Molecular Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 191–201 | Cite as

Molecular Mechanisms of Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling

  • Patrick Crosswhite
  • Zhongjie Sun
Review Article


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial remodeling with unknown etiology. Current therapeutics available for PAH are primarily directed at reducing the pulmonary blood pressure through their effects on the endothelium. It is well accepted that pulmonary arterial remodeling is primarily due to excessive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation that leads to narrowing or occlusion of the pulmonary vessels. Future effective therapeutics will be successful in reversing the vascular remodeling in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary arterial remodeling with a focus on growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic pathways in PASMC proliferation. In addition, this review will highlight novel therapeutic strategies for potentially reversing PASMC proliferation.



Funding was received from NIH R01 HL116863, HL102074 and HL105302 and AHA 11PRE7830040.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, College of MedicineUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC), BMSB 662AOklahoma CityUSA

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