High Mobility Group Box Protein 1 (HMGB1)-Partner Molecule Complexes Enhance Cytokine Production by Signaling Through the Partner Molecule Receptor
The nuclear protein high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) promotes inflammation upon extracellular release. HMGB1 induces proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling in a redox-dependent fashion. Independent of its redox state and endogenous cytokine-inducing ability, HMGB1 can form highly immunostimulatory complexes by interaction with certain proinflammatory mediators. Such complexes have the ability to enhance the induced immune response up to 100-fold, compared with induction by the ligand alone. To clarify the mechanisms for these strong synergistic effects, we studied receptor requirements. Interleukin (IL)-6 production was assessed in supernatants from cultured peritoneal macrophages from mice each deficient in one of the HMGB1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end products [RAGE], TLR2 or TLR4) or from wild-type controls. The cultures were stimulated with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccaride (LPS), the TLR2 ligand Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4), noninflammatory HMGB1 or each TLR ligand in complex with noninflammatory HMGB1. The activity of the HMGB1-TLR ligand complexes relied on engagement of the same receptor as for the noncomplexed TLR ligand, since HMGB1-LPS complexes used TLR4 and HMGB1-Pam3CSK4 complexes used TLR2. Deletion of any of the intracellular adaptor molecules used by TLR2 (myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)) or TLR4 (MyD88, TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)) had similar effects on HMGB1 complex activation compared with noncomplexed LPS or Pam3CSK4. This result implies that the enhancing effects of HMGB1-partner molecule complexes are not regulated by the induction of additional signaling cascades. Elucidating HMGB1 receptor usage in processes where HMGB1 acts alone or in complex with other molecules is essential for the understanding of basic HMGB1 biology and for designing HMGB1-targeted therapies.
This study was supported by the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Rheumatism Association, the King Gustaf V foundation, the Swedish Cancer Society, the Von Kantzow Foundation and the European Commission (AtheroRemo collaborative project).
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