Molecular Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 257–269 | Cite as

Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Inhibition of Radiation-Induced TGFβ-Signaling by Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Mouse Salivary Glands

  • Linda Spiegelberg
  • Sigrid M. A. Swagemakers
  • Wilfred F. J. van Ijcken
  • Edwin Oole
  • Eppo B. Wolvius
  • Jeroen Essers
  • Joanna A. M. Braks
Research Article


A side effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region is injury to surrounding healthy tissues such as irreversible impaired function of the salivary glands. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is clinically used to treat radiation-induced damage but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways that are affected by HBOT in mouse salivary glands two weeks after radiation therapy by microarray analysis. Interestingly, HBOT led to significant attenuation of the radiation-induced expression of a set of genes and upstream regulators that are involved in processes such as fibrosis and tissue regeneration. Our data suggest that the TGFβ-pathway, which is involved in radiation-induced fibrosis and chronic loss of function after radiation therapy, is affected by HBOT. On the longer term, HBOT reduced the expression of the fibrosis-associated factor α-smooth muscle actin in irradiated salivary glands. This study highlights the potential of HBOT to inhibit the TGFβ-pathway in irradiated salivary glands and to restrain consequential radiation induced tissue injury.



This research was financially supported by Fonds NutsOhra (grant number 0801-77). We would like to thank Luuk te Riet for his help on the qPCR, Peter van der Spek for the use of Ingenuity and Roland Kanaar for discussing the data.

Supplementary material

10020_2014_2001257_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (308 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 307 KB.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Spiegelberg
    • 1
  • Sigrid M. A. Swagemakers
    • 2
  • Wilfred F. J. van Ijcken
    • 3
  • Edwin Oole
    • 3
  • Eppo B. Wolvius
    • 1
  • Jeroen Essers
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Joanna A. M. Braks
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral & Maxillofacial SurgeryErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of BioinformaticsErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Center for BiomicsErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Cancer Genomics CenterErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Radiation OncologyErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of Vascular SurgeryErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands

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