Advertisement

Molecular Medicine

, Volume 11, Issue 1–12, pp 48–51 | Cite as

Molecular Identification of Simian Virus 40 Infection in Healthy Italian Subjects by Birth Cohort

  • Valentina Paracchini
  • Seymour Garte
  • Paola Pedotti
  • Francesca Poli
  • Sara Frison
  • Emanuela Taioli
Articles

Abstract

Simian virus SV40, an oncogenic virus in rodents, was accidentally transmitted to humans through the Poliovirus vaccine during the years 1955 to 1963. If the vaccination program were the major source of human infection, then differences in SV40 infection rates by cohort of birth should be observed. The aim of this study was to address this issue. In 134 healthy Italian Caucasian subjects, 15 DNA samples were positive for SV40 by nested polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The prevalence of genomic infection did not differ across cohorts of birth from 1924 to 1983, however DNA sequencing revealed viral strain differences in individuals born before 1947 and after 1958. While horizontal transmission following the introduction of the polio vaccine could explain the presence of SV40 DNA in younger people, our results also suggest the possibility that other sources of the virus may also be involved in human SV40 infection.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Lucia Fiore from the Superior Institute of Health in Rome for furnishing information on the origin of the Italian vaccine.

References

  1. 1.
    Butel JS, Lednicky JA. (1999) Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91:119–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Strickler HD et al. (2003) Trends in US pleural mesothelioma incidence rates following simian virus 40 contamination of early poliovaccines. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 95:38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shah KV, Nathanson N. (1976) Human exposure to SV40: review and comments. Am. J. Epidemiol. 103:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lopez-Rios F, Illei PB, Rusch V, Ladanyi M. (2004) Evidence against a role for SV40 infection in human mesotheliomas and high risk of false-positive PCR results owing to presence of SV40 sequences in common laboratory plasmids. Lancet 364:1157–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barbanti-Brodano G et al. (2004) Simian virus 40 infection in humans and association with human diseases: results and hypotheses. Virology 318:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shah KV, Galloway DA, Knowles WA, Viscidi RP. (2004) Simian virus 40 (SV40) and human cancer: a review of the serological data. Rev. Med. Virol. 14:231–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carter JJ et al. (2003) Lack of serologic evidence for prevalent simian virus 40 infection in humans. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 95:1522–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    David H, Mendoza S, Konishi T, Miller CW. (2001) Simian virus 40 is present in human lymphomas and normal blood. Cancer Lett. 162:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li RM et al. (2002) Molecular identification of SV40 infection in human subjects and possible association with kidney disease. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 13:2320–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martini F et al. (1998) Simian-virus-40 footprints in human lymphoproliferative disorders of HIV− and HIV+ patients. Int. J. Cancer. 78:669–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martini F et al. (2002) Different simian virus 40 genomic regions and sequences homologous with SV40 large T antigen in DNA of human brain and bone tumors and of leukocytes from blood donors. Cancer 94:1037–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bergsagel DJ, Finegold MJ, Butel JS, Kupsky WJ, Garcea RL. (1992) DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroids plexus tumors of childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:988–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vilchez RA et al. (2002) Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 359:817–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Engels EA et al. (2002) Absence of simian virus 40 in human brain tumors from northern India. Int. J. Cancer 101:348–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vilchez RA, Butel JS. (2004) Emergent human pathogen simian virus 40 and its role in cancer. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:495–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gustincich S, Manfioletti G, Del Sal G, Schneider C, Carninci P. (1991) A fast method for high-quality genomic DNA extraction from whole human blood. Biotechniques 3:298–300, 302.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lednicky JA, Garcea RL, Bersagel DJ, Butel JS. (1995) Natural simian virus 40 strains are present in human choroid plexus and ependymoma tumors. Virology 212:710–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stewart AR, Lednicky JA, Butel JS. (1998) Sequence analyses of human tumor-associated SV40 DNAs and SV40 viral isolates from monkeys and humans. J. Neurovirol. 4:182–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lednicky JA et al. (1998) Natural isolates of simian virus 40 from immunocompromised monkeys display extensive genetic heterogeneity: new implications for polyomavirus disease. J. Virol. 72:3980–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Butel JS, Arrington AS, Wong C, Lednicky JA, Finegold MJ. (1999) Molecular evidence of simian virus 40 infections in children. J. Infect. Dis. 180:884–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lednicky JA, Butel JS. (2001) Simian virus 40 regulatory region structural diversity and the association of viral archetypal regulatory regions with human brain tumors. Semin. Cancer Biol. 11:39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knowles WA et al. (2003) Population-based study of antibody to the human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV and the simian polyomavirus SV40. J. Med. Virol. 71:115–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vilchez RA, Kozinetz CA, Arrington AS, Madden CR, Butel JS. (2003) Simian virus 40 in human cancers. Am. J. Med. 114(8):675–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klein G, Powers A, Croce C. (2002) Association of SV40 with human tumors. Oncogene 21:1141–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    The International SV40 Working Group. (2001) A multicenter evaluation of assays for detection of SV40 DNA and results in masked mesothelioma specimens. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Preven. 10:523–32.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jasani B et al. (2001) Association of SV40 with human tumours. Semin. Cancer Biol. 11:49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shivapurkar N et al. (2002) Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in human lymphomas. Lancet. 359:851–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martini F et al. (1995) Human brain tumors and simian virus 40. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 87:1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martini F et al. (1996) SV40 early region and large T antigen in human brain tumors, peripheral blood cells, and sperm fluids from healthy individuals. Cancer Res. 56:4820–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carbone M et al. (1994) Simian virus 40-like DNA sequences in human pleural mesothelioma. Oncogene 9:1781–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Procopio A et al. (1998) SV40 expression in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues: perspectives on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of human malignant mesothelioma. Dev. Biol. Stand. 94:361–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Forsman ZH et al. (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of polyomavirus simian virus 40 from monkeys and humans reveals genetic variation. J. Virol. 78:9306–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vastag B. (2002) Sewage yields clues to SV40 transmission. JAMA 288:1337–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Feinstein Institute for Medical Research 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Paracchini
    • 1
  • Seymour Garte
    • 2
  • Paola Pedotti
    • 1
  • Francesca Poli
    • 3
  • Sara Frison
    • 3
  • Emanuela Taioli
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Molecular and Genetic EpidemiologyFondazione Policlinico IRCCSMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Genetics Research Institute ONLUSMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Centro Trasfusionale ed Immunologia dei TrapiantiFondazione Policlinico IRCCSMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations