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Molecular Medicine

, Volume 17, Issue 9–10, pp 949–964 | Cite as

Frequent Gene Products and Molecular Pathways Altered in Prostate Cancer- and Metastasis-Initiating Cells and Their Progenies and Novel Promising Multitargeted Therapies

  • Murielle Mimeault
  • Surinder K. Batra
Review Article

Abstract

Recent gene expression profiling analyses and gain- and loss-of-function studies performed with distinct prostate cancer (PC) cell models indicated that the alterations in specific gene products and molecular pathways often occur in PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies during prostate carcinogenesis and metastases at distant sites, including bones. Particularly, the sustained activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, hyaluronan (HA)/CD44 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process may provide critical functions for PC progression to locally invasive, metastatic and androgen-independent disease states and treatment resistance. Moreover, an enhanced glycolytic metabolism in PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies concomitant with the changes in their local microenvironment, including the induction of tumor hypoxia and release of diverse soluble factors by tumor myofibroblasts, also may promote the tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastases. More particularly, these molecular transforming events may cooperate to upregulate Akt, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and stemness gene products such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Bmi-1 in PC cells that contribute to their acquisition of high self-renewal, tumorigenic and invasive capacities and survival advantages during PC progression. Consequently, the molecular targeting of these deregulated gene products in the PC- and metastasis-initiating cells and their progenies represent new promising therapeutic strategies of great clinical interest for eradicating the total PC cell mass and improving current antihormonal treatments and docetaxel-based chemotherapies, thereby preventing disease relapse and the death of PC patients.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Defense (PC074289) and the National Institutes of Health (R01CA138791) for prostate cancer research.

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Copyright information

© The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research 2011
www.feinsteininstitute.org

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied DiseasesUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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