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Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 234–251 | Cite as

Effect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs

  • Frederick O. Holley
  • Katherine V. Ponganis
  • Donald R. Stanski
Article

Summary

The cardiopulmonary bypass apparatus must temporarily substitute for the cardiac and pulmonary function of the patient undergoing heart surgery. In order to meet the metabolic needs of the patient and the technical demands of the surgeon, within the limits of engineering technology, a number of major alterations are made in normal physiology. The patient is typically cooled to 27°C and perfused with a non-pulsatile flow of blood which has been diluted with saline to a haematocrit in the mid-20s. Blood flow and pressure are often considerably less than normal. Blood coagulation is prevented by administration of a massive dose of heparin. Central redistribution of blood flow, elaboration of stress-reactant hormones, and fluid and electrolyte shifts occur in response to these changes. In the postoperative period, these alterations are reversed, and normal physiology is restored.

Effects upon the pharmacokinetics of drugs are anticipated. The clearance of many drugs may be reduced. Protein binding is diminished by haemodilution, but may rise above normal in the postoperative period for basic drugs which bind to α1-acid glycoprotein. Changes in volume of distribution depend upon the opposing influences of protein binding and reduced peripheral perfusion. Previous studies on the pharmacokinetics of drugs during and after cardiopulmonary bypass illustrate many of these effects. The clearance of digoxin, fentanyl, and the cephalosporins is reduced after cardiopulmonary bypass, and the volume of distribution of cefazolin is increased during cardiopulmonary bypass. Studies of digitoxin and propranolol are also reviewed.

Many of the investigations in this area of study have been limited by logistical and methodological factors. Thus, the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the pharmacokinetics of drugs are incompletely understood, and the subject merits further attention.

Keywords

Fentanyl Propranolol Digoxin Cardiopulmonary Bypass Digitoxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© ADIS Press Australasia Pty Ltd. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick O. Holley
    • 1
  • Katherine V. Ponganis
    • 1
  • Donald R. Stanski
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Anesthesia and Medicine (Clinical Pharmacology)Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, and Palo Alto Veterans Administration HospitalPalo AltoUSA

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