Advertisement

Drugs

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 182–274 | Cite as

Nifedipine

A Review of Its Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Properties, and Therapeutic Efficacy, in Ischaemic Heart Disease, Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Disorders
  • E. M. Sorkin
  • S. P. Clissold
  • R. N. Brogden
Drug Evaluation

Summary

Synopsis: Nifedipine1 is an antagonist of calcium influx through the slow channel of the cell membrane and has been shown to be an effective and relatively well-tolerated treatment for stable, variant and unstable angina, mild to severe hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although its exact mechanism of action in these various diseases has not been precisely described, the potent coronary and peripheral arterial dilator properties of nifedipine, with concomitant improvements in oxygen supply/demand and reductions in systemic vascular resistance, are of major importance.

Clinical trials support the view that nifedipine can be considered a first-line choice in all grades of angina, especially when coronary vasospasm is the underlying cause or when hypertension and/or congestive heart failure are added complications. Nifedipine also appears to be particularly useful in clinical situations when a rapid lowering of elevated blood pressure is needed, and there is growing evidence that it is an effective and safe choice for the longer term management of patients with mild to moderate hypertension. However, the majority of data have been from medium term studies, and confirmation of its long term usefulness in well-designed trials is still required. Additionally, nifedipine has convincingly been shown to be a useful adjunct for controlling blood pressure in patients refractory to conventional treatment with β-blockers, diuretics and various vasodilators. Nifedipine reduces the number, duration and severity of vasospastic attacks in more than 60% of patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon of varying aetiology, and in individual cases it apparently facilitates the healing of digital ulcers.

Side effects appear to be dose related and occur in approximately 20% of patients. These effects, most of which are manifestations of the drug’s potent vasodilating activity, include headache, flushing and dizziness.

Thus, nifedipine is a worthwhile alternative to other drugs available for the treatment of the various forms of angina, acute episodes of hypertension, mild to severe hypertension (alone or in combination) and Raynaud’s phenomenon. While further well-designed clinical trials are needed to clarify its relative place in the long term management of mild to moderate hypertension, it is clear that nifedipine is now a well established agent in cardiovascular therapeutics.

Pharmacodynamic Properties: Nifedipine inhibits the slow inward current of calcium in normal cardiac tissues, its major effects being on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. In contrast to diltiazem or verapamil, nifedipine in vivo either has no effect on, or enhances, sinus or paced atrioventricular nodal conduction. Nifedipine also reduces atrioventricular nodal functional and effective refractory periods and atrioventricular nodal Wenckebach cycle lengths, and may be preferable to diltiazem or verapamil in patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart disease and depressed atrioventricular nodal function.

Sublingual or oral administration of nifedipine may lower mean arterial blood pressure at rest and after exercise by 20% or more. The onset of this reduction after both oral and sublingual administration occurs within 30 minutes and may last up to 5 hours. Intravenous nifedipine 1 to 4mg has produced significant decreases in blood pressure of up to 34% in patients with various cardiac disorders, with greater reductions in blood pressure seen in patients with hypertension than in normotensive individuals.

The effect of nifedipine on heart rate depends on its rate of input into the body. Oral capsule administration has not been associated with significant increases in heart rate, while sublingual, intravenous and intracoronary administration increase heart rate by up to 28%.

The reduction in systemic vascular resistance produced by sublingual nifedipine causes significant increases in cardiac output and decreases in left ventricular filling pressure due to afterload reduction, especially in patients with impaired left ventricular function. Intravenous nifedipine may produce decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and increases in cardiac index; however, intracoronary nifedipine may increase left ventricular end-diastolic pressure while decreasing systolic blood pressure. Thus, in contrast to intracoronary administration, the direct negative inotropic effect of intravenous nifedipine is overridden by reflex increases in heart rate and contractility that result from lowered blood pressure. In addition, both pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary arterial pressures decrease after nifedipine administration. Concomitant increases in cardiac index that are associated with these pulmonary effects further indicate that nifedipine has a selective effect on arterial resistance vessels.

By virtue of its strong arterial dilating ability, in patients with angina pectoris nifedipine produces favourable haemodynamic effects such as decreases in systemic vascular resistance and left ventricular afterload, and also decreases in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure while maintaining cardiac inotropy and chronotropy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. In such patients nifedipine is comparable to diltiazem, verapamil, β-blockers or nitrates in improving clinical status and reducing electrocardiographic signs of myocardial ischaemia on exercise or atrial pacing.

Greater reductions in blood pressure are achieved with the combination of nifedipine and β-blockers than result from either drug used separately in volunteers and patients with angina pectoris and hypertension. Reflex increases in heart rate and acute increases in plasma renin activity produced by nifedipine are blocked by β-blockade, and increases in total peripheral resistance produced by β-blockers are decreased by nifedipine.

Although hydralazine may be more suitable than nifedipine in patients with severe congestive heart failure when left ventricular afterload reduction is required, nifedipine produces more pulmonary vasodilatation than hydralazine and has a more balanced overall vasodilating effect. The combinations of nifedipine and Captopril, and nifedipine and digoxin or dobutamine, produce greater decreases in blood pressure and increases in cardiac index, respectively, than when these drugs are used alone. Nifedipine may also produce comparable improvements in cardiac performance as nitrates in patients with heart failure secondary to acute myocardial infarction, and in combination with nitrates may produce greater decreases in systemic vascular resistance and increases in cardiac index than sole nitrate therapy. Nitroprusside may be preferable to nifedipine in the single-dose treatment of severe congestive heart failure because it produces less reduction in blood pressure and greater increases in cardiac index.

The administration of nifedipine to patients with coronary artery disease results in an increase in coronary blood flow, especially to myocardial tissue served by stenotic coronary arteries, with little change in myocardial oxygen consumption. Nifedipine may protect the myocardium during subsequent reperfusion after cardiac surgery, and may also limit the extent of ischaemic injury after myocardial infarction, although further studies in humans are needed to define the exact degree of benefit that may be obtained in such patients.

Other pharmacodynamic effects of nifedipine include increased peripheral blood flow and decreased peripheral vascular resistance (especially in hypertensive subjects), inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and inhibition of peristalsis. In short term studies a reduction in glucose tolerance has been reported, but no such effects occurred in longer studies.

Nifedipine produces little effect on renal blood flow but its effect on renovascular resistance and glomerular filtration rate has been varied. Angiotensin II and acute plasma renin activity concentrations increase after nifedipine administration, possibly due to increases in sympathetic discharge induced by the drug; however, plasma aldosterone concentrations do not appear to be affected. Varying increases in hepatic blood flow have been reported with nifedipine use, possibly due to arterial vasodilatation produced by the drug.

Pharmacokinetic Properties: Close to 100% of a single oral dose of nifedipine is absorbed, although only about 45 to 68% of the drug reaches the systemic circulation. Considerable variations in peak plasma nifedipine concentrations after oral and sublingual administration, and the time required to reach these peaks, have been measured, presumably due to interindividual differences in the rate of drug absorption and/or variability in the extent of first-pass hepatic extraction and metabolism.

The steady-state volume of distribution of nifedipine in man after oral and intravenous administration is 1.32 and 0.62 to 1.12 L/kg, respectively. Nifedipine protein binding to albumin is concentration dependent and has ranged from 92 to 98%. Nifedipine undergoes almost complete (95%) hepatic oxidation to 3 pharmacologically inactive metabolites which are excreted in the urine.

The elimination half-life of nifedipine is apparently dependent upon the dosage form in which it is administered, with half-lives of 6 to 11 hours, 2 to 3.4 hours and 1.3 to 1.8 hours measured after oral tablet, oral capsule and intravenous administration, respectively. The total systemic and intrinsic clearances of nifedipine from plasma have ranged from 27 to 66 L/h and 33 to 37 L/h, respectively. Renal impairment does not significantly alter nifedipine pharmacokinetics.

Despite the difficulties involved in establishing a direct relationship between nifedipine plasma concentrations and clinical effects, some studies have shown plasma nifedipine concentrations to correlate significantly with changes in blood pressure, heart rate and lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. In addition, improved exercise tolerance and decreases in the frequency and occurrence of ischaemic attacks in patients with angina pectoris have also been shown to be directly related to nifedipine plasma concentrations.

Therapeutic Trials: Nifedipine has been shown to be effective in stable exercise-induced angina as assessed by decreases in anginal frequency and glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) consumption, and improvements in objective parameters such as work performance and time to onset of ST segment changes during exercise. Comparative trials in patients with stable angina have generally been of short duration in small numbers of patients and have failed to identify any consistent differences in efficacy between nifedipine and alternative first-line drugs such as β-blockers or other calcium antagonists. In those studies where nifedipine and a β-blocker were used together, the combination produced more favourable results without any significant deterioration of left ventricular function.

Approximately 80% of patients with variant (Prinzmetal’s) angina had a greater than 50% reduction in angina frequency (almost half gained complete remission from anginal attacks) when treated with nifedipine. Similar response rates were reported during short and long term (up to 6 years) trials, although some authors cited the need for additional antianginal drugs such as nitrates and β-blockers to help control symptoms. Comparative studies in patients with variant angina have not identified any consistent advantages or disadvantages for nifedipine over other drugs used, such as isosorbide dinitrate, diltiazem or verapamil.

Open trials in patients with unstable angina refractory to conventional therapy have shown that addition of nifedipine to their treatment regimen produced a favourable response in 47 to 89% of those treated. In comparative studies in patients with unstable angina, nifedipine was significantly superior to placebo and of equivalent efficacy as propranolol — alone, or combined with isosorbide dinitrate. Combination of nifedipine with propranolol in patients who did not benefit from monotherapy greatly increased the rate of successful responses. In terms of mortality, incidence of infarction, infarct size or extent of myocardial necrosis, nifedipine did not offer any advantages over placebo when administered to patients threatened by an acute myocardial infarction. In contrast, nifedipine was extremely useful for reducing or eliminating recurring episodes of ischaemic pain immediately after myocardial infarction.

A number of case studies have demonstrated the efficacy of sublingual or intracoronary nifedipine, alone or in combination with glyceryl trinitrate for preventing coronary artery spasm during coronary artery bypass surgery.

Nifedipine, administered by various routes, has been shown to be a relatively safe and effective drug for rapidly lowering elevated blood pressure in a number of clinical settings such as during or after surgery, in haemodialysis patients, and in hypertensive crises. In a comparative single-dose trial, nifedipine produced a faster reduction of blood pressure than prazosin in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Prazosin, on the other hand, lowered blood pressure by a greater amount 2 to 3 hours after administration, although this was associated with a high incidence of postural hypotension.

In numerous therapeutic trials in patients with mild to severe hypertension, the antihypertensive efficacy of nifedipine has been maintained for periods of up to 3 or 4 years. Comparative medium term studies in patients with mild to moderate hypertension have shown nifedipine to be of equivalent efficacy as traditional first-line agents such as β-blockers and diuretics. Nifedipine has also been found to be an extremely useful adjunct for controlling blood pressure in patients refractory to conventional 2- or 3-drug regimens. Recently, a sustained release formulation of nifedipine, allowing twice daily administration, has been introduced to improve compliance. Therapeutic trials to date demonstrate that this preparation maintains 24-hour control of blood pressure at least as well as the conventional capsule formulation of nifedipine.

Nifedipine has been used in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon of varying aetiology and has produced subjective improvement in the number, duration and severity of vasospastic attacks in more than 60% of patients. In some individuals nifedipine apparently facilitated the healing of cutaneous ulceration and relieved the frequency and severity of migraine associated with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Clinical evaluation of nifedipine in other therapeutic areas such as congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been of a preliminary nature. Firm conclusions regarding its relative efficacy awaits further research, although some encouraging individual results have been reported.

Side Effects: Side effects from nifedipine are dose related and occur in approximately 20% of patients. The most common side effects occur secondary to the vasodilating properties of nifedipine and include headache (7%), flushing (5 to 7%) and dizziness (3 to 12%). The character, severity and incidence of side effects with nifedipine use is no greater during long term (> 6 months) treatment with the drug than during shorter courses of therapy. These side effects may be mitigated by reducing the nifedipine dose or by combining the drug with a β-blocker. This combination of nifedipine and β-blockers has not been found to place patients at greater risk than sole nifedipine therapy and thus may be advantageous in the treatment of angina pectoris or hypertension in patients with compromised cardiovascular function. Discontinuance of the drug due to side effects has been necessary in 2 to 6% of patients, while the occurrence of a true ‘withdrawal syndrome’ has not been noted.

Drug Interactions: Most studies suggest that nifedipine has no effect on plasma digoxin concentrations, although some studies have reported increased concentrations and clinical effects of digoxin. Nifedipine does not alter the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol, atenolol, nadolol or propranolol, but a few case reports have described severe hypotension or cardiac failure associated with nifedipine/β-blocker use in high risk patients with severe angina pectoris, triple-vessel disease, impaired left ventricular function and a prior history of myocardial infarction.

Dosage and Administration: for the clinical management of patients with angina pectoris, hypertension or Raynaud’s phenomenon, nifedipine dosage should be individualised. The current recommendation is for a starting dosage of one 10mg capsule 3 times daily, during or after meals, and this can be carefully titrated up to 20mg 3 times daily in patients with hypertension or Raynaud’s phenomenon and up to 90 to 120 mg/day (in divided doses) in patients with angina. If an immediate effect is required the capsules should be bitten open and the liquid contents allowed to remain in the mouth for faster sublingual absorption. A sustained release tablet formulation of nifedipine is now available for the treatment of hypertension, the recommended dosage of which is 20mg twice daily, after food, increased if necessary to 40mg twice daily. Recently, injectable (intravenous injection or infusion) preparations of nifedipine have been introduced for treating coronary vasospasm and/or acute hypertensive episodes. An intracoronary formulation is also available for treating coronary vasospasm that occurs during diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. It is imperative that these products are protected from light.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1st International Nifedipine (Adalat®) Symposium: New Therapy of Ischemic Heart Disease, Hashimoto et al. (Eds). Proceedings of the Symposium held in Tokyo, November 24–25, 1973 (University of Tokyo Press 1975).Google Scholar
  2. 2nd International Adalat® Symposium: New Therapy of Ischemic Heart Disease, Lochner et al. (Eds). Proceedings of the Symposium held in Amsterdam, October 4–5, 1974 (Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3rd International Adalat® Symposium: New Therapy of Ischemic Heart Disease, Jatene and Lichtlen (Eds). Proceedings of the Symposium held in Rio de Janeiro, October 10–11, 1975 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam-Oxford 1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4th International Adalat® Symposium: New Therapy of Ischemic Heart Disease, Puech and Krebs (Eds). Proceedings of the Symposium held in Paris, October 19–20, 1979 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam-Oxford-Princeton 1980).Google Scholar
  5. 5th International Adalat® Symposium: New Therapy of Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension, Kaltenbach and Neufeld (Eds). Proceedings of the Symposium held in Berlin, May 12th–14th, 1982 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam-Oxford-Princeton 1983).Google Scholar
  6. Abadie, E. and Passa, P.: Diabetogenic effects of nifedipine. British Medical Journal 289: 438 (1984).Google Scholar
  7. Abinader, E. and Shahar, J.: Production of paradoxical chest pains by nifedipine. Irish Medical Journal 76: 180–181 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Abramson, M. and Littlejohn, G.O.: Hepatic reactions to nifedipine. Medical Journal of Australia 142: 47–48 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Addonizio, V.P.; Fisher, C.A. and Edmunds Jr, L.H.: Effects of verapamil and nifedipine on platelet activation. Circulation 62(Suppl. III): III–326 (1980).Google Scholar
  10. Ahmad, S.: Nifedipine-induced acute psychosis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 32: 408 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahmad, S.: Nifedipine-phenytoin interaction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3: 1582 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Alvarado, E. and Pineros, J.: The efficacy of Adalat in angina pectoris patients. Results of a 6-month trial; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 261–267 (1976).Google Scholar
  13. Amoroso, G.C.; Como, G.; Scalamogna, A.; Citterio, A.; Casati, S. and Ponticelli, C.: Treatment of arterial hypertension with nifedipine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Clinical Nephrology 23: 41–45 (1985).Google Scholar
  14. Amende, I.; Simon, R.; Hood Jr, W.P.; Hetzer, R. and Lichtlen, P.R.: Intracoronary nifedipine in human beings: magnitude and time course of changes in left ventricular contraction/relaxation and coronary sinus blood flow. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2: 1141–1145 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Amende, I.; Simon, R. and Lichtlen, P.R.: Early effects of nifedipine on left ventricular diastolic function in man. (Abstract.) Circulation 62(Suppl. III): III–259 (1980).Google Scholar
  16. Anastassiades, C.J.: Nifedipine and beta-blocker drugs. British Medical Journal 281: 1251–1252 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Anastassiades, C.: Nifedipine and beta-blockade as a cause of cardiac failure. British Medical Journal 284: 506 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Andersen, K. and Vik-Mo, H.: Increased left ventricular emptying at maximal exercise after reduction in afterload. Circulation 69: 492–496 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Andersen, L.; Kolendorf, K. and Thorsteinsson, B.: Nifedipine does not decrease insulin secretion. Acta Endocrinologica 100(Suppl. 247): 7 (1982).Google Scholar
  20. Andersson, K.-E. and Högestätt, E.D.: On the mechanism of action of calcium antagonists. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl. 681): 11–24 (1984).Google Scholar
  21. Andersson, K.-E.; Ingemarsson, I.; Ulmsten, U. and Wingerup, L.: Inhibition of prostaglandin-induced uterine activity by nifedipine. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 86: 175–179 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Andersson, K.-E. and Ulmsten, U.: Effects of nifedipine on myometrial activity and lower abdominal pain in women with primary dysmenorrhoea. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85: 142–148 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Angelino, P.F.; Tortore, P. and Algrananti, R.: Hemodynamic studies on the new coronary therapeutic drug nifedipine (BAY a 1040); 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 128–139 (1975).Google Scholar
  24. Amman, E.; Muller, J.; Goldberg, S.; MacAlpin, R.; Rubenfire, M. et al.: Nifedipine therapy for coronary-artery spasm. Experience in 127 patients. New England Journal of Medicine 302: 1269–1273 (1980a).Google Scholar
  25. Antman, E.M.; Stone, P.H.; Muller, J.E. and Braunwald, E.: Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Part I: Basic and clinical electrophysiologic effects. Annals of Internal Medicine 93: 875–885 (1980b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Aoki, K.; Sato, K.; Kawaguchi, Y. and Yamamoto, M.: Acute and long-term hypotensive effects and plasma concentrations of nifedipine in patients with essential hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 197–201 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Aoki, K.; Kondo, S.; Mochizuki, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kato, S. et al.: Antihypertensive effects of cardiovascular Ca2+-antagonist in hypertension patients in the absence and presence of beta-adrenergic-blockade. American Heart Journal 96: 218–226 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Aoki, K.; Kondo, S.; Sato, K.; Kato, K.; Kawaguchi, Y. et al.: Hypotensive action of nifedipine (Ca2+-antagonist) and propranolol in acute trials and its long-term therapy of hypertensive coronary heart disease patients. Japanese Heart Journal 22: 575–584 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Aoki, K.; Yoshida, T.; Kato, S.; Tazume, K.; Soto, I. et al.: Hypotensive action and increased plasma renin activity by calcium antagonist (nifedipine) in hypertensive patients. Japanese Heart Journal 17: 479–484 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ardissino, D.; DeServi, S.; Salerno, J.A.; Specchia, G.; Previtali, M. et al.: Efficacy, duration and mechanism of action of nifedipine in stable exercise-induced angina pectoris. European Heart Journal 4: 873–881 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Arguedas, C. and Fuchs, J.R.: Nifedipine for refractory hypertension. Cardiovascular Reviews and Reports 5: 395 (1984).Google Scholar
  32. Auricchio, R.J.: Digoxin interactions with calcium channel blockers. Drug Interactions Newsletter 3: 45–48 (1983).Google Scholar
  33. Austin, M.B.; Robson, R.A. and Bailey, R.R.: Effect of nifedipine on renal function of normal subjects and hypertensive patients with renal functional impairment. New Zealand Medical Journal 96: 829–831 (1983).Google Scholar
  34. Bach, P.R.: Determination of nifedipine in serum or plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Clinical Chemistry 29: 1344–1348 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bailey, J.S.: The prophylaxis of angina pectoris in general practice. A placebo-controlled comparison of nifedipine and propranolol. Practitioner 226: 343–345 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bala Subramanian, V.; Bowles, M.J.; Khurmi, N.S.; Davies, A.B. and Raftery, E.B.: Randomized double-blind comparison of verapamil and nifedipine in chronic stable angina. American Journal of Cardiology 50: 696–707 (1982).Google Scholar
  37. Banzet, O.; Colin, J.N.; Thibonnier, M.; Singlas, E.; Alexandre, J.M. and Corvol, P.: Acute antihypertensive effect and pharmacokinetics of a tablet preparation of nifedipine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 145–150 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Barnes, P.J.; Wilson, N.M. and Brown, M.J.: A calcium antagonist, nifedipine, modifies exercise-induced asthma. Thorax 36: 726–730 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Baronti, A.; Grieco, A.; Lelli, M.; Vibelli, C. and Virgili, G.: Reduction of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthmatic and rhinitic patients by acute nifedipine. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 247–252 (1984).Google Scholar
  40. Bartorelli, C.; Magrini, F.; Moruzzi, P.; Olivari, M.T.; Polese, A. et al.: Haemodynamic effects of a calcium antagonistic agent (nifedipine) in hypertension: Therapeutic implications. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 55: 291S–292S (1978).Google Scholar
  41. Bassan, M.; Weiler-Ravell, D. and Shalev, O.: The additive antianginal action of oral nifedipine in patients receiving propranolol. Magnitude and duration of effect. Circulation 66: 710–716 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bassan, M.M.; Weiler-Ravell, D. and Shalev, O.: Comparison of the antianginal effectiveness of nifedipine, verapamil, and isosorbide dinitrate in patients receiving propranolol: A double-blind study. Circulation 68: 568–575 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Baumgartner, H.R.: Effects of acetylsalicylic acid, sulfinpyrazone, and dipyridamole on platelet adhesion and aggregation in flowing native and anticoagulated blood. Haemostasis 8: 340–352 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Bayley, S.; Dobbs, R.J. and Robinson, B.F.: Nifedipine in the treatment of hypertension: Report of a double-blind controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 14: 509–512 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Bedard, R.M. and Busse, W.W.: Nifedipine inhibition of human basophil histamine release. American Review of Respiratory Disease 127(Suppl. 2): 70 (1983).Google Scholar
  46. Bedard, R.M. and Busse, W.W.: Inhibition of basophil histamine release by the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine in asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 129(Suppl. 2): A9 (1984).Google Scholar
  47. Beer, N.; Gallegos, I.; Cohen, A.; Klein, N.; Sonnenblick, E. and Frishman, W.: Efficacy of sublingual nifedipine in the acute treatment of systemic hypertension. Chest 79: 571–574 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Bellani, M.; Meregalli, M.; Guffanti, E.; Bartucci, F.; Fiorella, G. et al.: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly: A controlled clinical trial of dihydroergotoxine mesilate in comparison with nifedipine. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 1014–1022 (1983).Google Scholar
  49. Bellini, G.; Battilana, G.; Puppis, E.; Rigoni, A.; Cosenzi, A. et al.: Renal response to acute nifedipine administration in normotensive and hypertensive patients during normal and low sodium intake. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 974–981 (1984).Google Scholar
  50. Bellocci, F.; Ansalone, G.; Santarelli, P.; Frustaci, A.; Scabbia, E. and Montenero, A.: Hemodynamic effects of dobutamine in patients with congestive heart failure receiving nifedipine. (Abstract.) European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. 1): 35 (1984).Google Scholar
  51. Bellocci, F.; Ansalone, G.; Santarelli, P.; Loperfido, F.; Scabbia, E. et al.: Oral nifedipine in the long-term management of severe chronic heart failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4: 847–855 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Bellocci, F.; Ansalone, G.; Scabbia, E.; Affinito, V.; Santarelli, P. et al.: Sustained beneficial effect of nifedipine in chronic refractorv heart failure. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 47: 407 (1981).Google Scholar
  53. Belz, G.G.; Doering, W.; Munkes, R.; Aust, P.E. and Belz, G.: Effects of various calcium antagonists on blood level and renal clearance of digoxin. Circulation 64: 24 (1980).Google Scholar
  54. Belz, G.G.; Doering, W.; Munkes, R. and Matthews, J.: Interaction between digoxin and calcium antagonists and antiarrhythmic drugs. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 410–417 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bertel, O.; Conen, D.; Radü, E.W.; Müller, J.; Lang, C. and Dubach, U.C.: Nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies. British Medical Journal 286: 19–21 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bertrand, M.E.; Lablanche, J.M. and Tilmant, P.Y.: Treatment of Prinzmetal’s variant angina. Role of medical treatment with nifedipine and surgical coronary revascularization combined with plexectomy. American Journal of Cardiology 47: 174–178 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Besse, P.; Casassus, J.; Page, A.; Colle, J.P. and Vallot, F.: Nifedipine in the treatment of Prinzmetal’s variant of angina pectoris. 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 110–125 (1980).Google Scholar
  58. Bexton, R.S.; Nathan, A.W.; Hellestrand, K.J.; Cory-Pearce, R.; Spurrell, R.A.J, et al.: The direct electrophysiological effects of nifedipine and verapamil. (Abstract.) Circulation 68(Suppl. III): 275 (1983).Google Scholar
  59. Bhatnagar, S.K.; Amin, M.M.A. and Al-Yusuf, A.R.: Diabetogenic effects of nifedipine. British Medical Journal 289: 19 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Blackwell, J.N.; Holt, S. and Heading, R.C.: Effect of nifedipine on oesophageal motility. Gut 20: A919 (1979).Google Scholar
  61. Blackwell, J.N.; Holt, S. and Heading, R.C.: Effect of nifedipine on oesophageal motility and gastric emptying. Digestion 21: 50–56 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Blaustein, A.S.; Heller, G.V. and Kolman, B.S.: Adjunctive nifedipine therapy in high-risk, medically refractory, unstable angina pectoris. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 950–954 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Boden, W.E.; Korr, K.S. and Bough, E.W.: Nifedipine-induced hypotension may provoke myocardial ischaemia in unstable angina. (Abstract.) Circulation 68(Suppl. II): III–367 (1983).Google Scholar
  64. Boden, W.E.; Korr, K.S. and Bough, E.W.: Nifedipine-induced hypotension and myocardial ischemia in refractory angina pectoris. Journal of the American Medical Association 253: 1131–1135 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Bogaert, M.G.; Rosseel, M.T.; Joos, R. and Boelaert, J.: Plasma concentrations of nifedipine in patients with renal failure. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 307–308 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Bonaduce, D.; Canonico, V.; Mazza, F.; Nicolino, A.; Ferrara, N. et al.: Evaluation of the efficacy of slow-release nifedipine in systemic hypertension by ambulatory, intraarterial blood pressure monitoring. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 7: 145–151 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Bonaduce, D.; Ferrara, N.; Petretta, M.; Romano, E.; Postiglione, M. et al.: Hemodynamic study of nifedipine administration in hypertensive patients. American Heart Journal 105: 865–867 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Bonetti, A.; Del Prato, C.; Orlandini, G. and Zuliani, U.: Influenza della somministrazione acuta di un calcio-antagonista (nifedipina) sul metabolismo glico-lipidico. Giornale di Arteriosclerosia 4: 287–289 (1979).Google Scholar
  69. Bortolotti, M. and Labò, G.: Clinical and manometric effects of nifedipine in patients with esophageal achlasia. Gastroenterology 80: 39–44 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Bovill, J.G.; Wezel, H.V.; Schuller, J. and Hoeneveld, M.: Comparison of nitroglycerine, verapamil and nifedipine in coronary artery surgery. Brit. J. Anaesth. 56: 804P (1984).Google Scholar
  71. Brauman, A.; Golik, A.; Gilboa, Y. and Hertzianu, I.: Effect of nifedipine on metabolism of glucose and secretion of insulin in diabetic patients. Diabetologia 27: 260A (1984).Google Scholar
  72. Braun, S.; Terdiman, R.; Berenfield, D. and Laniado, S.: Clinical and hemodynamic effects of combined propranolol and nifedipine therapy versus propranolol alone in patients with angina pectoris. American Heart Journal 3: 478–485 (1985).Google Scholar
  73. Braunwald, E.: Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents. New England Journal of Medicine 307: 1618–1627 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Bravard, P. and Moore, N.: Nifedipine for Raynaud’s phenomenon. Lancet 1: 130–131 (1983).Google Scholar
  75. Brennan, F.N. and Blake, S.: The use of nifedipine as a third-step agent in the treatment of refractory hypertension. Irish Medical Journal 75: 29–30 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Brennan, F.; Flanagan, M.; Blake, S. and Cannon, P.: Nifedipine in the treatment of hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 713–715 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Brinker, J.A.; Ouyang, P.; Mellits, E.D. and Gerstenblith, G.: Influence of fixed disease on the response to nifedipine in patients with unstable angina. (Abstract.) Clinical Research 31: 170A (1983).Google Scholar
  78. Brügmann, U.; Blasini, R. and Rudolph W.: Antiischämische Wirkung von Nifedipin in Retard-Form. Ergebnisse einer doppelblind, randomisiert, cross-over durchgeführten, placebo-kontrollierten Akustudie. Herz 8: 206–210 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Brügmann, U.; Dirschinger, J.; Blasini, R. and Rudolph, W.: Antiischämische Wirksamkeit unterschiedlicher Nifedipin-Dosen. Herz 7: 235–242 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Bühler, F.: Kalzium-Antagonisten: Kennt man ein Absetz-Syndrom? Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 125: 13 (1983).Google Scholar
  81. Bühler, F.R.; Hulthén, U.L.; Kiowski, W. and Bolli, P.: β-Blockers and calcium antagonists: Cornerstones of antihypertensive therapy in the 1980s. Drugs 25(Suppl. 2): 50–57 (1983).Google Scholar
  82. Burns, E.R. and Frishman, W.H.: The anti-platelet effects of calcium channel blockers add to their anti-anginal properties. International Journal of Cardiology 4: 372–379 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Bursztyn, M.; Grossman, E. and Rosenthal, T.: Long acting nifedipine in the treatment of severe hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 13–17 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Camerini, F.; Alberti, E.; Benussi, B.; Fioretti, P.; Klugmann, S. and Salvi, A.: Nifedipine as an afterload reducing agent; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 64–80 (1983).Google Scholar
  85. Camerini, F.; Alberti, E.; Klugmann, S. and Salvi, A.: Primary pulmonary hypertension: Effects of nifedipine. British Heart Journal 44: 352–356 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Cantelli, I.; Pavesi, P.C.; Naccarella, F. and Bracchetti, D.: Comparison of acute haemodynamic effects of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in patients with heart failure following acute myocardial infarction. International Journal of Cardiology 1: 151–163 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Cantelli, I.; Pavesi, P.C.; Parchi, C.; Naccarella, F. and Bracchetti, D.: Acute hemodynamic effects of combined therapy with digoxin and nifedipine in patients with chronic heart failure. American Heart Journal 106: 308–315 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Cassera, J.C.; Menna, J.; Traina, M. and Ferreiras, E.: The effect of a single dose of Adalat during exercise in patients with coronary heart disease; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 123–127 (1976).Google Scholar
  89. Castilho, F.; Goncalves, D.A. and Balbi, J.D.S.: Long-term treatment with a new coronary pharmacotherapeutic agent of ischaemic manifestations in chronic coronary insufficiency induced by exercise; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 247–254 (1976).Google Scholar
  90. Cerrina, J.; Denjean, A.; Alexandre, G.; Lockhart, A. and Duroux, P.: Inhibition of exercise-induced asthma by a calcium antagonist, nifedipine. American Review of Respiratory Disease 123: 156–160 (1981a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ccrrina, J.; Jouvin, E.; Duroux, P. and Beneveniste, J.: Inhibition of the release of platelet-activating factor and slow reactive substance from human neutrophils by the calcium antagonist nifedipine. American Review of Respiratory Disease 123(Suppl. 4): 44 (1981b).Google Scholar
  92. Chaitman, B.R.; Wagniart, P.; Pasternac, A.; Brevers, G.; Scholl, J.-M. et al.: Improved exercise tolerance after propranolol, diltiazem or nifedipine in angina pectoris: Comparison at 1, 3 and 8 hours and correlation with plasma drug concentration. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 1–9 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Charlap, S. and Frishman, W.H.: Nifedipine in heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology 6: 665–671 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Charles, S.; Ketelslegers, J.-M.; Buysschaert, M. and Lambert, A.E.: Hyperglycaemic effect of nifedipine. British Medical Journal 283: 19–20 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Cherchi, A.; Fonzo, R. and Bina, M.: Influence of nifedipine on the effort tolerance test in angina patients; 1st International Nifedipine ‘Adalat’ Symposium, pp. 85–96 (1975).Google Scholar
  96. Choong, C.Y.P.; Roubin, G.S.; Harris, P.J.; Shen, W.F. and Kelly, D.T.: Effects of vasodilatation by nifedipine on the peripheral distribution of cardiac output during exercise and oxygen utilisation by working muscles. (Abstract.) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 14(Suppl. 2): 557 (1984).Google Scholar
  97. Choong, C.Y.P.; Roubin, G.S.; Tokuyasu, Y.; Shen, W.F.; Bautovich, G.J. et al.: Acute effects of nifedipine and combination with metoprolol on exercise capacity, haemodynamics and left ventricular function in patients with exertional angina. (Abstract.) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 13: 417 (1983).Google Scholar
  98. Christensen, C.K.; Lederballe Pedersen, O. and Mikkelsen, E.: Renal effects of acute calcium blockade with nifedipine in hypertensive patients receiving beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 572–576 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Clark, R.E.; Christlieb, I.Y.; Ferguson, T.B.; Weldon, C.S.; Marburger, J.P. et al.: The first American clinical trial of nifedipine in cardioplegia. A report of the first 12 month experience. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 82: 848–859 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Clark, R.E.; Christlieb, I.Y.; Henry, P.D.; Fischer, A.E.; Nora, J.D. et al.: Nifedipine: A myocardial protective agent. American Journal of Cardiology 44: 825–831 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Clark, R.E.; Christlieb, I.Y. and Magovern, G.J.: Use of nifedipine during cardiac surgery for improved myocardial protection. American Journal of Medicine 78(Suppl. 2B): 6–8 (1985a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Clark, R.E.; Christlieb, I.Y.; Vanderwonde, J.C. and Henry, P.D.: Use of nifedipine to decrease ischemic-reperfusion injury in the surgical setting. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 125B–138B (1985b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Clark, R.E. and Magovern, G.J.: Nifedipine cardioplegia experience: results of a 2-year cooperative clinical study. European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 89–90 (1983).Google Scholar
  104. Clark, R.E.; Magovern, G.J.; Christlieb, I.Y. and Boe, S.: Nifedipine cardioplegia experience: Results of a 3-year cooperative clinical study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 36: 654–663 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Cocco, G.; Strozzi, C.; Chu, D.; Amrein, R. and Castagroli, E.: Therapeutic effects of pindolol and nifedipine in patients with stable angina pectoris and asymptomatic resting ischemia. European Journal of Cardiology 10: 59–69 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Cohen, D.J.; Foley, R.W. and Ryan, J.M.: Intraoperative coronary artery spasm successfully treated with nitroglycerin and nifedipine. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 36: 97–100 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Colucci, W.S.; Fifer, M.A.; Lorell, B.H. and Wynne, J.: Calcium channel blockers in congestive heartfailure: Theoretic considerations and clinical experience. American Journal of Medicine 78(Suppl. 2B): 9–17 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Conen, D.; Bertel, O. and Dubach, U.C.: An oral calcium antagonist for treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4(Suppl. 3): 378–382 (1982).Google Scholar
  109. Corbalan, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Chamorro, G.; Munoz, M.; Rodriguez, J.A. and Casanegra, P.: Effect of a calcium inhibitor, nifedipine, on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris. A double-blind study. Chest 79: 302–305 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Corea, L.; Alunni, G.; Bentivoglio, M.; Boschetti, E.; Cosmi, F. et al.: Acute and long-term effects of nifedipine on plasma renin activity and plasma catecholamines in controls and hypertensive patients before and after metoprolol. Acta Therapeutica 6: 177–187 (1980).Google Scholar
  111. Corea, L.; Bentivoglio, M.; Cosmi, F. and Alunni, G.: Catecholamines plasma levels and haemodynamic changes induced by nifedipine in chronic severe heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 30: 698–707 (1981a).Google Scholar
  112. Corea, L.; Bentivoglio, M.; Cosmi, F.; Alunni, G. and Carnovali, M.: Nifedipine versus prazosin in essential hypertension: A double-blind study. Current Therapeutic Research 30: 708–717 (1981b).Google Scholar
  113. Corea, L.; Bentivoglio, M. and Verdecchia, P.: Captopril compared with nifedipine in the treatment of heart failure: A randomized study. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research IX: 901–910 (1983).Google Scholar
  114. Corea, L.; Bentivoglio, M. and Verdecchia, P.: Nifedipine in heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 951–958 (1984).Google Scholar
  115. Corea, L.; Miele, N.; Bentivoglio, M.; Boschetti, E.; Agabiti-Rosei, E. and Muiesan, G.: Acute and chronic effects of nifedipine on plasma renin activity and plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline in controls and hypertensive patients. Clinical Science 57: 115S–117S (1979b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Coronelli, M.; Zuzolo, V.; Tonti, M.; Carosi, M. and Teggia, L.: Antianginal activity of nifedipine in 5mg capsules for acute administration. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 639–645 (1983).Google Scholar
  117. Corris, P.A.; Nariman, S. and Gibson, G.J.: Nifedipine in the prevention of asthma induced by exercise and histamine. American Review of Respiratory Disease 128: 991–992 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Corvol, P.; Marre, M.; Banzet, O.; Colin, J.N.; Thibonnier, M. et al.: Acute antihypertensive effects and pharmacokinetic parameters of a new galenic form of nifedipine; in 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 158–163 (1983).Google Scholar
  119. Covinsky, J.O. and Hamburger, S.C., Slow channel blockers. Southern Medical Journal 76: 55–64 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Creager, M.A.; Pariser, K.M.; Winston, E.M.; Rasmussen, H.M.; Miller, K.B. and Coffman, J.D.: Nifedipine-induced vasodilation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. American Heart Journal 108: 370–373 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Crimi, N.; Palermo, F.; Sorace, R.; Gibellino, F. and Mistretta, A.: Effect of a calcium antagonist, nifedipine, in exercise-induced asthma. Respiration 45: 262–264 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Cristal, N.; Slonim, A. and Shainkin-Kestenbaum, R.: Improved red cell filterability by nifedipine in coronary patients — therapeutic implications. (Abstract.) Asian Pacific Adalat Symposium, p. 11 (Tokyo, 23–24 October 1982).Google Scholar
  123. Dalai, J.J.; Griffiths, B.E. and Henderson, A.H.: Primary pulmonary hypertension: Effects of nifedipine. British Heart Journal 46: 230–231 (1981).Google Scholar
  124. Dale, J.; Landmark, K.H. and Myhre, E.: The effects of nifedipine, a calcium antagonist, on platelet function. American Heart Journal 105: 103–105 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Daly, K.; Bergman, G.; Rothman, M.; Atkinson, L.; Jackson, G. and Jewitt, D.E.: Beneficial effect of adding nifedipine to beta-adrenergic blocking therapy in angina pectoris. European Heart Journal 3: 42–46 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Daniclides, I.C.; Basioukas, P. and Pouggouras, P.: Effects of nifedipine on primary esophageal motility disorders. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 86: 1056 (1984).Google Scholar
  127. Dargie, H.J.; Lynch, P.G.; Krikler, D.M.; Harris, L. and Krikler, S.: Nifedipine and propranolol: A beneficial drug interaction. American Journal of Medicine 71: 676–682 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Davi, G.; Novo, S.; Fiore, M.; Foderà, A.; Mattina, A. et al.: Effects by nifedipine on thromboxane synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Thrombosis Research 28: 837–842 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Davidson, A.R.: Lymphocyte sensitisation in nifedipine-induced hepatitis. British Medical Journal 281: 1354 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Dawson, J.R.; Whitaker, N.H.G. and Sutton, G.C.: Calcium antagonist drugs in chronic stable angina. Comparison of verapamil and nifedipine. British Heart Journal 46: 508–512 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Dean, S. and Kendall, M.J.: Nifedipine in the treatment of difficult hypertensives. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 1–5 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Deanfield, J.E.; Selwyn, A.P.; Chierchia, S.; Maseri, A.; Ribeiro, P. and Krikler, S.: Myocardial ischaemia during daily life in patients with stable angina: Its relation to symptoms and heart rate changes. Lancet 1: 753–758 (1983a).Google Scholar
  133. Deanfield, J.; Wright, C. and Fox, K.: Treatment of angina pectoris with nifedipine: Importance of dose titration. British Medical Journal 286: 1467–1470 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Deanfield, J.; Wright, C.; Krikler, S.; Ribeiro, P. and Fox, K.: Cigarette smoking and the treatment of angina with propranolol, atenolol, and nifedipine. New England Journal of Medicine 310: 941–954 (1984).Google Scholar
  135. Debaisieux, J.-C.; Theroux, P.; Waters, D.D. and Mizgala, H.F.: Hemodynamic effects of a single oral dose of nifedipine following acute myocardial infarction. Chest 78: 574–579 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. De Buitleir, M.; Rowland, E. and Krikler, D.M.: Combination of nifedipine with atenolol or propranolol in chronic stable angina. (Abstract No. 546.) European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. 1): 128 (1984).Google Scholar
  137. De Divitiis, O.; Petitto, M.; Di Somma, S.; Fazio, S.; Galderisi, M. et al.: Acebutolol and nifedipine in the treatment of arterial hypertension: Efficacy and acceptability. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 710–715 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Deedwania, P.; Shah, J.; Robison, C.; Watson, P. and Hurks, C.: Effects of nifedipine on glucose tolerance and insulin release in man. Clinical Research 32: 46A (1984).Google Scholar
  139. De Feyter, P.J.; Kerkkamp, J.J. and de Jong, J.P.: Sustained beneficial effect of nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension. American Heart Journal 105: 333–334 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Delahaye, J.P.; Touboul, P.; Gaspard, P.; Delaye, J. and Cassagnes, J.: Le traitement de l’angine de poitrine de Prinzmetal par la nifedipine. Lyon Médical 241: 769–775 (1979).Google Scholar
  141. Delahaye, J.P.; Touboul, P.; Cassagnes, J.; Gaspard, P. and Milon, H.: The long-term treatment of Prinzmetal’s angina with nifedipine; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 87–94 (1980).Google Scholar
  142. De Los Reyes, M.P.; De Los Reyes, X.P.; Passalacqua, A.S.W.: Tratamiento de la encefalopatia hipertensiva aguda con nifedipina en 7 pacientes. Revista Medica de Chile 110: 1204–1206 (1982).Google Scholar
  143. De Ponti, C.; De Biase, A.M.; Pirelli, S.; Cataldo, G.; Salvadé, P. et al.: Effects of nifedipine, acebutolol, and their association on exercise tolerance in patients with effort angina. Cardiology 68(Suppl. 2): 195–199 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. De Ponti, C.; Mauri, F.; Ciliberto, G.R. and Carù, B.: Comparative effects of nifedipine, verapamil, isosorbide dinitrate and propranolol on exercise-induced angina pectoris. European Journal of Cardiology 10: 47–58 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Diamond, J.R.; Cheung, J.Y. and Fang, L.S.T.: Nifedipine-induced renal dysfunction. Alterations in renal hemodynamics. American Journal of Medicine 77: 905–909 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Dickinson, D.F.; Wilson, N. and Curry, P.: Use of nifedipine in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants. A report of two cases. International Journal of Cardiology 7: 159–160 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Dilmen, U.; Caǧlar, M.K.; Senses, D.A. and Kinik, E.: Nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies of children. American Journal of Diseases of Children 137: 1162–1165 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Dokladalova, J.; Tykal, J.A.; Coco, S.J.; Durkee, P.E.; Quercia, G.T. and Korst, J.J.: Occurrence and measurement of nifedipine and its nitropyridine derivative in human blood plasma. Journal of Chromatography 231: 451–458 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Donnelly, T. and Harrower, A.B.D.: Effect of nifedipine on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Curr. Med. Res. Op. 6: 690–693 (1980).Google Scholar
  150. Douglas-Jones, A.P. and Mitchell, A.D.: Comparison of nifedipine (retard formulation) and mefruside in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension — a prospective randomized double-blind crossover study in general practice. Postgraduate Medical Journal 60: 529–532 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Douglas Smith, C. and McKendry, R.J.R.: Controlled trial of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Lancet II: 1299–1301 (1982).Google Scholar
  152. Drazen, J.M.; Fanta, C.H. and Lacouture, P.G.: Effect of nifedipine on constriction of human tracheal strips in vitro. British Journal of Pharmacology 78: 687–691 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Duhm, B.; Maul, W.; Medenwald, H.; Patzschke, K. and Wegner, L.A.: Tierexperimentalle Untersuchungen zur Pharmakokinetik und Biotransformation von radioaktive markiertem 4-(2’nitrophenyl)-2, 6-dimethyl-l, 4-dihydropyridin-3, 5-dicarbonsäuredimethyl ester. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 42–52 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Dylewicz, P.; Kirch, W.; Benesch, L. and Ohnhaus, E.E.: Influence of Cimetidine on exercise capacity of nifedipine treated patients. (Abstract No. 933P). UPHAR 9th International Congress of Pharmacology, London (1984).Google Scholar
  155. Ebner, F.: Wirkung und Verträglichkeit von Adalat bei Kombinationen mit verschiedenen Medikamenten. Münchener Medizinishe Wochenschrift 119(Suppl. 1): 69–76 (1977).Google Scholar
  156. Ebner, F. and Donath, M.: Mode of action and efficacy of nifedipine; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 25–37 (1980).Google Scholar
  157. Ebner, F.; Leisten, L.; Lejeune, P.; Donath, M. and Rämsch, K.D.: Administration of nifedipine to patients treated with digitalis-glycosides, anti-diabetic agents and beta-blockers; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 328–338 (1983).Google Scholar
  158. Eggertsen, R. and Hansson, L.: Effects of treatment with nifedipine and metoprolol in essential hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 389–390 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ekelund, L.-G.; Ekelund, C. and Rössner, S.: Antihypertensive effects at rest and during exercise of a calcium blocker, nifedipine, alone and in combination with metoprolol. Acta Medica Scandinavica 212: 71–75 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ekelund, L.-G. and Orö, L.: Antianginal efficiency of nifedipine with and without a beta-blocker, studied with exercise test. A double-randomized subacute study. Clinical Cardiology 2: 203–211 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Ekelund, L.-G. and Orö, L.: Antianginal efficiency of Adalat with and without a beta-blocker. A subacute study with exercise tests; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 218–225 (1976).Google Scholar
  162. El Allaf, D.; Garzaniti, N.; Cremers, S.; D’Orio, V.; Marcelle, R. and Carlier, J.: Nifedipine in secondary pulmonary hypertension. (Abstract No. 193.) Circulation 66: 11–49 (1982).Google Scholar
  163. Elert, O.: Myocardial protection with nifedipine in open heart surgery: 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 100–106 (1983).Google Scholar
  164. Eliahou, H.E.; Iaina, A.; Schneider, R.; Cohen, D.; Goldfarb, D. and Gross, M.: Treatment of hypertension in dialysis and essential hypertension patients with nifedipine. Clinical and Experimental Dialysis and Apheresis 6: 299–236 (1982).Google Scholar
  165. Eliraz, A.; Wishnitzer, R. and Fink, A.: Exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms after cessation of nifedipine therapy. Annals of Allergy 52: 125–127 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Elkayam, U.; Roth, A.; Hsueh, W.; Weber, L.; Freidenberger, L. and Rahimtoola, S.H.: Neurohumoral changes following arterial dilation with hydralazine and nifedipine in heart failure. (Abstract.) Clinical Research 33: 88A (1985).Google Scholar
  167. Elkayam, U.; Weber, L.; Campese, V.M.; Massry, S.G. and Rahimtoola, S.H.: Renal hemodynamic effects of vasodilation with nifedipine and hydralazine in patients with heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 4: 1261–1267 (1984d).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Elkayam, U.; Weber, L.; McKay, C.R. and Rahimtoola, S.: Variable, unpredictable, and deleterious hemodynamic response to oral nifedipine in severe chronic heart failure: An experience in 32 patients. (Abstract.) Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3: 478 (1984a).Google Scholar
  169. Elkayam, U.; Weber, L.; McKay, C.R. and Rahimtoola, S.H.: Differences in hemodynamic response to vasodilation due to calcium channel antagonism with nifedipine and direct-acting agonism with hydralazine in chronic refractory congestive heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 54: 126–131 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Elkayam, U.; Weber, L.; Torkan, B.; Berman, D. and Rahimtoola, S.H.: Acute hemodynamic effect of oral nifedipine in severe chronic congestive heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 1041–1045 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Elkayam, U.; Weber, L.; Torkan, B.; McKay, C.R. and Rahimtoola, S.H.: Comparison of hemodynamic responses to nifedipine and nitroprusside in severe chronic congestive heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 1321–1325 (1984c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Ellis, E.F.; Oelz, O.; Robert, I.J.; Payne, N.A.; Sweetman, B.J. et al.: Coronary arterial smooth muscle contraction by a substance released from platelets: Evidence that is thromboxane A2. Science 193: 1135–1137 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Emanuelsson, H.; Herlitz, J.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Holmberg, S.; Waagstein, F. et al.: Hemodynamic and clinical findings after combined therapy with metoprolol and nifedipine in acute myocardial infarction. Clinical Cardiology 7: 425–432 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Emanuelsson, H.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Holmberg, S.; Waagstein, F. and Waldenström, A.: Effects of nifedipine on arterial concentration and myocardial extraction of catecholamines during pacing-induced angina pectoris. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6: 224–232 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Emanuelsson, H. and Holmberg, S.: Mechanisms of angina relief after nifedipine: A hemodynamic and myocardial metabolic study. Circulation 68: 124–130 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Ene, M.D.; Williamson, P.J.; Roberts, C.J.C and Waddell, G.: Natriuretic effects of nifedipine and nitrendipine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 193P (1984).Google Scholar
  177. Ene, M.D.; Williamson, P.J.; Roberts, C.J.C and Waddell, G.: The natriuresis following oral administration of the calcium antagonists — nifedipine and nitrendipine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 423–427 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Engel, H.-J. and Lichtlen, P.R.: Beneficial enhancement of coronary blood flow by nifedipine. Comparison with nitroglycerin and beta blocking agents. American Journal of Medicine 71: 658–666 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Engelman, R.M.; Hadji-Rousou, I.; Breyer, R.H.; Whittredge, P.; Harbison, W. and Chircop, R.V.: Rebound vasospasm after coronary revascularization in association with calcium antagonist withdrawal. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 37: 469–472 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Englert, R.: Verlaufsbeobachtungen über 2 Jahre bei Hypertoniepatienten mit Adalat-retard. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 134(Suppl. 82): 7–8 (1984).Google Scholar
  181. Erbel, R.; Brand, G.; Meyer, J. and Effert, S.: Emergency treatment of hypertensive crisis with sublingual nifedipine. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 3): 134–136 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Erne, P.; Bolli, P.; Bertel, O.; Hulthen, U.L.; Kiowski, W. et al.: Factors influencing the hypotensive effects of calcium antagonists. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 97–102 (1983).Google Scholar
  183. Erne, P.; Kiowski, W.; Bolli, P.; Bürgisser, E. and Bühler, F.R.: Reduction of elevated intracellular free calcium concentration in platelets and blood pressure in essential hypertension by chronic treatment with calcium antagonists. (Abstract.) Journal of Hypertension 2: 102–103 (1984).Google Scholar
  184. Esper, R.J.; Caprarella, M.; Marcos, R.M. and Lythgoe, M.: Echophonocardiographic assessment of the effect of the vasodilator nifedipine and the β-blocking agent acebutolol, separately and simultaneously, on the heart; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 154–175 (1980).Google Scholar
  185. Ettinger, W.H.; Wise, R.A.; Schaffhauser, D. and Wigley, F.M.: Controlled double-blind trial of dazoxiben and nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. American Journal of Medicine 77: 451–456 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Evans, M.G.; Olanoff, L.S.; Hurwitz, G.; Cowart, T.D. and Conradi, E.C.: Use of nifedipine as an adjunct to current antihypertensive therapy. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 985–987 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Fanta, C.H.; Venugopalan, C.S.; Lacouture, P.G. and Drazen, J.M.: Inhibition of bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig by a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. American Review of Respiratory Disease 125: 61–66 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Fakunding, J.L.; Chow, R. and Catt, K.J.: The role of calcium in the stimulation of aldosterone production by adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, and potassium in isolated glomerulosa cells. Endocrinology 105: 327–333 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Farber, H.W.; Karlinsky, J.B. and Faling, L.J.: Fatal outcome following nifedipine for pulmonary hypertension. Chest 83: 708–709 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Faris, J.V.; Childress, R.H. and Watanabe, A.M.: Effect of nifedipine on exercise tolerance in coronary artery disease. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 45: 439 (1980).Google Scholar
  191. Farringer, J.A.; Green, J.A.; O’Rourke, R.A.; Linn, W.A. and Clementi, W.A.: Nifedipine-induced alterations in serum quinidine concentrations. American Heart Journal 108: 1570–1572 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Feely, J.: Nifedipine increases and glyceryl trinitrate decreases apparent liver blood flow in normal subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 83–85 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Feldman, R.L.; Pepine, C.J. and Conti, C.R.: Nifedipine in unstable angina. (Correspondence.) New England Journal of Medicine 307: 627 (1982).Google Scholar
  194. Ferguson, D.W. and Dorsey, J.K.: Effects of nifedipine on baro-reflex modulation of vascular resistance in man. American Heart Journal 109: 55–62 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ferlito, S.; Fichera, C.; Carrá, G.; Puleo, F.; Calafato, M. and Volpicelli, D.: Effect of nifedipine on blood sugar, insulin and glucagon levels after an oral glucose load. Panminerva Medica 23: 75–80 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Findlay, I.N. and Dargie, H.J.: The effects of nifedipine, atenolol and that combination on left ventricular function. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 70–73 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Findlay, I.N.; Dargie, H.J.; Ford, M. and Elliott, A.T.: Left ventricular ejection fraction, blood pressure and heart rate response during treatment of angina pectoris with nifedipine and atenolol. (Abstract.) II World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, p. 20 (Washington, D.C., 31 July–5 August 1983).Google Scholar
  198. Findlay, I.N.; Gillen, G.; Elliott, A.T. and Dargie, H.J.: The treatment of angina pectoris with calcium channel and beta blockers, efficacy and effect on cardiac function. (Abstract.) Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3: 482 (1984).Google Scholar
  199. Fioretti, P.; Benussi, B.; Klugmann, S. and Camerini, F.: Acute hemodynamic effects of nifedipine at rest and during stress in severe aortic incompetence. European Heart Journal 4: 110–116 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Fisher, J.; Borer, J.S.; Moses, J.W.; Goldberg, H.L.; Niarchos, A. et al.: Pulmonary hypertension: Comparative effects of nifedipine versus hydralazine. (Abstract No. 194.) Circulation 66: 11–49 (1982).Google Scholar
  201. Fisher, J.F.; Borer, J.S.; Moses, J.W.; Goldberg, H.L.; Niarchos, A.P., et al.: Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine versus hydralazine in primary pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 54: 646–650 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Fisher, J.; Mack, R.; Borer, J.S.; Pickering, T.; Niarchos, A. et al.: Nifedipine in pulmonary hypertension: Importance of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Clinical Research 31: 696A (1983).Google Scholar
  203. Flaim, S.F.; Irwin, J.M.; Ratz, P.H. and Swigart, S.C.: Differential effects of calcium channel blocking agents on oxygen consumption rate in vascular smooth muscle. American Journal of Cardiology 49: 511–518 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Fleckenstein, A.: Specific pharmacology of calcium in myocardium, cardiac pacemakers, and vascular smooth muscle. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 17: 149–166 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Fleckenstein, A.; Frey, M. and Fleckenstein-Grün, G.: Consequences of uncontrolled calcium entry and its prevention with calcium antagonists. European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. H): 43–50 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Fleckenstein, A.; Tritthart, H.; Döring, H.J. and Byon, K.Y.: BAY a 1040-ein hochaktiver Ca++-antagonistischer Inhibitor der elektro-mechanischen Koppelungsprozesse im Warmblüter-myokard. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 22–23 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Foreman, J.C.; Hallett, M.B. and Mongar, J.L.: The relationship between histamine secretion and 45Ca++ uptake by mast cells. Journal of Physiology 271: 193–214 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Forman, A.: Calcium entry blockade as a therapeutic principle in the female urogenital tract. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 121): 5–26 (1984).Google Scholar
  209. Forman, A.; Andersson, K.-E.; Henriksson, L.; Rud, T. and Ulmsten, U.: Effects of nifedipine on the smooth muscle of the human urinary tract in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 43: 111–118 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Forman, A.; Andersson, K.-E.; Persson, C.G.A. and Ulmsten, U.: Relaxant effects of nifedipine on isolated, human myometrium. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 45: 81–86 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Forman, A.; Gandrup, P.; Andersson, K.-E. and Ulmsten, U.: Effects of nifedipine on spontaneous and methylergometrine-induced activity post partum. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 144: 442–448 (1982a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Forman, A.; Gandrup, P.; Andersson, K.-E. and Ulmsten, U.: Effects of nifedipine on oxytocin- and prostaglandin F-induced activity in the postpartum uterus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 144: 665–670 (1982b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Foster, T.S.; Hamann, S.R.; Richards, V.R.; Bryant, P.J.; Graves, D.A. and McAllister Jr, R.G.: Nifedipine kinetics and bioavailability after single intravenous and oral doses in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 161–170 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Fox, J.E. and Daniel, E.E.: The role of Ca++ in the genesis of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone and contraction. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 74: 1082 (1978).Google Scholar
  215. Fox, K.M.; Deanfield, J.; Selwyn, A.; Krikler, S. and Wright, C.: Treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris with nifedipine; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 197–208 (1982).Google Scholar
  216. Fox, K.; Jonathan, A. and Selwyn, A.P.: Combined high-dosage administration of nifedipine and propranolol in patients with angina pectoris; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 147–153 (1980).Google Scholar
  217. Franchi, F. and Padeletti, L.: Evaluation of the clinical electrophysiological effects of antianginal drugs without specific antiarrhythmic properties. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 3: 17–27 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Franz, I.-W. and Wiewel, D.: Antihypertensive effects on blood pressure at rest and during exercise of calcium antagonists, β-receptor blockers, and their combination in hypertensive patients. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6: S1037–S1042 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Frey, M.; Keidel, J. and Fleckenstein, A.: Verhütung experimenteller Gefässverkalkungen (Mönckebergs Typ der Arteriosklerose) durch Calcium-Antagonisten bei Ratten; in Fleckenstein, A. and Roskamm, H. (Eds) Calcium-Antagonismus, pp. 258–285 (Springer, Berlin 1980).Google Scholar
  220. Frishman, W.H. and Charlap, S.: Nifedipine in the treatment of systemic hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 2335–2336 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Frishman, W.H.; Weinberg, P.; Peled, H.B.; Kimmel, B.; Charlap, S. and Beer, N.: Calcium entry blockers for the treatment of severe hypertension and hypertensive crisis. American Journal of Medicine 77: 35–45 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Furlanello, F.; Disertori, M.; Vergara, G. and Del Favero, A.: Study on the electrophysiological effects of nifedipine in man; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 227–235 (1980).Google Scholar
  223. Gangji, D.; Juvent, M.; Niset, G.; Wathieu, M.; Degreve, M. et al.: Study of the influence of nifedipine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propranolol, metoprolol and atenolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 29S–35S (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Garcia López, E.; Treviño, A.; Avilés, C.; Vásquez, B. and Garcia, A.: Nifedipine in severe hypertensive crisis in chronic renal failure patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis and Transplantation 13: 700–704 (1984).Google Scholar
  225. Garty, M.; Shamir, E. and Rosenfeld, J.B.: Nifedipine-digoxin noninteraction. (Abstract No. H11.) International Symposium on Calcium Entry Blockers and Tissue Protection, Rome 15–16 March, 1984, p. 124 (1984).Google Scholar
  226. Geddes, J.S.: Calcium antagonists and beta blockade — a useful combination. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 62–69 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Gelfond, M.; Rozen, P. and Gilat, T.: Isosorbide dinitrate and nifedipine treatment of achalasia: A clinical, manometric and radionuclide evaluation. Gastroenterology 83: 963–969 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Gerstenblith, G.; Ouyang, P.; Achuff, S.C.; Bulkley, B.H.; Becker, L.C. et al.: Nifedipine in unstable angina. A double-blind, randomized trial. New England Journal of Medicine 306: 885–889 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Gibelli, G.; Carnovali, M.; Orvieni, C.; Colombo, G. and De Vita, C.: Effect and duration of action of nifedipine 20mg tablets: Double-blind ergometric evaluation versus placebo. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 295–304 (1983).Google Scholar
  230. Ginsburg, R.; Lamb, I.H.; Schroeder, J.S.; Hu, M. and Harrison, D.C.: Randomized double-blind comparison of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate therapy in variant angina pectoris due to coronary artery spasm. American Heart Journal 103: 44–48 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Giugliano, D.; Torella, R.; Cacciapuoti, F.; Gentile, S.; Verza, M. and Varricchio, M.: Impairment of insulin secretion in man by nifedipine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 395–398 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Given, B.D.; Lee, T.H.; Stone, P.H. and Dzau, V.J.: Nifedipine in severely hypertensive patients with congestive heart failure and preserved ventricular systolic function. Archives of Internal Medicine 145: 281–285 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Gonzales, J.M.; Morice, R.C.; Bloom, K.; Akers, S.; Raizner, A.E. and Stevens, P.M.: Inhibition of airway reactivity by nifedipine in patients with coronary artery disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 127: 155–157 (1983).Google Scholar
  234. Gottlieb, S.O.; Ouyang, P.; Achuff, S.C.; Baughman, K.L.; Traill, T.A. and Mellits, E.D.: Acute nifedipine withdrawal: Consequences of preoperative and late cessation of therapy in patients with prior unstable angina. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 4: 382–388 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Gould, B.A.; Hornung, R.S.; Mann, S.; Subramanian, V.B. and Raftery, E.B.: Nifedipine or verapamil as sole treatment of hypertension. An intraarterial study. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 91–96 (1983).Google Scholar
  236. Grampa, A. and Franzetti, I.: Evaluation of a delayed-action (a++-antagonist in the medium-term treatment of hypertension. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio Per Le Scienze Mediche 143: 189–198 (1984).Google Scholar
  237. Grandjean, T. and Valenti, P.: Effects of nifedipine on effort tolerance and left ventricular function during exercise in patients suffering from severe angina pectoris; in Lichtlen et al. (Eds) International Adalat Panel Discussion. New Experimental and Clinical Results, pp. 118–126 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1978).Google Scholar
  238. Green, J.A.; Clementi, W.A.; Porter, C. and Stigelman, W.: Nifedipine-quinidine interaction. Clinical Pharmacy 2: 461–465 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Greenwood, R.H.: Hyperglycaemic effect of nifedipine. British Medical Journal 284: 50 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Groth, H.; Förster, E.-C.; Neyses, L.; Sigenthaler, W. and Vetter, W.: Nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies and severe hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2: 106 (1984).Google Scholar
  241. Grunwald, Z.: Painful edema, erythematous rash, and burning sensation due to nifedipine. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 16: 492 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Guazzi, M.D.; Cesare, N.D.; Galli, C.; Salvioni, A.; Tramontana, C. et al.: Calcium-channel blockade with nifedipine and angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibition with Captopril in the therapy of patients with severe primary hypertension. Circulation 70: 279–284 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Guazzi, M.D.; Cipolla, C.; Bella, P.D.; Fabbiocchi, F.; Montorsi, P. and Sganzerla, P.: Disparate unloading efficacy of the calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine, on the foiling hypertensive left ventricle. American Heart Journal 108: 116–123 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Guazzi, M.D.; Fiorentini, C.; Olivari, M.T.; Bartorelli, A.; Necchi, G. and Polese, A.: Short and long-term efficacy of a calcium-antagonistic agent (nifedipine) combined with methyldopa in the treatment of severe hypertension. Circulation 61: 913–919 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Guazzi, M.; Olivari, M.T.; Polese, A.; Fiorentini, C.; Magrini, F. and Moruzzi, P.: Nifedipine, a new antihypertensive with rapid action. Clin. Pharmacol. Therap. 22: 528–532 (1977).Google Scholar
  246. Guazzi, M.D.; Polese, A.; Fiorentini, C.; Bartorelli, A. and Moruzzi, P.: Treatment of hypertension with calcium antagonists: Review. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 85–90 (1983).Google Scholar
  247. Gunther, S.; Green, L.; Muller, J.E.; Mudge Jr, G.H. and Grossman, W.: Prevention by nifedipine of abnormal coronary vasoconstriction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 63: 849–855 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Gutierrez, L.M.; Lesko, L.J.; Whipps, R.; Carliner, N. and Fisher, M.: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine after chronic administration. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 245 (1984).Google Scholar
  249. Haerem, J.W.: Mural platelet microthrombi and major acute lesions of main epicardial arteries in sudden coronary death. Atherosclerosis 19: 529–541 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Haft, J.I. and Litterer, W.E.: Chewing nifedipine to rapidly treat hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 2357–2359 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Haft, J.I.; Litterer, W.E.; Perez, L.; Zawislak, W. and Burachinsky, A.: Chewing nifedipine in the acute treatment of hypertension. Clinical Research 31: 190A (1983).Google Scholar
  252. Hagemeijer, F. and van Mechelen, R.: Effectiveness of nifedipine in unstable angina persisting despite conventional medical therapy: 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 255–265 (1983).Google Scholar
  253. Hagemeijer, F.; van Mechelen, R. and Santoso, T.: Benefits from adding nifedipine to the treatment of unstable angina when beta-blockade and isosorbide dinitrate have proved inadequate. Herz 7: 126–131 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Hall-Craggs, M.; Light, P.D. and Peters, R.W.: Development of immune complex nephritis during treatment with the calcium channel-blocking agent nifedipine. Human Pathology 15: 691–694 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Hallin, L.; Andren, L. and Hansson, L.: Controlled trial of nifedipine and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 5: 1083–1085 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Hamann, S.R.; Blouin, R.A.; Chang, S.L.; Kaltenborn, K.E.; Tan, T.G. and McAllister Jr, R.G.: Effects of hemodynamic changes on the elimination kinetics of verapamil and nifedipine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 231: 301–305 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Hamann, S.R. and McAllister Jr, R.G.: Measurement of nifedipine in plasma by gas-liquid chromatography and electron-capture detection. Clinical Chemistry 29: 158–160 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Hamann, S.R.; Tan, T.G.; Kaltenborn, K.E.; Brouwer, K.L.R.; Blouin, R.A. et al.: Effects of phenobarbital and SKF-525A on in vitro hepatic metabolism of verapamil and nifedipine. Pharmacology 30: 121–128 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Han, P. and Ardlie, N.G.: The influence of pH, temperature and environmental pH and platelet function for in vitro studies in plasma. British Journal of Haematology 26: 373–389 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Han, P.; Boatwright, C. and Ardlie, N.G.: Effect of the calcium-entry blocking agent nifedipine on activation of human platelets and comparison with verapamil. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 50: 513–517 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Hanrath, P.; Kremer, P. and Bleifeld, W.: Influence of nifedipine on left ventricular dysfunction at rest and during exercise. European Heart Journal 3: 325–330 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Hansen, P.B.; Buch, J.; Rasmussen, O.Ø.; Waldorff, S. and Steiness, E.: Influence of atenolol and nifedipine on digoxin-induced inotropism in humans. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 817–822 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Hattori, S.; Weintraub, W.W.; Agarwai, J.B.; Bodenheimer, M.M.; Banka, V.S. and Helfant, R.H.: The effects of nifedipine on ischemic myocardium: preservation of contraction during partial coronary occlusion. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 45: 485 (1980).Google Scholar
  264. Hausmann, L.: Verhalten des Kohlenhydratstoffwechsels unter einer 16 wöchigen Therapie mit Nifedipin. Erfahrungen mit Adalat in Klinik und Praxis, Munich 23 October, 1982, pp. 37–42 (Fachbuch-Verlagsgesellschaft, Erlangen 1983).Google Scholar
  265. Hawkins, S.; Forskitt, S.; Hall, N.D.; Maslen, C.; Maddison, P.J. et al.: Clinical and laboratory effects of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 43: 110–111 (1984).Google Scholar
  266. Hayashi, H.; Takumi, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Yabe, S.; Ohsugi, S. et al.: Limitation of myocardial ischemic injury by nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction evaluated by body surface mapping. (Abstract.) European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. 1): 221 (1984).Google Scholar
  267. Helfant, R.H.: In patient treatment of unstable angina: Clinical perspective and sequential management. American Heart Journal 104: 697–701 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Henderson, A.F.; Heaton, R.W.; Dunlop, L.S. and Costello, J.F.: Effects of nifedipine on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. American Review of Respiratory Disease 127: 549–553 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Henry, P.D.: Protection of ischemic myocardium by treatment with nifedipine; in Winbury, M.M. and Abiko, Y. (Eds) Ischemic Myocardium and Antianginal Drugs, pp. 129–142 (Raven Press, New York 1979a).Google Scholar
  270. Henry, P.D.: Calcium antagonists: Mechanisms of action with special reference to nifedipine; in Kharasch, N. (Ed.) Trace Metals in Health and Disease, pp. 227–233 (Raven Press, New York 1979b).Google Scholar
  271. Henry, P.D.: Comparative pharmacology of calcium antagonists: Nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem. American Journal of Cardiology 46: 1047–1058 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Hess, W.; Schulte-Sasse, U. and Tarnow, J.: Nifedipine versus nitroprusside for controlling hypertensive episodes during coronary artery bypass surgery. European Heart Journal 5: 140–145 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Higuchi, S.; Sasaki, H. and Sado, T.: Determination of a new cerebral vasodilator 2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-l,4-dihy-dropyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylic acid 3-2-(N-benzyl-N-methylamino)-ethyl ester 5-methyl ester hydrochloride (YC-93) in plasma by election capture gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography 110: 301–307 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Higuchi, S. and Shiobara, Y.: Quantitative determination of nifedipine in human plasma by selected ion monitoring. Biomedical Mass Spectrometry 5: 220–223 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Hill, J.A. and Conti, C.R.: Coronary spasm: Uses of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate. Primary Cardiology 9: 104–113 (1983).Google Scholar
  276. Hill, J.A.; Feldman, R.L.; Conti, R.; Hill, C.K. and Pepine, C.J.: Long-term responses to nifedipine in patients with coronary spasm who have an initial favourable response. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 26–29 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Hiramatsu, K.; Yamagishi, F.; Kubota, T. and Yamada, T.: Acute effects of the calcium antagonist, nifedipine, on blood pressure, pulse rate, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with essential hypertension. American Heart Journal 104: 1346–1350 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Hirasawa, K.; Shen, W.F.; Kelly, D.T.; Roubin, G.; Tateda, K. and Shibata, J.: Effect of food ingestion on nifedipine absorption and haemodynamic response. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 105–107 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Hiroki, T.; Inoue, T.; Yoshida, T. and Arakawa, K.: Effect of the calcium antagonistic agent nifedipine on platelet aggregation response to exercise in patients with angina pectoris. Arzneimittel-Forschung 32: 1571–1574 (1982).Google Scholar
  280. Holmsen, H. and Day, J.: Biochemistry and physiology of blood platelets. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 1: 38–44 (1971).Google Scholar
  281. Hongo, M.; Traube, M.; McAllister Jr, R.G. and McCallum, R.W.: Effects of nifedipine on esophageal motor function in humans: Correlation with plasma nifedipine concentration. Gastroenterology 86: 8–12 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Hongo, M.; Traube, M. and McCallum, R.W.: Comparison of effects of nifedipine, propantheline bromide, and the combination on esophageal motor function in normal volunteers. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 29: 300–304 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Hopf, R.; Pietruska, M.; Dowinsky, S. and Kaltenbach, M.: Combined administration of various doses of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in patients with angina pectoris: 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 209–217 (1983).Google Scholar
  284. Horio, S.; Kohrogi, H.; Ando, M.; Sugimoto, M. and Araki, S.: Preventive and reverse effects of nifedipine on human bronchoconstriction ‘In vitro’. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie 267: 80–90 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Hornung, R.S.; Gould, B.A.; Jones, R.I.; Sonecha, T. and Raftery, E.B.: Nifedipine tablets for hypertension: A study using continuous ambulatory intra-arterial recording. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 95–97 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Horster, F.A.: Pharmacokinetics of nifedipine-l4C in man; 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 124–127 (1975).Google Scholar
  287. Horster, F.A.; Duhm, B.; Maul, W.; Medenwald, H.; Patschke, K. and Wegner, L.A.: Klinische Untersuchungen zur Pharmakokinetik von radioaktif markierten 4-(2-Nitrophenyl)-2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-dihydropyridin-3, 5-dicarbonsaure-dimethyl-ester. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 330–334 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Hugenholtz, P.G.; Michels, H.R.; Serruys, P.W. and Brower, R.W.: Nifedipine in the treatment of unstable angina, coronary spasm and myocardial ischemia. American Journal of Cardiology 47: 163–173 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Husted, S.E.; Nielsen, H.K.; Christensen, C.K. and Lederballe Pedersen, O.: Long-term therapy of arterial hypertension with nifedipine given alone or in combination with a beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22: 101–103 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Huysmans, F.Th.M.; Sluiter, H.E.; Thien, Th.A. and Koene, R.A.P.: Acute treatment of hypertensive crisis with nifedipine. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 725–727 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Huysmans, F.Th.M.; Thien, Th.A.; Sluiter, H.E. and Koene, R.A.P.: Acute treatment of hypertension with nifedipine. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 26: 256–261 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Ikeda, H.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, H.; Ito, E. and Yasui, S.: Acute effects of nifedipine on patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Arzneimittel-Forschung 35: 518–521 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Imai, Y.; Abe, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Irokawa, N.; Yasujima, M. et al.: Management of severe hypertension with nifedipine in combination with cloridine or propranolol. Arzneimittel-Forschung 30: 674–678 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Ishii, H.; Itoh, K. and Nose, T.: Different antihypertensive effects of nifedipine in conscious experimental hypertensive and normotensive rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 64: 21–29 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Isles, C.G.; Johnston, A.O.C. and Milne, F.J.: Slow release nifedipine and atenolol as initial therapy in Blacks with malignant hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2: 559 (1984).Google Scholar
  296. Ito, H.; Arakawa, M.; Shibasaki, T. and Hirakawa, S.: Acute antihypertensive effect of nifedipine by sublingual route in cases with clinically severe systolic hypertension. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 630–636 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Itoh, Y.; Tawara, I. and Itoh, T.: Clinical experience with nifedipine; 1st International Nifedipine ‘Adalat’ Symposium, pp. 251–259 (1975).Google Scholar
  298. Jaffe, I.A.: Nifedipine in digital ulceration in scleroderma. Arthritis and Rheumatism 25: 1267–1269 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Jaiprakash, S.S.; Chatterjee, S.S.; Sahay, J.N. and MacDonald, G.: Efficacy of nifedipine in the treatment of angina pectoris and chronic airways obstruction. Postgraduate Medical Journal 56: 624–628 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Jakobsen, P.; Lederballe Pedersen, O. and Mikkelsen, E.: Gas chromatographic determination of nifedipine and one of its metabolites using electron capture detection. Journal of Chromatography 162: 81–87 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Jariwalla, A.G. and Anderson, E.G.: Production of ischaemic cardiac pain by nifedipine. British Medical Journal 1: 1181–1182 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Jee, L.D. and Opie, L.H.: Acute hypotensive response to nifedipine added to prazosin in treatment of hypertension. British Medical Journal 287: 1514 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Jenkins, R.M. and Nagle, R.E.: The symptomatic and objective effects of nifedipine in combination with beta-blocker therapy in severe angina pectoris. Postgraduate Medical Journal 58: 697–700 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Jensen, C.; Skov, P.S. and Norn, S.: Inhibitory effect of calcium antagonists on histamine release from human leukocytes. In vivo and in vitro experiments. Allergy 38: 233–237 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Joffe, B.I.; Lamprey, J.M.; Shires, R.; Baker, S.; Viljoen, M. and Seftel, H.C.: Lack of hormonal effects of a single dose of nifedipine in healthy young men. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 5: 700–702 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Johnsson, H.: Effects by nifedipine (Adalat®) on platelet function in vitro and in vivo. Thrombosis Research 21: 523–528 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Johnston, D.L.; Lesoway, R.; Humen, D.P. and Kostuk, W.J.: Clinical and hemodynamic evaluation of propranolol in combination with verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem in exertional angina pectoris: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover study. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 680–687 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Kahan, A.; Amor, B. and Menkes, C.J.: Nifedipine treatment for Raynaud’s phenomenon. Arthritis and Rheumatism 27: 959 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Kahan, A.; Amor, B.; Menkes, C.J. and Weber, S.: Nifedipine in digital ulceration in scleroderma. Arthritis and Rheumatism 26: 809 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Kahan, A.; Foult, J.; Weber, S.; Amor, B.; Menkes, C.J. and Degeorges, M.: Nifedipine and alpha-adrenergic blockade in Raynaud’s phenomenon. (Abstract No. 599.) European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. I): 139 (1984b).Google Scholar
  311. Kahan, A.; Weber, S.; Amor, B.; Guerin, F. and Degeorges, M.: Nifedipine in the treatment of migraine in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 1102–1103 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Kahan, A.; Weber, S.; Amor, B.; Menkes, C.J.; Saporta, L., et al.: Calcium entry blocking agents in digital vasospasm (Raynaud’s phenomenon). European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 123–129 (1983c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Kaltenbach, M.; Schulz, W. and Kober, G.: Effects of nifedipine after intravenous and intracoronary administration. American Journal of Cardiology 44: 832–838 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Kanatsuna, T.; Nakano, K.; Mori, H.; Kano, Y.; Nishioka, H., et al.: Effects of nifedipine on insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in rats and in hypertensive type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetics. Arzneimittel-Forschung 35: 514–517 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Katz, A.M.; Hager, W.D.; Messineo, F.C. and Pappano, A.J.: Cellular actions and pharmacology of the calcium channel blocking drugs. American Journal of Medicine 77: 2–10 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Katz, A.M. and Reuter, H.: Cellular calcium and cardiac cell deth. American Journal of Cardiology 44: 188–190 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Katz, R.I.; Weintraub, W.S.; Bodenheimer, M.M.; Agarwal, J.B.; Banka, V.S. and Helfant, R.H.: Failure of low dose nifedipine to improve exercise tolerance in stable angina. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 49: 895 (1982).Google Scholar
  318. Katzenberg, C.; Morrison, D.A. and Goldman, S.: Nifedipine in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Clinical Research 30: 13A (1982).Google Scholar
  319. Kawai, C.; Konishi, T.; Matsuyama, E. and Okazaki, H.: Comparative effects of three calcium antagonists, diltiazem, verapamil, and nifedipine, on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes: Experimental and clinical studies. Circulation 63: 1035–1042 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Kay, R.; Blake, J. and Rubin, D.: Possible coronary spasm rebound to abrupt nifedipine withdrawal. (Correspondence.) American Heart Journal 103: 308 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Keidar, S.; Binenboim, C. and Palant, A.: Muscle cramps during treatment with nifedipine. British Medical Journal 285: 1241–1242 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Keidar, S.; Marmor, A.; Grenadier, E. and Palant, A.: Nifedipine and Prinzmetal’s angina. Circulation 59: 195 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Kelly, D.T.; Choong, C.Y.P.; Roubin, G.S.; Shen, W.F.; Bautovich, G.J., et al.: Effects of nifedipine on exercise haemodynamics and left ventricular function in patients with exertional angina pectoris. (Abstract.) Abstracts of the Asian Pacific Adalat Symposium: 14 (Tokyo, 23–24 October 1982).Google Scholar
  324. Kendall, M.J.; Jack, D.B.; Laugher, S.J.; Lobo, J. and Smith, S.R.: Lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between nifedipine and the β-adrenoceptor blockers metoprolol and atenolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 331–335 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Kennedy, T.P.; Michael, J.R.; Huang, C.-K.; Kallman, C.H.; Zahka, K., et al.: Nifedipine inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during rest and exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A controlled double-blind study. American Review of Respiratory Disease 129: 544–551 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Kennedy, T.P.; Michael, J.R. and Summer, W.: Calcium channel blockers in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Medicine 78(Suppl. 2B): 18–26 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Kenmure, A.C.F. and Scruton, J.H.: A double-blind controlled trial of the antianginal efficacy of nifedipine compared with propranolol; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 268–271 (1976).Google Scholar
  328. Kenmure, A.C.F. and Scruton, J.H.: A double-blind controlled trial of the antianginal efficacy of nifedipine compared with propranolol. British Journal of Clinical Practice 33: 49–51 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Keyriläinen, O.; Bae, E.; Rytkönen, U.; Mathiesen, M.S. and Wendelin, H.: Metoprolol, nifedipine and the combination in effort angina pectoris. I Clinical effects. (Abstract No. 1464.) European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. 1): 293 (1984).Google Scholar
  330. Kimura, E.; Tanaka, K.; Mizuno, K.; Honda, Y. and Hashimoto, H.: Suppression of repeatedly occurring ventricular fibrillation with nifedipine in variant form of angina pectoris. Japanese Heart Journal 18: 736–742 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Kimura, E. and Kishida, H.: Treatment of variant angina with drugs: A survey of 11 cardiology institutes in Japan. Circulation 63: 844–848 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Kiowski, W.; Bertel, O.; Erne, P.; Bolli, P.; Hulthén, L., et al.: Hemodynamic and reflex responses to acute and chronic antihypertensive therapy with the calcium entry blocker nifedipine. Hypertension 5(Suppl. I): 70–74 (1983).Google Scholar
  333. Kirch, W.; Janisch, H.D.; Heidemann, H.; Ramsch, K. and Ohnhaus, E.E.: Einfluss von Cimetidin und Ranitidin auf Pharmakokinetik und antihypertensiven Effekt von Nifedipin. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 108: 1757–1761 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Kirch, W.; Hoensch, H.; Ohnhaus, E.E. and Janisch, H.D.: Ranitidin-Nifedipin Interaktion. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 109: 1223 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Kirch, W.; Ohnhaus, E.E.; Hoensch, H. and Janisch, H.D.: Ranitidine increases bioavailability of nifedipine. (Abstract.) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 204 (1985).Google Scholar
  336. Kirkpatrick, C.T.: Excitation and contraction in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Journal of Physiology 244: 263–281 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Kishida, H. and Kimura, E.: The medical treatment of variant angina; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 95–102 (1980).Google Scholar
  338. Kishida, H.; Otsu, F.; Kusama, Y.; Takayama, M.; Hayakawa, H. and Kimura, E.: Effects of calcium antagonists, especially nifedipine, on variant angina, resting angina, and unstable angina. Japanese Heart Journal 23: 871–881 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Kiyomoto, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Odawara, A. and Morita, T.: Inhibition of platelet aggregation by diltiazem. Comparison with verapamil and nifedipine and inhibitory potencies of diltiazem metabolites. Circulation Research 52(Suppl. I): 115–119 (1983).Google Scholar
  340. Klein, H.O.; Ninio, R.; DiSegni, E.; David, D.; Lang, R.M. and Kaplinsky, E.: Improved left ventricular function at rest and handgrip exercise with nifedipine in a placebo-controlled study. (Abstract.) European Heart Journal (Suppl. 1): 9 (1984).Google Scholar
  341. Klein, W.; Brandt, D.; Vrecko, K. and Härringer, H.: Role of calcium antagonists in the treatment of essential hypertension. Circulation Research 52: 174–181 (1983).Google Scholar
  342. Kleinbloesem, C.H.; van Harten, J.; de Leede, L.G.J.; van Brummelen, P. and Breimer, D.D.: Nifedipine kinetics and dynamics during rectal infusion to steady state with an osmotic system. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 36: 396–401 (1984c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Kleinbloesem, C.H.; van Brummelen, P.; Faber, H.; Danhof, M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E. and Breimer, D.D.: Variability in nifedipine pharmacokinetics and dynamics: A new oxidation polymorphism in man. Biochemical Pharmacology 33: 3721–3724 (1984d).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Kleinbloesem, C.H.; van Brummelen, P.; Sandberg, T.W.H. and Breimer, D.D.: Pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic interaction between nifedipine and propranolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 537P (1985).Google Scholar
  345. Kleinbloesem, C.H.; van Brummelen, P.; van de Linde, J.A.; Voogd, P.J. and Breimer, D.D.: Nifedipine: Kinetics and dynamics in healthy subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 742–749 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Kleinbloesem, C.H.; van Harten, J.; van Brummelen, P. and Breimer, D.D.: Liquid chromatographic determination of nifedipine in plasma and of its main metabolite in urine. Journal of Chromatography 308: 209–216 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Klugmann, S.; Salvi, A. and Camerini, F.: Haemodynamic effects of nifedipine in heart failure. British Heart Journal 43: 440–446 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Klütsch, V.R.; Schmidt, P. and Grosswendt, J.: Der Einfluss von Bay a 1040 auf die Nierenfunktion des Hypertonikers. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 377–380 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Kneussl, M.; Burghuber, O.; Harmuth, P.; Silberbauer, K.; Sinzinger, H. and Haber, P.: Nifedipine protects acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction: The role of mediator release. American Review of Respiratory Disease 127(Suppl. 2): 108 (1983).Google Scholar
  350. Kober, G.; Schulz, W.; Bamberg, E. and Kaltenbach, M.: Cardiac and peripheral effects of nifedipine; in Lichtlen et al.: (Eds) International Adalat Panel Discussion: New Experimental and Clinical Results, pp. 86–93 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1979).Google Scholar
  351. Koch, G.: Plasma renin activity, epinephrine and norepinephrine at rest and during exercise in young adults and boys. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 37(Suppl. 147): 107 (1977).Google Scholar
  352. Koch, G.: Beta-receptor and calcium blockade in ischemic heart disease: Effects on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and on plasma catecholamines at rest and during exercise; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 131–142 (1980).Google Scholar
  353. Koide, T.; Kakihana, M.; Takabatake, Y.; Iizuka, M.; Uchida, Y., et al.: Long-term clinical effect of calcium inhibitors in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared to the effect of Beta-blocking agents. A preliminary report with special reference to the beneficial effect of nifedipine on angina pectoris. Japanese Heart Journal 22: 87–102 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Kondo, S.; Kuchiki, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Akimoto, K.; Takahashi, K., et al.: Identification of nifedipine metabolites and their determination by gas chromatography. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28: 1–7 (1980).Google Scholar
  355. Kopf, G.S.; Riba, A. and Zito, R.: Intraoperative use of nifedipine for hemodynamic collapse due to coronary artery spasm following myocardial revascularization. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 34: 457–460 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Koppermann, G. and Kaukel, E.: Effect of nifedipine on the allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. Respiration 46(Suppl. 1): 28 (1984).Google Scholar
  357. Kramer, P.H.; Chatterjee, K.; Schwartz, A.; Swedberg, K.; Rouleau, J.-L., et al.: Alterations in angina threshold with nifedipine during pacing induced angina. British Heart Journal 52: 308–313 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Krikler, D. and Rowland, E.: Effect of nifedipine as compared with verapamil on atrioventricular conduction; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 241–244 (1980).Google Scholar
  359. Kroneberg, G.: Pharmacology of nifedipine (Adalat); 1st International Nifedipine ‘Adalat’ Symposium, pp. 3–10 (1975a).Google Scholar
  360. Kroneberg, G.: Pharmacology of nifedipine; 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 12–19 (1975b).Google Scholar
  361. Kroneberg, G. and Krebs, R.: Pharmacology of nifedipine; 4th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 14–24 (1980).Google Scholar
  362. Kubo, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Muto, H.; Suzuki, T. and Sugino, N.: Treatment of hypertension in haemodialysis patients with nifedipine. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II) 109–112 (1983).Google Scholar
  363. Kuhlmann, J.: Effects of nifedipine and diltiazem on plasma levels and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 150–156 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Kuhlmann, J. and Marcin, S.: Lack of significant effect of nifedipine and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of digitoxin. (Abstract No. 792.) II World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Washington D.C. (31 July–5 August 1983).Google Scholar
  365. Kuhlmann, J.; Marcin, S. and Frank, K.H.: Effects of nifedipine and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 324 (Suppl.): R81 (1983).Google Scholar
  366. Kuhlmann, J.; Marcin, S. and Frank, K.H.: Pharmakokinetik und kardiale Wirksamkeit von β-Acetyldigoxin und Digitoxin unter einer Kombinationstherapie mit Nifedipin. Klinische Wochenschrift 62: 451–457 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Kurnik, P.B.; Tiefenbrunn, A.J. and Ludbrook, P.A.: The dependence of the cardiac effects of nifedipine on the responses of the peripheral vascular system. Circulation 69: 963–972 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Kurosawa, N.; Morishima, S.; Owada, E.; Ito, K.; Ueda, K., et al.: Determination of nifedipine in human plasma by gas chromatography equipped with flame thermionic detector (FTD). Yakugaku Zasshi 104: 775–779 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Kusano, E.; Asano, Y.; Takeda, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ebihara, A. and Hosoda, S.: Hypotensive effect of nifedipine in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. Arzneimittel-Forschung 32: 1575–1580 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Kusano, E.; Asano, Y.; Takeda, K.; Terao, N. and Hosoda, S.: Acute and chronic hypotensive effects of nifedipine and niludipine in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 624–629 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Kuwajima, I.; Ueda, K.; Kamata, C.; Matsushita, S.; Kuramoto, K., et al.: A study on the effects of nifedipine in hypertensive crises and severe hypertension. Japanese Heart Journal 19: 455–467 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Lacché, A. and Basaglia, P.: Hypertensive emergencies: effects of therapy by nifedipine administered sublingually. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 879–887 (1983).Google Scholar
  373. Lacché, A.; Feltrin, G.; D’Amico, A.; Zucchinetti, L. and Basaglia, P.: L’uso della nifedipina come farmaco anti-ipertensivo in pazienti in età geriatrica. Giornale di Gerontologia 29: 295–301 (1981).Google Scholar
  374. Landmark, K.: Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of long term therapy with nifedipine slow-release tablets. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 7: 12–17 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Landmark, K.; Sire, S.; Thaulow, E.; Amlie, J.P. and Nitter-Hauge, S.: Acute influences of nifedipine, propranolol and the combined administration of the two drugs on haemodynamics in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 81–90 (1983).Google Scholar
  376. Lappe, R.W.; Saslow, B.A. and Wendt, R.L.: Effects of nifedipine on the hypotensive actions of α 2-agonists in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6: S748–S752 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Latta, G.; Verheggen, R.; Rücker, W. and Schrör, K.: Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation by calcium antagonists. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 324 (Suppl.): R49 (1983).Google Scholar
  378. Lederballe Pedersen, O.: Calcium blockade in arterial hypertension: Review. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 74–79 (1983).Google Scholar
  379. Lederballe Pedersen, O.; Christensen, C.K.; Mikkelsen, E. and Ramsch, K.D.: Relationship between the antihypertensive effect and steady state plasma concentration of nifedipine given alone or in combination with a beta adrenoceptor blocking agent. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 287–293 (1980a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Lederballe Pedersen, O.; Christensen, N.J. and Rämsch, K.D.: Comparison of acute effects of nifedipine in normotensive and hypertensive man. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2: 357–366 (1980b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Lederballe Pedersen, O. and Mikkelsen, E.: Acute and chronic effects of nifedipine in arterial hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 14: 375–381 (1978).Google Scholar
  382. Lederballe Pedersen, O.; Mikkelsen, E. and Andersson, K.-E.: Effects of extracellular calcium on potassium and noradrenaline induced contractions in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats — increased sensitivity to nifedipine. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 43: 137–144 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Lederballe Pedersen, O.; Mikkelsen, E.; Christensen, N.J.; Kornerup, H.J. and Pedersen, E.B.: Effect of nifedipine on plasma renin, aldosterone and catecholamines in arterial hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 235–240 (1979).Google Scholar
  384. Lederman, D.; Lumerman, H.; Reuben, S. and Freedman, P.D.: Gingival hyperplasia associated with nifedipine therapy. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 57: 620–622 (1984).Google Scholar
  385. Lee, T.H.; DiSesa, V.J.; Cohn, L.H.; Lilly, L.S. and Antman, E.M.: Correction of intraoperative diastolic myocardial dysfunction with nifedipine. Clinical Cardiology 6: 549–552 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Lehmann, H.-U. and Hochrein, H.: Differentialtherapie mit Calciumantagonisten. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 110: 674–680 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Leier, C.V.; Patrick, T.J.; Hermiller, J.; Dalpiaz Pacht, K.; Huss, P., et al.: Nifedipine in congestive heart failure: Effects on resting and exercise hemodynamics and regional blood flow. American Heart Journal 108: 1461–1468 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Leier, C.V.; Patrick, T.J.; Hermiller, J.B.; Magorien, R.D. and Unverferth, D.V.: Regional hemodynamic effects of nifedipine in congestive heart failure (Abstract.) Circulation 68(Suppl. III): 8 (1983).Google Scholar
  389. Lejeune, Ph.; Boehme, K.; Schreiber, U.; Breitkopf, P.; Luther, P., et al.: Hypertonie-Therapie: Wirkung der fixen Kombination von Nifedipin und Mefrusid (BAY O 8063). Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 126: 1393–1396 (1984).Google Scholar
  390. Lejeune, Ph.; Gunselmann, W.; Hennies, L.; Hess, K.; Rittgerodt, K., et al.: Effects of BAY 15240, a fixed combination of low dose nifedipine and acebutolol on hypertension: Comparison with standard dose nifedipine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 17–21 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Leon, M.B.; Rosing, D.R.; Bonow, R.O. and Epstein, S.E.: Combination therapy with calcium-channel blockers and beta blockers for chronic stable angina pectoris. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 69B–80B (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Leonetti, G.; Cuspidi, C.; Sampieri, L.; Terzoli, L. and Zanchetti, A.: Comparison of cardiovascular, renal, and humoral effects of acute administration of two calcium channel blockers in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4(Suppl. 3): S319–S324 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Lesko, L.J.; Miller, A.K.; Yeager, R.L. and Chatterji, D.C.: Rapid GC method for quantitation of nifedipine in serum using electron capture detection. Journal of Chromatographic Science 21: 415–419 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Lette, J.; Gagnon, R.-M.; Lemire, J.G. and Morissette, M.: Rebound of vasospastic angina after cessation of long-term treatment with nifedipine. Canadian Medical Association Journal 130: 1169–1174 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Lever, A.M.L.; Corris, P.A. and Gibson, G.J.: Nifedipine enhances the bronchodilator effect of salbutamol. Thorax 39: 576–578 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Lewis, B.H.; Muller, J.E.; Rutherford, J.; Mudge, G.H. and Collins, J.J.: Nifedipine for coronary-artery spasm after revascularization. New England Journal of Medicine 306: 992–993 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Lewis, J.G.: Adverse reactions to calcium antagonists. Drugs 25: 196–222 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Lewy, R.I.; Wiener, L.; Walinsky, P.; Lefer, A.M.; Silver, M.J. and Smith, J.B.: Thromboxane release during pacing-induced angina pectoris: Possible vasoconstrictor influence on the coronary vasculature. Circulation 61: 1165–1171 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Lichtlen, P.R.; Engel, J.; Wolf, R. and Hundeshagen, H.: Effect of nifedipine on regional myocardial blood flow at rest and in pacing-induced ischemia. (Abstract.) Circulation 60(Suppl. II): 249 (1979a).Google Scholar
  400. Lichtlen, P.R.; Engel, J.G.; Wolf, R. and Pretschner, P.: Regional myocardial blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease after nifedipine; in Lichtlen et al. (Eds) International Adalat Panel Discussion: New Experimental and Clinical Results, pp. 69–85 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1979b).Google Scholar
  401. Lichtlen, P.R.; Rafflenbeul, W.; Amende, R.; Simon, R. and Reil, G.: The influence of Ca2+-entry blockers on hemodynamics and coronary blood flow, and its importance for the treatment of angina pectoris; in Godfraind et al. (Eds) Calcium Entry Blockers in Cardiovascular and Cerebral Dysfunction, pp. 161–179 (Martinus Nijhoff, Boston 1984).Google Scholar
  402. Lindsey, G.; McCullough, R.G.; Seaman, J.; Hawkins, R.; Weil, J. and Steigerwald, J.: Nifedipine may be harmful in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. (Abstract no. 27.) Arthritis and Rheumatism 28 (Suppl.): S18 (1985).Google Scholar
  403. Linhart, J.: Effect of calcium blocking agents on peripheral circulation. European Heart Journal 2(Suppl. A): 83 (1981).Google Scholar
  404. Littler, W.A.; Watson, R.D.S.; Stallard, T.J. and McLeay, R.A.B.: The effect of nifedipine on arterial pressure and reflex cardiac control. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 109–113 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Löfdahl, C.-G.; Svedmyr, K. and Svedmyr, N.: Effects of nifedipine or atenolol on ventilatory capacity and hemodynamics in asthmatic patients: Interaction with terbutaline. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 282–291 (1984).Google Scholar
  406. Lombardi, C.; Spedini, C. and Govoni, S.: Effect of calcium entry blockade on ethanol-induced changes in bronchomotor tone. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 221–222 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Lorell, B.H.: Use of calcium channel blockers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. American Journal of Medicine 78(Suppl. 2B): 43–54 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Lorell, B.H.; Turi, Z. and Grossman, W.: Modification of left ventricular response to pacing tachycardia by nifedipine in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Medicine 71: 667–675 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Lorentsen, E. and Landmark, K.: The acute effects of nifedipine on calf and forefoot blood flow in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency. Angiology 34: 46–52 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Losardo, A.A.; Klein, N.A.; Beer, N.; Strom, J.A.; Wexler, J.P., et al.: Beneficial effects of sublingual nifedipine in patients with ischemic heart disease and depressed left ventricular function. Angiology 33: 811–817 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Love, S.J.; Yeh, J.; Kann, J.; Levitt, M.J. and Reitberg, D.P.: Effect of mode of administration on nifedipine pharmacokinetics (Abstract.) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 209 (1985).Google Scholar
  412. Ludbrook, P.A.; Tiefenbrunn, A.J.; Reed, F.R. and Sobel, B.E.: Acute hemodynamic responses to sublingual nifedipine: Dependence on left ventricular function. Circulation 65: 489–498 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Lunde, P. and Rasmussen, K.: Long-term beneficial effect of nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension. American Heart Journal 108: 415–416 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Lund-Johansen, P. and Omvik, P.: Haemodynamic effects of nifedipine in essential hypertension at rest and during exercise. Journal of Hypertension 1: 159–163 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Lydtin, H.; Lohmöller, G.; Lohmöller, R. and Walter, L.: Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man; 1st International Nifedipine ‘Adalat’ Symposium, pp. 97–106 (1975a).Google Scholar
  416. Lydtin, H.; Lohmöller, G.; Lohmöller, R.; Schmitz, H. and Walter, I.: Hemodynamic studies on Adalat in healthy volunteers and patients; 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 112–123 (1975b).Google Scholar
  417. Macdonald, J.B.: Muscle cramps during treatment with nifedipine. British Medical Journal 285: 1744 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. MacGregor, G.A.; Markandu, N.D.; Smith, S.J. and Sagnella, G.A.: Captopril: Contrasting effects of adding hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol, or nifedipine. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 7(Suppl. 1): S82–S87 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. MacGregor, G.A.; Rotellar, C.; Markandu, N.D.; Smith, S.J. and Sagnella, G.A.: Contrasting effects of nifedipine, Captopril, and propranolol in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4(Suppl. 3): 358–362 (1982).Google Scholar
  420. MacGregor, G.A.; Rotellar, C.; Markandu, N.D.; Smith, S.J. and Sagnella, G.A.: The acute response to nifedipine is related to pre-treatment blood pressure. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 91–94 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Maeda, K.; Tanaka, C.; Tsukano, Y.; Minamikawa, H.; Komatsu, H., et al.: Antihypertensive effects of the calcium antagonistic agent nifedipine. Arzneimittel-Forschung 32: 267–271 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Magometschnigg, D.: Acute hypotensive response to nifedipine. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 80–84 (1983).Google Scholar
  423. Magometschnigg, D. and Pichler, M.: Effective and safe treatment of hypertensive crisis with nifedipine. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 47: 469 (1981).Google Scholar
  424. Magorien, R.D.; Leier, C.V.; Kolibash, A.J.; Magorien, D.J. and Unverferth, D.V.: Nifedipine improves resting and exercise coronary hemodynamics in congestive heart failure. (Abstract.) Clinical Research 31: 708A (1983).Google Scholar
  425. Maigaard, S.; Forman, A.; Andersson, K.-E. and Ulmsten, U.: Comparison of the effects of nicardipine and nifedipine on isolated human myometrium. Gynaecologic and Obstetric Investigations 16: 354–366 (1983).Google Scholar
  426. Majid, P.A. and De Jong, J.: Acute hemodynamic effects of nifedipine in patients with ischemic heart disease. Circulation 65: 1114–1118 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Malacoff, R.F.; Mudge Jr, G.H.; Holman, B.L.; Bifolck, L. and Cohn, P.F.: Beneficial effect of nifedipine on regional myocardial blood flow during the cold pressor test in patients with coronary artery disease (Abstract.) Clinical Research 29: 220A (1981).Google Scholar
  428. Malacoff, R.F.; Lorell, B.H.; Mudge Jr, G.H.; Holman, B.L.; Idoine, J., et al.: Beneficial effects of nifedipine on regional myocardial blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 65(Suppl. I): 32–37 (1982).Google Scholar
  429. Malaisse, W.J. and Boschero, A.C.: Calcium antagonists and islet function. XI. Effect of nifedipine. Hormone Research 8: 203–209 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Malaisse, W.J. and Sener, A.: Calcium-antagonists and islet function — XII. Comparison between nifedipine and chemically related drugs. Biochemical Pharmacology 30: 1039–1041 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Malamet, R.; Wise, R.A.; Ettinger, W.H. and Wigley, F.M.: Nifedipine in the treatment of Reynaud’s phenomenom. Evidence for inhibition of platelet activation. American Journal of Medicine 78: 602–608 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Malik, S.; O’Reilly, J. and Sudlow, M.F.: Effects of sublingual nifedipine on inhaled histamine and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in atopic subjects. Thorax 37: 230 (1982).Google Scholar
  433. Manga, P. and Vythilingum, S.: Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine. South African Medical Journal 66: 144 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Mannhold, R.: Calcium antagonists: Basic chemical and pharmacological properties. Drugs of Today 20: 69–90 (1984).Google Scholar
  435. Maroko, P.R.: Experimental infarction studies. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 3: 139–142 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Maseri, A.; Severi, S.; DeNes, M.; L’Abbate, A.; Chierchia, S., et al.: Variant angina: One aspect of a continuous spectrum of vasospastic myocardial ischemia. American Journal of Cardiology 42: 1019–1035 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Masotti, G.; Poggesi, L.; Castellani, S.; Morettini, A.; Galanti, G. and Scarti, L.: A study of the antihypertensive effect and some pharmacodynamic aspects of nifedipine in medium-term treatment. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 4: 71–79 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Massie, B.M.; Hirsch, A.T.; Inouye, I.K. and Tubau, J.F.: Calcium channel blockers as antihypertensive agents. American Journal of Medicine 77: 135–142 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Matsumoto, S.; Takashi, I.; Toshikatsu, S.; Takahashi, M.; Su, K., et al.: Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine in congestive heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 46: 476–480 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. McAllister Jr, R.G.: Clinical pharmacokinetics of calcium channel antagonists. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4: 5340–5345 (1982).Google Scholar
  441. McKenzie, W.B.; Lee, C.L. and Wilcken, D.E.L.: Acute and long term effects of nifedipine in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 13: 423 (1983).Google Scholar
  442. McLeay, R.A.B.; Stallard, T.J.; Watson, R.D.S. and Littler, W.A.: The effect of nifedipine on arterial pressure and reflex cardiac control. Circulation 67: 1084–1090 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. McLeod, A.A.; Wise, J.R.; Daly, K. and Jewitt, D.E.: Nifedipine in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. (Abstract No. 678.) Circulation 64(Suppl. IV): IV–180 (1981).Google Scholar
  444. Medenwald, H.; Schlossmann, K. and Wünsche, C.: Strukturaufklang der renalen Ausscheidungsprodukte von 4-(2′-nitro-phenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-l,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-dicarbonsäuredimethylester. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 53–56 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Michael, J.P.; Kennedy, T.P.; Fitzpatrick, S. and Rosenstein, B.J.: Nifedipine inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during rest and exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis and cor pulmonale. American Review of Respiratory Disease 130: 516–519 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Middleton Jr, E.: Antiasthmatic drug therapy and calcium ions: Review of pathogenesis and the role of calcium. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 69: 243–251 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Midtbø, K.; Hals, O. and van der Meer, J.: Verapamil compared with nifedipine in the treatment of essential hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4(Suppl. 3): 363–368 (1982).Google Scholar
  448. Mielke Jr, C.H.: Comparative effects of aspirin and acetaminophen on hemostasis. Archives of Internal Medicine 141: 305–310 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Mikkelsen, E.; Andersson, K.E. and Lederballe Pedersen, O.: Verapamil and nifedipine inhibition of contractions induced bypotassium and noradrenaline in human mesenteric arteries and veins. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 44: 110–119 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Millar, J.A. and Reid, J.L.: Decreased vascular and adrenal responses to angiotensin II after administration of nifedipine; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 122–132 (1983).Google Scholar
  451. Millard, R.W.; Lathrop, D.A.; Grupp, G.; Ashraf, M.; Grupp, I.L. and Schwartz, A.: Differential cardiovascular effects of calcium channel blocking agents: Potential mechanisms. American Journal of Cardiology 49: 499–506 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Miller, D.D.; Théroux, P.; Waters, D.D. and Pelletier, G.B.: Action of nifedipine in ischemic heart disease. Canadian Family Physician 29: 703–708 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Mimran, A. and Ribstein, J.: Effect of chronic nifedipine in patients inadequately controlled by a converting enzyme inhibitor and a diuretic. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 7(Suppl. 1): S92–S95 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Mitchell, L.B.; Schroeder, J.S. and Mason, J.W.: Comparative clinical electrophysiologic effects of diltiazem, verapamil and nifedipine: A review. American Journal of Cardiology 49: 629–635 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Miyazaki, K.; Kohri, N.; Arita, T.; Shimono, H.; Katoh, K., et al.: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nifedipine in plasma. Journal of Chromatography 310: 219–222 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Moll, M.G.; Dominguez, J.M.; Obrador, D.; Oter, R. and Tomas, L.: Nifedipine (N) vs. propranolol (P) in unstable angina (A): A prospective randomized study. (Abstract No. 1247.) European Heart Journal 5 (Abstract Suppl. I): 238 (1984).Google Scholar
  457. Mori, K.; Onoe, T.; Ohka, T. and Kanaya, H.: Hemodynamic effects of concomitant nitroglycerin ointment and nifedipine treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Japanese Heart Journal 23: 739–747 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Moriyama, K.; Matsuno, Y.; Nagase, H.; Nihei, T. and Morioka, S.: Long-term oral nifedipine therapy for refractory heart failure. (Abstract No. 2.) Japanese Journal of Medicine 22: 267 (1983).Google Scholar
  459. Morse, J.R.: A comparison between nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate when used adjunctively with propranolol. (Abstract No. 212.) Circulation 68 (Part II): III–53 (1983).Google Scholar
  460. Moses, J.W.; Wertheimer, J.H.; Bodenheimer, M.M.; Banka, V.S.; Feldman, M. and Heifont, R.H.: Efficacy of nifedipine in rest angina refractory to propranolol and nitrates in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 94: 425–429 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Moskowitz, R.M.; Piccini, P.A.; Nacarelli, G.U. and Zelis, R.: Nifedipine therapy for stable angina pectoris: Preliminary results of effects of angina frequency and treadmill exercise response. American Journal of Cardiology 44: 811–816 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Mostbeck A.; Partsch, H. and Peschl, L.: Extracardial effects of nifedipine: Measurements of liver blood flow in animals and humans and of peripheral circulation in the lower limbs; 1st International Nifedipine ‘Adalat’ Symposium, pp. 136–143 (1975a).Google Scholar
  463. Mostbeck, A.; Partsch, H. and Peschi, L.: Extracardial effects of nifedipine (Adalat): Measurements of liver blood flow in animals and humans and of peripheral circulation in the lower limbs; 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 303–310 (1975b).Google Scholar
  464. Mostbeck, A.; Partsch, H. and Peschl, L.: Investigations on peripheral blood distribution; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 91–97 (1976).Google Scholar
  465. Mueller, H.S. and Chahine, R.A.: Interim report of multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of nifedipine in chronic stable angina. American Journal of Medicine 71: 645–657 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Muiesan, G.; Agabiti-Rosei, E.; Castellano, M.; Alicandri, C.L.; Corea, L. et al.: Antihypertensive and humoral effects of verapamil and nifedipine in essential hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4(Suppl. 3): 325–329 (1982).Google Scholar
  467. Müller, F.B.; Bolli, P.; Erne, P.; Kiowski, W. and Bühler, F.R.: Use of calcium antagonists as monotherapy in the management of hypertension. American Journal of Medicine 77: 11–15 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Muller, J.E.; Morrison, J.; Stone, P.H.; Rude, R.E.; Rosner, B. et al.: Nifedipine therapy for patients with threatened and acute myocardial infarction: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison. Circulation 69: 740–747 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Muller, J.E.; Turi, Z.G.; Pearle, D.L.; Schneider, J.F.; Serfas, D.H. et al.: Nifedipine and conventional therapy for unstable angina pectoris: A randomized, double-blind comparison. Circulation 69: 728–739 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Murphy, M.B.; Brown, M.J.; Scriven, A.J.I.; Heavey, D.J. and Dollery, C.T.: Nifedipine and alpha adrenoceptor antagonism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 36: 745–749 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. Murphy, M.B.; Scriven, A.J.; Brown, M.J.; Causon, R. and Dollery, C.T.: The effects of nifedipine and hydralazine induced hypotension on sympathetic activity. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 479–482 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Murphy, M.B.; Scriven, A.J.I, and Dollery, C.T.: Efficacy of nifedipine as a step 3 antihypertensive drug. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 118–121 (1983a).Google Scholar
  473. Murphy, M.B.; Scriven, A.J.I, and Dollery, C.T.: Role of nifedipine in treatment of hypertension. British Medical Journal 287: 257–259 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Myers, A.; Songeharsen, S.; Harisdangkul, V.; Raju, S. and Fredericks, R.: Nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. (Abstract No. D60) Arthritis and Rheumatism 27 (Suppl.): 585 (1984).Google Scholar
  475. Mysliwiec, M.; Rydzewski, A. and Bulhak, W.: Calcium antagonist withdrawal syndrome. British Journal 286: 1898 (1983).Google Scholar
  476. Naeije, R.; Mélot, C.; Mols, P. and Hallemans, R.: Effects of vasodilators on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in normal man. Chest 82: 404–410 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Nair, N.; Townley, R.G.; Againdra, B. and Nair, C.K.: Safety of nifedipine in subjects with bronchial asthma and COPD. Chest 86: 515–518 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Nakashima, T.; Inoki, M. and Nakanishi, Y.: Nifedipine serum concentration; effects upon blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive volunteers. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 9: 73–78 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Nasrallah, S.M.; Tommaso, C.L.; Singleton, R.T. and Backhaus, E.A.: Primary esophageal motor disorders: Clinical response to nifedipine. Southern Medical Journal 78: 312–315 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Nayler, W.G.: Cardioprotective effects of calcium ion antagonists in myocardial ischemia. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 3: 91–99 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. Navler, W.G.: Calcium and cell death. European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 33–41 (1983).Google Scholar
  482. Nayler, W.G.; Ferrari, R. and Williams, A.: Protective effect of pretreatment with verapamil, nifedipine and propranolol on mitochondrial function in the ischemic and reperfused myocardium. American Journal of Cardiology 46: 242–248 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Nayler, W.G. and Grinwald, P.: Calcium entry blockers and myocardial function. Federation Proceedings 40: 2855–2861 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Nehring, J. and Camm, A.J.: Calcium antagonist withdrawal syndrome. British Medical Journal 286: 1057 (1983).Google Scholar
  485. Nelson, G.I.C.; Silke, B.; Ahuja, R.C.; Hussain, M.; Forsyth, D. and Taylor, S.H.: The effect on left ventricular performance of nifedipine and metoprolol singly and together in exercise-induced angina pectoris. European Heart Journal 5: 67–79 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. Nelson, G.I.C.; Silke, B.; Ahuja, R.C.; Verma, S.P.; Hussain, M. and Taylor, S.H.: Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine during upright exercise in stable angina pectoris and either normal or severely impaired left ventricular function. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 451–455 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Nicita-Mauro, V.; Ciraolo, O.; Barbera, N.; Buemi, M. and Ceruso, D.: La nifedipine nel trattamento dell ‘ipertensione arteriosa nell’ anziano. Considerazioni preliminari. Giornale di Gerontologia 28: 357–364 (1980).Google Scholar
  488. Nijsen-Karelse, M.; Dion, R.A.E. and Jambroes, G.: Nifedipine in cardiac operations. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 84: 145 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. Nilsson, H.; Jonasson, T. and Ringqvist, I.: Treatment of digital vasospastic disease with the calcium-entry blocker nifedipine. Acta Medica Scandinavica 225: 135–139 (1984).Google Scholar
  490. Nobile-Orazio, E. and Sterzi, R.: Cerebral ischaemia after nifedipine treatment. British Medical Journal 283: 948 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Norn, S.; Jensen, C. and Skov, P.S.: In vivo and in vitro inhibition of histamine release by calcium antagonists. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 64(Suppl. 128): 394–397 (1983).Google Scholar
  492. Ochs, H.R.; Rämsch, K.-D.; Verburg-Ochs, B.; Greenblatt, D.J. and Gerloff, J.: Nifedipine: Kinetics and dynamics after single oral doses. Klinische Wochenschrift 62: 427–429 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. Ocken, S.; Reinitz, E. and Strom, J.: Nifedipine treatment for pulmonary hypertension in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 26: 794–796 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. Olivari, M.T.; Bartorelli, C.; Polese, A.; Fiorentini, C.; Moruzzi, P. and Guazzi, M.D.: Treatment of hypertension with nifedipine, a calcium antagonistic agent. Circulation 59: 1056–1062 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Olivari, M.-T.; Levine, T.B.; Weir, E.K. and Cohn, J.N.: Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine at rest and during exercise in primary pulmonary hypertension. Chest 86: 14–19 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Olson, G.W.; Logic, J.R. and Whitlow, P.L.: Comparative vasodilator responses to nifedipine, hydralazine and nitroprusside in patients with congestive heart failure. (Abstract.) Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3: 479 (1984).Google Scholar
  497. Ono, H. and Kimura, M.: Effect of Ca2+-antagonistic vasodilators, diltiazem, nifedipine, perhexiline and verapamil, on platelet aggregation in vitro. Arzneimittel-Forschung 31: 1131–1134 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Opie, L.H.; Jee, L. and White, D.: Antihypertensive effects of nifedipine combined with cardioselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism by atenolol. American Heart Journal 104: 606–612 (1982a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. Opie, L.H. and White, D.A.: Adverse interaction between nifedipine and β-blockade. British Medical Journal 281: 1462 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Opie, L.H.; White, D.; Lee, J. and Lubbe, W.F.: Alternatives to β-blockade in therapy of hypertension with angina pectoris: Role of nifedipine or labetalol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 13(Suppl. 1): 115–122 (1982b).Google Scholar
  501. Packer, M.: Vasodilator and inotropic therapy for severe chronic heart failure: Passion and skepticism. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2: 841–852 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. Padeletti, L.; Franchi, F.; Brat, A.; Dabizzi, R.P. and Michelucci, A.: The cardiac electrophysiological effects of nifedipine. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmacy 17: 290–293 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. Parisi, A.F.; Strauss, W.E.; McIntyre, K.M. and Sasahara, A.A.: Considerations in evaluating new antianginal drugs. Circulation 65(Suppl. I): 38–42 (1982).Google Scholar
  504. Parratt, J.R. and Coker, S.J.: Cardioprolection with calcium antagonists by suppression of early ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 49–54 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Parrillo, S.J. and Venditto, M.: Elevated theophylline blood levels from institution of nifedipine therapy. Annals of Emergency Medicine 13: 216–217 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Pasanisi, F. and Reid, J.L.: Plasma nifedipine levels and fall in blood pressure in a 53-year-old woman. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 143–144 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Patakas, D.; Vlachoianni, E.; Tsara, V.; Louridas, G. and Argiropoulou, P.: Nifedipine in bronchial asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 72: 269–273 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. Patel, K.R.: Effect of nifedipine on bronchomotor tone and histamine reactivity in asthma. British Medical Journal 283: 796 (1981a).Google Scholar
  509. Patel, K.R.: The effect of calcium antagonist, nifedipine, in exercise-induced asthma. Clinical Allergy 11: 429–432 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Patel, K.R.: Calcium antagonists in exercise-induced asthma. British Medical Journal 282: 932–933 (1981c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Patel, K.R. and Al-Shamma, M.: Effect of nifedipine on histamine reactivity in asthma. British Medical Journal 284: 1916 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Paulus, W.J.; Lorell, B.H.; Craig, W.E.; Wynne, J.; Murgo, J.P. and Grossman, W.: Comparison of the effects of nitroprusside and nifedipine on diastolic properties in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Altered left ventricular loading or improved muscle inactivation? Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2: 879–886 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Payen, D.M.; Pinaud, M.L.J.; Lampron, N.; De Kersaint Gilly, A. and Nicolas, F.M.: Common carotid haemodynamic and metabolic effects of acutely administered nifedipine in human subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cardiovascular Research 18: 626–631 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Pedersen, K.E.; Dorph-Pedersen, A.; Hvidt, S.; Klitgaard, N.A.; Kjaer, K. and Nielsen-Kudsk, F.: Effect of nifedipine on digoxin kinetics in healthy subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32: 562–565 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Pepine, C.J.; Feldman, R.L.; Hill, J.A.; Conti, C.R.; Mehta, J. et al.: Clinical outcome after treatment of rest angina with calcium blockers: Comparative experience during the initial year of therapy with diltiazem, nifedipine, and verapamil. American Heart Journal 106: 1341–1347 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Perez, J.E.; Sobel, B.E. and Henry, P.D.: Effects of nifedipine, diltiazem, and nitroglycerin on regional myocardial shortening in dogs with coronary occlusion. (Abstract.) Circulation 60(Suppl. II): 214 (1979).Google Scholar
  517. Perez-Olea, J. and Quevedo, M.: Protective effect of nifedipine upon digitalis intoxication. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 1271–1274 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Petralito, A.; Lunetta, M.; Liuzzo, A.; Fiore, C.E. and Mangiafico, R.A.: Influenza delia nifedipina sulla curva de carico di glucosio in sogetti normali e in sogetti con metabolismo glicidico alterato. Bollettino Delia Societa Italiana Di Cardiologia 24: 184–186 (1979).Google Scholar
  519. Pfeiffer, C.; Kremer, G.; Erbel, R. and Meyer, J.: Der akute Effekt einer intravenoesen Gabe von Nifedipin beim krisenhaften Blutdruckanstieg. (Abstract.) Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 72(Suppl. 2): 66 (1983).Google Scholar
  520. Pfisterer, M. and Burkart, F.: Comparative effects of nitroglycerin (NTG), nifedipine (NIF) and metoprolol (MET) on normal, ischemic and scar myocardial segments in man. American Journal of Cardiology 49: 942 (1982).Google Scholar
  521. Pfisterer, M.; Glaus, L. and Burkart, F.: Comparative effects of nitroglycerin, nifedipine and metoprolol on regional left ventricular function in patients with one-vessel coronary disease. Circulation 67: 291–301 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Pfisterer, M.; Müller-Brand, J. and Burkart, F.: Combined acebutolol/nifedipine therapy in patients with chronic coronary artery disease: Additional improvement of ischaemic-induced left ventricular dysfunction. American Journal of Cardiology 49: 1259–1266 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Pietta, P.; Rava, A. and Biondi, P.: High-performance liquid chromatography of nifedipine, its metabolites, and photochemical products. Journal of Chromatography 210: 516–521 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Pinto, A.; Novo, S.; Davi, G.; Fazio, M.; Riolo, F. and Strano, A.: Evaluation of antianginal effects of nifedipine-acebutolol and isosorbide dinitrate-acebutolol associations, by bicycle ergometer test, in stable effort angina. (Abstract.) European Heart Journal 2(Suppl. A): 196 (1981).Google Scholar
  525. Pitlik, S.; Manor, R.S.; Lipshitz, I.; Perry, G. and Rosenfeld, J.: Transient retinal ischaemia reduced by nifedipine. British Medical Journal 287: 1845–1846 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Polese, A.; Fiorentini, C.; Olivari, M.I. and Guazzi, M.D.: Clinical use of a calcium antagonist (nifedipine) in acute pulmonary edema. American Journal of Medicine 66: 825–830 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Prinzmetal, M.; Kennamer, R.; Merliss, R.; Wada, T. and Bor, N.: Angina pectoris. I. A variant form of angina pectoris. American Journal of Medicine 27: 375–388 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. Raemsch, K.D. and Sommer, J.: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nifedipine. Hypertension 5: II–18–II–24 (1983).Google Scholar
  529. Raffestin, B.; Boillot, J.; Derrieux, C.; Comoy, E. and Martre, H.: Exercise and the calcium-blocker, nifedipine, in normal subjects. (Abstract.) Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation, Milan 17–19 April (1984).Google Scholar
  530. Rahwan, R.G.: Mechanisms of action of membrane calcium channel blockers and intracellular calcium antagonists. Medicinal Research Reviews 3: 21–42 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Ramon, Y.; Behar, S.; Kishon, Y. and Engelberg, I.S.: Gingival hyperplasia caused by nifedipine — a preliminary report. International Journal of Cardiology 5: 195–204 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Ravens, K.G.: Effects of nifedipine on glucose-tolerance in man. 8th International Congress of Pharmacology, Tokyo 19–24 July, 1981. Abstract No. 1843, p. 776 (1981).Google Scholar
  533. Redman, C.W.G.: Treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Kidney International 18: 267–278 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Reitberg, D.P.; Love, S.J. and Zinny, M.: Effect of food on nifedipine pharmacokinetics. (Abstract.) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 223 (1985).Google Scholar
  535. Ren, J.-H.; Unverferth, D.V.; Magorien, R.D. and Leier, C.V.: Postural influences on the hemodynamic responses to vasodilating drugs in congestive heart failure. Archives of Internal Medicine 145: 641–644 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. Resnick, L.M.; Sealey, J.E. and Laragh, J.H.: Calcium metabolism and the renin-aldosterone system determine the acute blood pressure response to calcium channel blockade. Circulation 66(Suppl. 2): 11–107 (1982).Google Scholar
  537. Reves, J.G.; Barker, S. and Smith, L.R.: Significance of nifedipine plasma levels and hemodynamic changes during anesthesia induction. Anesthesiology 59: A41 (1983).Google Scholar
  538. Rich, S.; Ganz, R. and Levy, P.S.: Comparative actions of hydralazine, nifedipine and amrinone in primary pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 1104–1107 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Richter, J.E.; Dalton, C.B. and Castell, D.O.: Nifedipine: A potent inhibitor of esophageal contractions in normals and patients with the nutcracker esophagus. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 86: 1219 (1984).Google Scholar
  540. Rizzon, P.; Scrutinio, D.; DeToma, L.; Mangini, S.; Lagioia, R. et al.: Effects of nifedipine, isosorbide dinitrate, and acebutolol alone and in combination on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 218–235 (1983).Google Scholar
  541. Robinson, B.F.: The response of forearm resistance vessels to dilator agents in patients with primary hypertension: Use of nifedipine in long term therapy. Postgraduate Medical Journal 59(Suppl. 2): 104–108 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Robinson, B.F.; Dobbs, R.J. and Kelsey, C.R.: Effects of nifedipine on resistance vessels, arteries and veins in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10: 433–438 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Robson, R.H. and Vishwanath, M.C.: Nifedipine and beta-blockade as a cause of cardiac failure. British Medical Journal 284: 104 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Rodeheffer, R.J.; Rommer, J.A.; Wigley, F. and Smith, C.R.: Controlled double-blind trial of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 880–883 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Rodger, C. and Stewart, A.: Side effects of nifedipine. British Medical Journal 1: 1619–1620 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Romano, M.; DeCaprio, L.; Chiariello, M.; Meccariello, P.; Scarafile, P. et al.: Nifedipine in stable angina. A double-blind study in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Current Therapeutic Research 30: 461–467 (1981).Google Scholar
  547. Rosenkranz, H.; Schlossmann, K. and Scholtan, W.: Die Bindung von 4-(2′Nitrophenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-di-carbonsäuredimethyl ester (Nifedipine) sowie von anderen Koronar wirksamen Stoffen an die Eiweisskörper des Serums. Arzneimittel-Forschung 24: 455–466 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Rosenthal, J.: Antihypertensive effects of nifedipine, mefruside and a combination of both substances in patients with essential hypertension; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 175–181 (1983).Google Scholar
  549. Rosseel, M.T. and Bogaert, M.G.: Determination of nifedipine in human plasma by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen detection. Journal of Chromatography 279: 675–680 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. Rotmensch, H.H.; Roth, A.; Liron, M.; Rubinstein, A.; Gefel, A. and Livni, E.: Lymphocyte sensitisation in nifedipine-induced hepatitis. British Medical Journal 281: 976–977 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. Rowland, E.; Evans, T. and Krikler, D.: Effect of nifedipine on atrioventricular conduction as compared with verapamil: Intracardiac electrophysiologic study. British Heart Journal 42: 124–127 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. Rowland, E.; Razis, P.; Sugrue, D. and Krikler, D.M.: Acute and chronic haemodynamic and electrophysiological effects of nifedipine in patients receiving atenolol. British Heart Journal 50: 383–389 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Rozkovec, A.; Minty, K.; Stradling, J.; Shepherd, G.; Mac-Dermot, J. et al.: Value of acute vasodilator studies in management of primary pulmonary hypertension. (Abstract No. 196.) Circulation 66: II–49 (1982).Google Scholar
  554. Rubenfire, M.; Blevins, R.; Housholder, S. and Kerin, N.: The influence of calcium antagonists on the natural history of inoperable coronary artery disease. (Abstract.) Clinical Research 32: 201A (1984).Google Scholar
  555. Rubin, L.J.; Nicod, P.; Hillis, L.D. and Firth, B.G.: Treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with nifedipine. A hemodynamic and scintigraphic evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine 99: 433–438 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Rubin, P.C.; McCabe, R. and Low, R.A.L.: Calcium channel blockade with nifedipine combined with atenolol in the management of severe pre-eclampsia. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension B3: 379 (1984).Google Scholar
  557. Rud, T.; Andersson, K.-E. and Ulmsten, U.: Effects of nifedipine in women with unstable bladders. Urologia Internationalis 34: 421–429 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. Ruddy, T.D.; Koilpillai, C.; Liu, P.P.; Mahon, W.A.; Henderson, M.A. et al.: Evaluation of chronic nifedipine therapy in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Abstract No. 94.) Circulation 66(Suppl. II): II–24 (1982).Google Scholar
  559. Russi, E.W. and Ahmed, T.: Calcium and calcium antagonists in airway disease. A review. Chest 86: 475–482 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. Saadjian, A.; Arnaud, A.; Philip-Jouet, F. and Torrésani, J.: Hemodynamic responses to nifedipine in chronic cor pulmonale. (Abstract.) European Heart Journal 5: 80 (1984).Google Scholar
  561. Saeed, M.; Holtz, J.; Eisner, D. and Bassenge, E.: Attenuation of sympathetic vasoconstriction by nifedipine: The role of vascular α 2-adrenoceptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 94: 149–153 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Saito, D.; Haraoka, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kusachi, S.; Yasuhara, K. et al.: Primary pulmonary hypertension improved by long-term oral administration of nifedipine. American Heart Journal 105: 1041–1042 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Sandahl, B.; Ulmsten, U. and Andersson, K.-E.: Trial of the calcium antagonist nifedipine in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Archives of Gynecology 227: 147–151 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. Sando, H.; Katagiri, H.; Okada, M.; Shoda, R.; Arai, Y. et al.: The effect of nifedipine and nicardipine on glucose tolerance, insulin and C-peptide. Diabetes 32: 66A (1983).Google Scholar
  565. Santos, S.R.C.J.: Analysis of nifedipine in blood; in Turner, P. and Padgham, C. (Eds) World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (Abstract No. 0575.) [Macmillan Publishers Ltd, London 1980].Google Scholar
  566. Saris, S.D.; Lowenthal, D.T.; Falkner, B.; Broderman, S.; Bravo, E.V. and Stein, D.T.: Do antihypertensives and calcium-channel blockers blunt the catecholamine response to static exercise. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 272 (1984).Google Scholar
  567. Sarkozi, J.; Bookman, A.A.H.; Mahon, W.; Ramsay, C. and Keyston, E.C.: Nifedipine in the treatment of idiopathic Raynaud’s syndrome (IRS). (Abstract No. 71.) Arthritis and Rheumatism 27: S27 (1984a).Google Scholar
  568. Sarkozi, J.; McCarthy, D.D. and Lee, P.: The use of longterm nifedipine in a patient with Raynaud’s syndrome secondary to mixed corrective tissue disease. Journal of Rheumatology II: 408–410 (1984b).Google Scholar
  569. Sassano, P.; Kerihuel, J.C.; Banzet, O. and Carrol, P.: Nifedipine lowers blood pressure in long term therapy. (Abstract.) Presented at the Symposium on New Developments in Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases with Nifedipine, Lisbon, 4–5 March (1983).Google Scholar
  570. Sauza, J.; Kraus, A.; González-Amaro, R. and Alarcón-Segovia, D.: Effect of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine on Raynaud’s phenomenon. A controlled double blind trial. Journal of Rheumatology II: 362–364 (1984).Google Scholar
  571. Schanzenbächer, P.; Deeg, P.; Liebau, G. and Kochsiek, K.: Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: Angiographic documentation. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 345–346 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Schanzenbächer, P.; Göttfert, G.; Leibau, G. and Kochsiek, K.: Coronary hemodynamic and metabolic effects of nifedipine in patients with coronary artery disease treated with beta-blocking drugs. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 33–36 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. Schanzenbächer, P.; Liebau, G.; Deeg, P. and Kochsiek, K.: Effect of intravenous and intracoronary nifedipine on coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption. American Journal of Cardiology 51: 712–717 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Schanzenbächer, P.; Schick, K.D. and Kochsiek, K.: Nifedipin bei hypertropher obstruktiver Kardiomyopathie. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 107: 1842–1846 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Schartl, M.; Dougherty, C. et al.: Hemodynamic effects of molsidomine, isosorbide dinitrate, and nifedipine at rest and during, exercise. Am Heart J. 109: 649–653 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Scheidt, S.: The role of calcium blockers in the treatment of chronic stable angina; in Flaim, S.F. and Zelis, R. (Eds) Calcium Blockers: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications, pp. 231–244 (Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore 1982).Google Scholar
  577. Schick, E.C.; Liang, C.-S.; Heupier, F.A.; Kahl, F.R.; Kent, K.M. et al.: Randomized withdrawal from nifedipine: Placebo-controlled study in patients with coronary artery spasm. American Heart Journal 104: 690–697 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. Schlossman, K.: Fluorometrische Bestimmung des 4-(2′-nitro-phenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-l,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-dicarbonsauredi-methylester und seinen Hauptmetaboliten. Arzneimittel-Forschung 22: 60–62 (1972).Google Scholar
  579. Schlossman, K.; Medenwald, H. and Rosenkranz, H.: Investigations on the metabolism and protein binding of nifedipine; 2nd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 33–39 (1975).Google Scholar
  580. Schmier, J.; Bruckner, U.B.; Mittman, U. and Wirth, R.H.: Intercoronary collaterals and intramyocardial blood distribution in dogs following nifedipine administration compared with controls; 3rd International Adalat Symposium, pp. 42–49 (1976).Google Scholar
  581. Schreiner, G.; Erbel, R.; Henkel, B.; Pop, T. and Meyer, J.: Verbesserung der Ischaemietoleranz während transluminaler Angioplastie (PICA) durch antianginoese Substanzen. (Abstract.) Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 72(Suppl. 2): 53 (1983).Google Scholar
  582. Schroeder, J.S.: Treatment of coronary spasm with calcium blockers — variant and unstable angina; in Flaim and Zelis (Eds) Calcium Blockers. Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications, pp. 219–230 (Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich 1982).Google Scholar
  583. Schroeder, J.S.; Rosenthal, S.; Ginsburg, R. and Lamb, I.: Medical therapy of Prinzmetal’s variant angina. Chest 78 (Suppl.): 231–233 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Schulte, K.-L.; Meyer-Sabellek, W.A.; Distler, A. and Gotzen, R.: Long-term treatment with diltiazem and nifedipine in essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2: 93 (1984).Google Scholar
  585. Schultz, H.; Kober, G.; Bamberg, E. and Kaltenbach, M.: Antianginoese Wirkung der Ca-Antagonisten Nifedipin bei intrakoronarer and intravenoeser Applikation. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie (Suppl. 5): 66 (1978).Google Scholar
  586. Schultz, W.; Jost, S.; Kober, G. and Kaltenbach, M.: Relation of antianginal efficacy of nifedipine to degree of coronary arterial narrowing and to presence of coronary collateral vessels. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 26–32 (1985).Google Scholar
  587. Schultz, W.; Kober, G.; Krauss, G. and Kaltenbach, M.: Influence of intracoronary and intravenous nifedipine on diameters of coronary vessels and stenoses; in Rafflenbeul et al. (Eds) Unstable Angina Pectoris, pp. 259–265 (Georg Thieme, Stuttgart 1981).Google Scholar
  588. Schultz, W.; Wendt, T.; Kaltenbach, M. and Kober, G.: Active and passive changes in coronary artery diameters after vasodilatation; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 309–321 (1983).Google Scholar
  589. Schurtz, Cl.; Lesbre, J.P.; Kalisa, A.; Jarry, G. and Fardelonne, P.: Intérêt des inhibiteurs calciques dans l’angor d’effort stable. Diltiazem versus nifédipine. Annales de Cardiologie et d’Angéiologie 32: 337–341 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. Schwartz, J.B. and Migliore, P.J.: Effect of nifedipine on serum digoxin concentration and renal digoxin clearance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 36: 19–24 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. Schwartz, J.B.; Raizner, A. and Akers, S.: The effect of nifedipine on serum digoxin concentrations in patients. American Heart Journal 107: 669–673 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  592. Schwartz, M.L.; Rotmensch, H.H.; Vlasses, P.H. and Ferguson, R.K.: Calcium blockers in smooth muscle disorders. Archives of Internal Medicine 144: 1425–1429 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. Scoble, J.E.; Uff, J.S. and Eastwood, J.B.: Nifedipine nephritis. (Correspondence.) Clinical Nephrology 21: 302 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. Selwyn, A.P.; Welman, E.; Fox, K.; Horlock, P.; Pratt, T. and Klein, M.: The effects of nifedipine on acute experimental myocardial ischemia and infarction in dogs. Circulation Research 44: 16–23 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  595. Serfas, D.; Shoback, D.M. and Lorell, B.H.: Phaeochromocytoma and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Apparent suppression of symptoms and noradrenaline secretion by calcium-channel blockade. Lancet 2: 711–713 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Serruys, P.W.; Booman, F.; Steward, R.; Michels, R.; Reiber, J.H.C. and Hugenholtz, P.G.: Unstable angina pectoris and coronary arterial vasomotion: Which role for nifedipine?: In Rafflenbeul et al. (Eds) Unstable Angina Pectoris: International Symposium, Hanover 1980, pp. 103–120 (Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart-New York; Thieme-Stratton, New York 1981a).Google Scholar
  597. Serruys, P.W.; Brower, R.W.; Katen, H.J.T.; Bom, A.H. and Hugenholtz, P.G.: Regional wall motion from radiopaque markers after intravenous and intracoronary injections of nifedipine. Circulation 63: 584–591 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. Serruys, P.W.; Hooghoudt, T.E.H.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Slager, C.; Brower, R.W. and Hugenholtz, P.G.: Influence of intracoronary nifedipine on left ventricular function, coronary vasomobility, and myocardial oxygen consumption. British Heart Journal 49: 427–441 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. Serruys, P.W.; Steward, R.; Booman, F.; van den Brand, M. and Reiber, J.H.C.: Effects of intracoronary nifedipine on coronary vasomobility and left ventricular hemodynamics. (Abstract.) Circulation 62(Suppl. III): 86 (1980).Google Scholar
  600. Serruys, P.W.; van den Brand, M.; Brower, R.W. and Hugenholtz, P.G.: Regional cardioplegia and cardioprotection during transluminal angioplasty, which role for nifedipine? European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 115–121 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  601. Shen, A.C. and Jennings, R.B.: Myocardial calcium and magnesium in acute ischemic injury. American Journal of Pathology 67: 417–440 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  602. Sherman, L.G. and Liang, C.-S.: Nifedipine in chronic stable angina: A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. American Journal of Cardiology 51: 706–711 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  603. Sia, S.T.B.; MacDonald, P.S.; Triester, B.; Oliver, L.E.; Horowitz, J.D. and Goble, A.J.: Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine. Medical Journal of Australia 142: 48–50 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  604. Silke, B.; Verma, S.P.; Nelson, G.I.C.; Ahuga, R.C.; Hussain, M. and Taylor, S.H.: The effects on left ventricular performance of nifedipine and verapamil in exercise-induced angina pectoris. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 735–743 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  605. Silver, P.J.; Dachiw, J. and Ambrose, J.M.: Effects of calcium antagonists and vasodilators on arterial myosin phosphorylation and actin-myosin interactions. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 230: 141–148 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  606. Simonneau, G.; Escourrou, P.; Duroux, P. and Lockhart, A.: Inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by nifedipine. New England Journal of Medicine 304: 1582–1585 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  607. Simonsen, S. and Nitter-Hauge, S.: Effect of nifedipine (Adalat) on coronary hemodynamics in patients with coronary arteriosclerotic disease. Acta Medica Scandinavica 204: 179–184 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  608. Singh, B.N.; Ellrodt, G. and Nademanee, K.: Calcium antagonists: Cardiocirculatory effects and therapeutic applications; in Hurst, J.W. (Ed.) Clinical Essays on the Heart, Vol. 2, pp. 65–97 (McGraw-Hill, New York 1984).Google Scholar
  609. Singh, B.N.; Hecht, H.S.; Nademanee, K. and Chew, C.Y.C.: Electrophysiological and hemodynamic actions of slow channel blocking compounds. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 25: 103–132 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  610. Singh, B.N.; Nademanee, K. and Baky, S.H.: Calcium antagonists: Clinical use in the treatment of arrhythmias. Drugs 25: 125–153 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  611. Singh, B.N. and Phil, D.: Pharmacological basis for the therapeutic applications of slow-channel blocking drugs. Angiology 33: 492–515 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  612. Singlas, E.; Martre, H.; Taburet, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. and Sari, R.: Effet de l’hémodialyse sur les taux plasmatiques de nifédipine. Presse Médicale 13: 943–944 (1984).Google Scholar
  613. Sirnes, P.A.; Overskeid, K.; Pedersen, T.R.; Bathen, J.; Drivenes, A. et al.: Evolution of infarct size during the early use of nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the Norwegian nifedipine multicenter trial. Circulation 70: 638–644 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  614. Sloan, P.J.M. and Beevers, D.G.: Nifedipine in combination therapy for resistant hypertension. Pharmatherapeutica 3: 349–353 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  615. Snedden, W.; Fernandez, P.G.; Galway, B.A. and Kim, B.K.: Specific HPLC assay for serum nifedipine. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 7: 173–178 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  616. Snedden, W.; Fernandez, P.G. and Kim, B.K.: Specific assay for serum nifedipine with co-administered drugs in normo- and hypertensives. Clin. Pharmacol, and Therap. 35: 276 (1984b).Google Scholar
  617. So, S.Y.; Lam, W.K. and Yu, D.Y.C.: Effect of calcium antagonists on allergen-induced asthma. Clinical Allergy 12: 595–600 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  618. Sobel, B.E.: Calcium antagonists in cardiovascular therapeutics. Practical Cardiology 7: 1–8 (1981).Google Scholar
  619. Sodeyama, O.; Ikeda, K.; Matsuda, I.; Fukunaga, A.F. and Bishay, E.G.: Nifedipine for control of post operative hypertension. Anesthesiology 59: A18 (1983).Google Scholar
  620. Spital, A. and Scandling, J.D.: Nifedipine in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Archives of International Medicine 143: 2025 (1983).Google Scholar
  621. Spivack, C.; Ocker, S. and Frishman, W.H.: Calcium antagonists. Clinical use in the treatment of systemic hypertension. Drugs 25: 154–177 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  622. Staffurth, J.S. and Emery, P.: Adverse interaction between nifedipine and beta-blockade. British Medical Journal 282: 225 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. Stein, D.T.; Lowenthal, D.T.; Porter, R.S.; Falkner, B.; Bravo, E.L. and Hare, T.W.: Effects of nifedipine and verapamil on isometric and dynamic exercise in normal subjects. American Journal of Cardiololgy 54: 386–389 (1984).Google Scholar
  624. Stern, Z.; Zylber-Katz, E. and Levy, M.: Nifedipine plasma concentration in patients treated for angina pectoris. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 198–203 (1984).Google Scholar
  625. Stone, D.L.; Stephens, J.D. and Banim, S.O.: Comparative coronary haemodynamic effects of nifedipine and nitroglycerin. (Abstract.) Circulation (Suppl. III): 86 (1980a).Google Scholar
  626. Stone, D.L.; Stephens, J.D. and Banim, S.O.: Coronary haemodynamic effects of nifedipine. Comparison with glyceryl trinitrate. British Heart Journal 49: 442–446 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. Stone, P.H.; Antman, E.M.; Muller, J.E. and Braunwald, E.: Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Part II: hemodynamic effects and clinical applications. Annals of Internal Medicine 93: 886–904 (1980b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  628. Stone, P.H. and Muller, J.E.: Nifedipine therapy for recurrent ischemic pain following myocardial infarction. Clinical Cardiology 5: 223–230 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. Stone, P.H.; Muller, J.E.; Turi, Z.G.; Geltman, E.; Jaffe, A.S. and Braunwald, E.: Efficacy of nifedipine therapy in patients with refractory angina pectoris: Significance of the presence of coronary vasospasm. American Heart Journal 106: 644–652 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  630. Stornello, M.; Di Rao, G.; Iachello, M.; Pisani, R.; Scapellato, L. et al.: Hemodynamic and humoral interactions between Captopril and nifedipine. Hypertension 5(Suppl. III): 154–156 (1983).Google Scholar
  631. Strauer, B.E.; Atef Mahmoud, M.; Bayer, F.; Bohn, I. and Motz, U.: Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and improvement of cardiac function in man by nifedipine. European Heart Journal 5(Suppl. F): 53–60 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  632. Streifler, J.; Wittenberg, C. and Rosenfeld, J.B.: Effects of different single doses of nifedipine on blood pressure, renal function, plasma aldosterone and renin in hypertensive subjects; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 164–174 (1983).Google Scholar
  633. Strickland, W.G.; Blackmore, P.F. and Exton, J.H.: Nifedipine and alpha-adrenergic blockade. New England Journal of Medicine 307: 757–758 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  634. Svedmyr, K.; Löfdahl, C.-G. and Svedmyr, N.: Nifedipine — a calcium channel blocker — in asthmatic patients. Interaction with terbutaline. Allergy 39: 17–22 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  635. Taburet, A.M.; Singlas, E.; Colin, J.-N.; Benzet, O.; Thibonnier, M. and Corvol, P.: Pharmacokinetic studies of nifedipine tablet. Correlation with antihypertensive effects. Hypertension 5: II–29–II–33 (1983).Google Scholar
  636. Taggart, E.J. and Zelis, R.: The role of calcium blockers in the treatment of other cardiovascular disorders; in Flaim, S.F. and Zelis, R. (Eds) Calcium blockers: Mechanisms of action and clinical application, pp. 265–281 (Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore 1982).Google Scholar
  637. Takahara, K.; Kuroiwa, A.; Matsushima, T.; Nakashima, Y. and Takasugi, M.: Effects of nifedipine on platelet function. American Heart Journal 109: 4–8 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  638. Takekoshi, N.; Murakami, E.; Murakami, H.; Matsui, S.; Masuya, K. et al.: Treatment of severe hypertension and hypertensive emergency with nifedipine, a calcium antagonistic agent. Japanese Circulation Journal 45: 852–860 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  639. Taylor, S.H.; Nelson, G.I.C.; Silke, B.; Verma, S.P.; Hussain, M. and Forsyth, D.: Comparative effects of labetalol and nifedipine in hypertensive complicating acute myocardial infarction. (Abstract No. A-571.) VII Asian-Pacific Congress of Cardiologv. p. 154, November 27–December 2, 1983, Taiwan, Republic of China (1983)Google Scholar
  640. Terry, R.W.: Nifedipine therapy in angina pectoris: Evaluation of safety and side effects. American Heart Journal 104: 681–689 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  641. Théroux, P.; Taeymans, Y. and Waters, D.D.: Calcium antagonists. Clinical use in the treatment of angina. Drugs 25: 178–195 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. Théroux, P.; Waters, D.D.; Debaisieux, J.C.; Szlachcic, J.; Micgala, H.F. and Bourassa, M.G.: Hemodynamic effects of calcium ion antagonists after acute myocardial infarction. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 3: 81–85 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  643. Thibonnier, M.; Bonnet, F. and Corvol, P.: Antihypertensive effect of fractionated sublingual administration of nifedipine in moderate essential hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 161–164 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  644. Tiefenbrunn, A.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Gowda, S.; McKnight, R.C. and Ludbrook, P.A.: Nifedipine blockade of ergonovine-induced coronary arterial spasm: Angiographic documentation. American Journal of Cardiology 48: 184–187 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  645. Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; de Jonge, A.; van Meel, J.C.A.; Mathy, M.-J. and van Zwieten, P.A.: Influence of nifedipine on functional responses in vivo initiated at α 2-adrenoceptors. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 5: 1–11 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; Mathy, M.-J.; Wilffert, B.; Kalkman, H.O.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C. et al.: Differential effect of calcium entry blockers on α 1adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in vivo. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 324: 239–245 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  647. Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; van Meel, J.C.A. and van Zwieten, P.A.: Calcium antagonists and -receptors. European Heart Journal 4(Suppl. C): 11–17 (1983c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  648. Tirlapur, V.G. and Mir, M.A.: Cardiorespiratory effects of isosorbide dinitrate and nifedipine in combination with nadolol: A double-blind comparative study of beneficial and adverse antianginal drug interactions. American Journal of Cardiology 53: 487–492 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  649. Toggart, E.J. and Zelis, R.: The role of calcium blockers in the treatment of other cardiovascular disorders; in Flaim and Zelis (Eds) Calcium Blockers: Mechanism of Action and Clinical Applications, pp. 265–283 (Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich 1982).Google Scholar
  650. Tolins, M.; Weir, K.; Chesler, E. and Pierpont, G.L.: ‘Maximal’ drug therapy is not necessarily optimal in chronic angina pectoris. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3: 1051–1057 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  651. Traube, M.; Hongo, M.; Magyar, L. and McCullum, R.W., Effects of nifedipine in achalasia and in patients with high-amplitude peristaltic esophageal contractions. Journal of the American Medical Association 252: 1733–1736 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  652. Traube, M.; Hongo, M.; McAllister Jr, R.G. and McCallum, R.W.: Correlation of plasma levels of nifedipine and cardiovascular effects after sublingual dosing in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 125–129 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  653. Tsukiyama, H.; Otsuka, K. and Yamamoto, Y.: Effect on pindolol and nifedipine alone and in combination on haemodynamic parameters/variables in essential hypertension. Journal of International Medical Research 12: 154–162 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  654. Tweddel, A.C.; Beattie, J.M.; Murray, R.G. and Hutton, I.: The combination of nifedipine and propranolol in the management of patients with angina pectoris. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 229–233 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  655. Ueda, K.; Kuwajima, L.; Itoh, H.; Kuramoto, K. and Murakami, M.: Nifedipine in the management of hypertension; in Lichtlen et al. (Eds) International Adalat Panel Discussion — New Experimental and Clinical Results, p. 105 (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1978).Google Scholar
  656. Ueda, K.; Kuwajima, I.; Murakami, M. and Yoshida, H.: The effect and safety of the long term antihypertensive therapy with nifedipine. Jananese Journal of Medicine 23: 324 (1984).Google Scholar
  657. Ueda, K. and Murakami, M.: A controlled, comparative multi-center study on the clinical efficacy of nifedipine in the treatment of severe hypertension; 5th International Adalat Symposium, pp. 146–157 (1983).Google Scholar
  658. Ulmsten, U.; Andersson, K.-E. and Forman, A.: Relaxing effects of nifedipine on the nonpregnant human uterus in vitro and in vivo. Obstetrics and Gynecology 52: 436–441 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  659. Ulmsten, U.; Andersson, K.-E. and Wingerup, L.: Treatment of premature labor with the calcium antagonist nifedipine. Archives of Gynecology 229: 1–5 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  660. Valdés, G.; Soto, M.E.; Croxatto, H.R.; Bellolio, T.; Corbalan, R. and Casanegra, P.: Effects of nifedipine during low, normal and high intakes of sodium in patients with essential hypertension. Clinical Science 63(Suppl. 8): 447s–450s (1982).Google Scholar
  661. Valdés, G.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M.; Chacon, C. and Croxatto, H.R.: Efecto inicial y cronico de nifedipina en pacientes hipertensos. Revista Médica de Chile 111: 1237–1240 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Van der Wall, E.E.; De Jong, J.P.; Eenige Van, M.J.; Scholtalbers, A.G. and Roos, J.P.: Long-acting effects of nifedipine on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 574–580 (1983).Google Scholar
  663. Van Meel, J.C.A.; De Jonge, A.; Kalkman, H.O.; Wilffert, B.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M. and van Zwieten, P.A.: Organic and inorganic calcium antagonists reduce vasoconstriction in vivo mediated by postsynaptic α 2-adrenoceptors. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 316: 288–293 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  664. Van Meel, J.C.A.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M. and van Zwieten, P.A.: Hypotensive activity of calcium entry blockers in rats. Relationship with depression of α 2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasopressor responses. European Journal of Pharmacology 92: 27–34 (1983a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Van Meel, J.C.A.; Towart, R.; Kazda, S.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M. and van Zwieten, P.A.: Correlation between the inhibitory activities of calcium entry blockers on vascular smooth muscle constriction in vitro after k+ depolarisation and in vivo after α 2-adrenoceptor stimulation. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 322: 34–37 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  666. Van Zwieten, P.A.; van Meel, J.C.A. and Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.: Pharmacology of calcium entry blockers: Interaction with vascular alpha-adrenoceptors. Hypertension 5: II8–II17 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  667. Vessby, V.; Abelin, J.; Finnson, M.; Hellsing, K. and Lithell, H.: Effects of nifedipine treatment on carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 1075–1081 (1983).Google Scholar
  668. Vcy, G.; Wiese, K.H.; Schramm, A. and Walter, J.: Vergleichende Untersuchung zum Einfluss des Calciumantagonisten Nifedipin, der Beta-Rezeptorenblocker Acebutolol and Propranolol und der Kombination auf elektrophysiologische Parameter beim Menschen. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 73: 101–105 (1984).Google Scholar
  669. Vuori, I.; Kallio, V.; Hämäläinen, H. and Pietila, J.: Effects of nifedipine and glyceryltrinitrate on the ergometric performance of patients after myocardial infarction. Current Therapeutic Research 21: 435–448 (1977).Google Scholar
  670. Van der Wall, E.E.; Tuinzing, D.B. and Hes, J.: Hyperplasie van de gingiva: een mogelijke bijwerking van nifedipine. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 128: 1954–1955 (1984)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  671. Waller, D.G.; Nicholson, H.P. and Roath, S.: The acute effects of nifedipine on red cell deformability in angina pectoris. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 133–138 (1984a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  672. Waller, D.G.; Renwick, A.G.; Gruchy, B.S. and George, C.F.: The first pass metabolism of nifedipine in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 951–954 (1984b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  673. Walters, B.N.J, and Redman, C.W.G.: Treatment of severe pregnancy-associated hypertension with the calcium antagonist nifedipine. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 91: 330–336 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  674. Waters, D.D.; Miller, D.D.; Szlachcic, J.; Bouchard, A.; Méthé, M. et al.: Factors influencing the long-term prognosis of treated patients with variant angina. Circulation 68: 258–265 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  675. Waters, D.D.; Szlachcic, J.; Théroux, P.; Dauwe, F. and Mizgala, H.F.: Ergonovine testing to detect spontaneous remissions of variant angina during long term treatment with calcium antagonist drugs. American Journal of Cardiology 47: 179–184 (1981a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. Waters, D.D.; Théroux, P.; Szlachcic, J. and Dauwe, F.: Provocative testing with ergonovine to assess the efficacy of treatment with nifedipine, diltiazem and verapamil in variant angina. American Journal of Cardiology 48: 123–130 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  677. Weiss, E.B. and Markowicz, J.: Inhibition of anaphylaxis in airways smooth muscle by the calcium channel drugs verapamil and nifedipine. American Review of Respiratory Disease 123(Suppl. 4): 42 (1981).Google Scholar
  678. Wertheimer, J.H.; Moses, J.W.; Banka, V.S.; Bodenheimer, M.M.; Watson, J.D., et al.: Nifedipine for recurrent rest ischemia after recent myocardial infarction. (Abstract.) American Journal of Cardiology 49: 1024 (1982).Google Scholar
  679. White, C.J.; Phillips, W.A.; Abrahams, L.; Watson, T.D. and Singleton, P.: Objective benefit of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon: A double-blind study. (Abstract No. 10.) Circulation 70 (Part II): II3 (1984).Google Scholar
  680. Wiess, A.T.; Shefer, A.; Lewis, B.S.; Witt, H.; Halon, D.A. and Gotsman, M.S.: The effect of nifedipine on normal and ischemic left ventricular function during atrial pacing stress. Cardiology 71: 190–198 (1984).Google Scholar
  681. Wilkins, M.R.; Woods, K.L.; Jack, D.B.; Kendall, M.J. and Laugher, S.J.: Separate and combined effects of nadolol and nifedipine on the cardiac response to exercise. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 113–117 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  682. Williams, D.O.; Barnes, P.J.; Vickers, H.P. and Rudolf, M.: Effect of nifedipine on bronchomotor tone and histamine reactivity in asthma. British Medical Journal 283: 348 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  683. Winniford, M.D.; Fulton, K.L.; Corbett, J.R.; Croft, C.H. and Hillis, L.D.: Propranolol-verapamil versus propranolol — nifedipine in severe angina pectoris of effort: A randomized, double-blind crossover study. American Journal of Cardiology 55: 281–285 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  684. Winniford, M.D.; Gabliani, G.; Johnson, S.M.; Mauritson, D.R.; Fulton, K.L. and Hillis, L.D.: Concomitant calcium antagonist plus isosorbide dinitrate therapy for markedly active varian-tangina. American Heart Journal 108: 1269–1273 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  685. Winniford, M.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Mauritson, D.R. and Hillis, L.D.: Ergonovine provocation to assess efficacy of long-term therapy with calcium antagonists in Prinzmetal’s variant angina. American Journal Cardiology 51: 684–688 (1983).Google Scholar
  686. Winniford, M.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Mauritson, D.R.; Rellar, J.S.; Redish, G.A. et al.: Verapamil therapy for Prinzmetal’s variant angina: Comparison with placebo and nifedipine. American Journal of Cardiology 50: 913–918 (1982a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  687. Winniford, M.D.; Markham Jr, R.V.; Firth, B.G.; Nicod, P. and Hillis, L.D.: Hemodynamic and electrophysiologic effects of verapamil and nifedipine in patients on propranolol. American Journal of Cardiology 50: 704–710 (1982b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  688. Winniford, M.D.; Willerson, J.T. and Hillis, L.D.: Calcium antagonists in the treatment of individuals with ischemic heart disease. Angiology 33: 522–539 (1982c).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  689. Winston, E.L.; Pariser, K.M.; Miller, K.B.; Salem, D.N. and Creager, M.A.: Nifedipine as a therapeutic modality of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Arthritis and Rheumatism 26: 1177–1180 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. Wit, A.L. and Cranefield, P.: Effect of verapamil on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes of the rabbit and the mechanisms by which it arrests re-entrant atrioventricular nodal tachycardia. Circulation Research 35: 413–425 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  691. Woo, T.Y.; Wong, R.C.; Campbell, J.R.; Goldfarb, M.T.; Voorhees, J.J. and Callen, J.P.: Nifedipine in scleroderma ulcerations. International Journal of Dermatology 23: 678–680 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  692. Yagil, Y.; Kobrin, I.; Leibel, B. and Ben-Ishay, D.: Ischemic ECG changes with initial nifedipine therapy of severe hypertension. (Correspondence.) American Heart Journal 103: 310–311 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  693. Yagil, Y.; Kobrin, I.; Stessman, J.; Ghanem, J.; Leibel, B. and Ben-Ishay, D.: Effectiveness of combined nifedipine and propranolol treatment in hypertension. Hypertension 5(Suppl. II): 113–117 (1983a)Google Scholar
  694. Yagil, Y.; Kobrin, I.; Stessman, J.; Leibel, B. and Ben-Ishay, D.: Acute oral management of hypertension: Blood pressure response to prazosin and nifedipine. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 19: 277–279 (1983b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. Yokoyama, S. and Kaburagi, T.: Clinical effects of intravenous nifedipine on renal function. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 5: 67–71 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  696. Yokoyama, M.; Koizumi, T.; Fujitani, K.; Mizutani, T. and Fukazaki, H.: Adverse response to nifedipine in unstable angina pectoris. Chest 81: 646–648 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Yoshimura, M.; Takashina, R.; Shikuma, R.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, K. et al.: Antihypertensive effect of nifedipine and its relationship to severity of hypertension Arzneimittel-Forschung 33: 254–257 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  698. Young, K.D. and MacDonald, G.: Treatment of angina pectoris in general practice with a combination of nifedipine and beta-blocker. British Journal of Clinical Practice 36: 103–110 (1982).Google Scholar
  699. Zacca, N.M.; Verani, M.S.; Chahine, R.A. and Miller, R.R.: Effect of nifedipine on exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial hypoperfusion in stable angina. American Journal of Cardiology 50: 689–695 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. Zar, M.A. and Gooptu, D.: Effect of nifedipine on the contractile responses of human colonic muscle. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 339–340 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. Zipes, D.P., and Fischer, J.C.: Effects of agents which inibit the slow channel on sinus node automaticity and atrioventricular conduction in the dog. Circulation Research 34: 184–192 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  702. Zylber-Katz, E.; Koren, G.; Granit, L. and Levy, M.: Bioavailability of nifedipine. A comparison between two preparations. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 5: 109–115 (1984a).Google Scholar
  703. Zylber-Katz, E.; Koren, G. and Levy, M.: Pharmacokinetic study of digoxin and nifedipine coadministration. (Abstract.) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 286 (1984b).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Sorkin
    • 1
  • S. P. Clissold
    • 1
  • R. N. Brogden
    • 1
  1. 1.ADIS Drug Information ServicesBirkenhead, Auckland 10New Zealand

Personalised recommendations