IL-37 Suppresses MyD88-mediated Inflammatory Responses in Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is common among the elderly, and aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) exhibit unique inflammatory and osteogenic responses to proinflammatory stimulation, which plays an important role in valvular fibrosis and calcification. Thus, suppression of AVIC proinflammatory response may have therapeutic utility for the prevention of CAVD progression. Interleukin (IL)-37, an antiinflammatory cytokine, reduces tissue inflammation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that IL-37 suppresses human AVIC inflammatory responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Human AVICs were exposed to Pam3CSK4, poly(I:C) and lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of recombinant human IL-37. Stimulation of TLR4 increased the production of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Knockdown of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β differentially affected inflammatory mediator production following TLR4 stimulation. IL-37 reduced production of these inflammatory mediators induced by TLR4. Moreover, knockdown of IL-37 enhanced induction of these mediators by TLR4. IL-37 also suppressed inflammatory mediator production induced by the MyD88-dependent TLR2, but had no effect on the inflammatory responses to the TRIF-dependent TLR3. Furthermore, IL-37 inhibited NF-κB activation induced by TLR2 or TLR4 through a mechanism dependent of IL-18 receptor α-chain. Activation of TLR2, TLR3 or TLR4 upregulates the production of inflammatory mediators in human AVICs. IL-37 suppresses MyD88-mediated responses to reduce inflammatory mediator production following stimulation of TLR2 and TLR4. This antiinflammatory cytokine may be useful for suppression of aortic valve inflammation elicited by MyD88-dependent TLR signaling.
The authors thank Benjamin Posorske and Lihua Ao for their technical support.
This study was supported in part by National Institutes of Heart, Lung and Blood grants HL121776 and HL106582 (to XM), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Grant AI15414 (to CAD) and National Natural Sciences Foundation of China grant 81570352 (to QZ). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.
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