Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 1043–1057 | Cite as

Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Enoxaparin

Implications for Clinical Practice
  • Jawed Fareed
  • Debra Hoppensteadt
  • Jeanine Walenga
  • Omer Iqbal
  • Qing Ma
  • Walter Jeske
  • Taqdees Sheikh
Review Article


Enoxaparin is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) that differs substantially from unfractionated heparin (UFH) in its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Some of the pharmacodynamic features of enoxaparin that distinguish it from UFH are a higher ratio of anti-Xa to anti-IIa activity, more consistent release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor, weaker interactions with platelets and less inhibition of bone formation. Enoxaparin has a higher and more consistent bioavailability after subcutaneous administration than UFH, a longer plasma half-life and is less strongly bound to plasma proteins. These properties mean that enoxaparin provides a more reliable anticoagulant effect without the need for laboratory monitoring, and also offers the convenience of once-daily administration. Clinical studies have confirmed that these pharmacological advantages translate into improved outcomes. There are important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between enoxaparin, other LMWHs and UFH, and therefore these molecules cannot be regarded as interchangeable.


Enoxaparin Abciximab Dalteparin Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Nadroparin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The expert advice of Dr Dominick Argenti of Johnson and Johnson, Titusville, NJ, USA is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the expert assistance of Dr Mandy Wong and Dr Jacqueline Mason in the preparation of this manuscript. There were no sources of funding or conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this review.


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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jawed Fareed
    • 1
  • Debra Hoppensteadt
    • 1
  • Jeanine Walenga
    • 2
  • Omer Iqbal
    • 1
  • Qing Ma
    • 1
  • Walter Jeske
    • 2
  • Taqdees Sheikh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathologyLoyola University Medical CenterMaywoodUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular InstituteLoyola University Medical CenterMaywoodUSA
  3. 3.AnesthesiologyLoyola University Medical CenterMaywoodUSA

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