Surgery 21: 325–341, 1951bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. TIMI Study Group. The myocardial infarction (TIMI) trial. PhaseGoogle Scholar
  109. I Findings. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 932–936, 1985Google Scholar
  110. Troll W, Sherry S. The activation of human plasminogen by streptokinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 213: 881–891, 1955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Urokinase-Pulmonary Embolism Trial Study Group. The urokinase-pulmonary embolism trial. Phase I results. Journal of the American Medical Association 214: 2163–2172, 1970. Circulation 47 (Suppl. II): 1–108, 1973Google Scholar
  112. Urokinase-Streptokinase Pulmonary Embolism Trial Study Group. Urokinase-streptokinase pulmonary embolism trial. Phase II results. A national cooperative trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 229: 1606–1613, 1974Google Scholar
  113. Valere P-E, Guerot C, Castillo-Fernoy A, et al. L’infarctus myocardique. Traitement randomise par la streptokinase. Nouvelle Presse Medicale 4: 190, 1975Google Scholar
  114. Verstraete M, Tytgat G, Amery A, Vermylen J. Thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase using a standard dosage. Thrombosis et Diathesis Haemorrhagica 16 (Suppl. 21): 494–500, 1966Google Scholar
  115. Wischitz S, Kolsky H, Moisson P, Chiche P. Streptokinase et infarctus du myocarde aign. La fibrinolyse peut-elle limiter la necrose? Annales Cardiologique Angelologique 26: 53–56, 1977Google Scholar
  116. Yudin SS. Transfusion of cadaver blood. Journal of the American Medical Association 106: 997–999, 1936Google Scholar
  117. Yusuf S, Collins R, Peto R, Furberg C, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intravenous and intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: overview of results on mortality, reinfarction and side-effects from 33 randomized controlled trials. European Heart Journal 6: 556–585, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Zimmerman (1846) cited by Macfarlane RG, Biggs R. Fibrinolysis. Its mechanism and significance. Blood 3: 1167–1187, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sol Sherry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Thrombosis Research CenterTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations