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Health-related quality of life and economic burden to smoking behaviour among Canadians

  • Yang CuiEmail author
  • Evelyn L. Forget
  • Mahmoud Torabi
  • Umut Oguzoglu
  • Arto Ohinmaa
  • Yunfa Zhu
Quantitative Research
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine whether the smoking status of the Canadian population is associated with a reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL); (2) calculate the overall economic burden of loss in HRQoL using a commonly accepted $100,000 willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold to gain one quality-adjusted life year (QALY); and (3) calculate the loss of HRQoL over a lifetime.

Methods

We used the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey. The variations in HRQoL were estimated using a multivariable generalized linear model. Total expected lifetime QALYs lost due to smoking were calculated by compounding the annual adjusted health utility loss associated with smoking across a respondent’s remaining years of life expectancy stratified by age. A discount rate of 1.5% was applied to the analysis based on recent analysis of the costs of borrowing in Canada.

Results

Smoking is significantly associated with HRQoL loss. This study demonstrated that smoking is associated with a 0.05 and 0.01 reduction in Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) score for current and former smokers, which also corresponds to a loss of 0.66 quality-adjusted life years in average, and also is associated with substantial individual and societal economic cost. The total lifetime economic burden of HUI3 loss per smoker was $65,935, yielding in the aggregate a societal burden of $1068.88 billion in the study population.

Conclusion

Tobacco control, prevention and intervention not only will improve HRQoL but also will generate social returns on investment.

Keywords

Health-related quality of life Smoking Economic burden 

Résumé

Objectifs

Dans cette étude, nous avons voulu : 1) déterminer si l’usage du tabac dans la population canadienne est associé à une diminution de la qualité de vie liée à la santé (QVLS); 2) calculer le fardeau économique global de la perte de QVLS à l'aide d’un seuil communément accepté, soit la volonté de payer 100 000 $ pour gagner une année de survie ajustée pour la qualité de vie (SAQV); et 3) calculer la perte de QVLS sur toute une vie.

Méthodes

Nous avons utilisé l’édition 2015 de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes. Les écarts dans la QVLS ont été estimés à l'aide d’un modèle linéaire généralisé multivarié. Le nombre prévu d’années de SAQV perdues en raison du tabagisme sur toute une vie a été calculé en additionnant la perte annuelle de services publics de santé associée au tabagisme sur la durée de vie restante de l’espérance de vie d’un répondant, stratifiée selon l’âge. Un taux de réduction de 1,5 % a été appliqué à l’analyse d’après une analyse récente des coûts d’emprunt au Canada.

Résultats

Le tabagisme présente une corrélation significative avec la perte de QVLS. L’étude montre qu’il est associé à une diminution de 0,05 et de 0,01 du HUI3 (Health Utilities Index Mark 3) pour les fumeurs actuels et les anciens fumeurs, respectivement, ce qui correspond aussi à une diminution de 0,66 de la survie ajustée pour la qualité de vie en moyenne, en plus d’être associé à un coût considérable pour l’individu et pour la société. Le fardeau économique total de la baisse du HUI3 sur la vie d’un fumeur était de 65 935 $, soit un fardeau sociétal global de 1 068,88 milliards de dollars dans la population étudiée.

Conclusion

Les mesures de prévention, de contrôle et d’intervention liées au tabagisme améliorent la QVLS, mais ce sont aussi des investissements qui génèrent des rendements sociaux.

Mots-clés

Qualité de vie liée à la santé Fumer Fardeau économique 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.George & Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare InnovationUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Department of Economics, Faculty of ArtsUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Statistics CanadaOttawaCanada

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