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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 105, Issue 3, pp e172–e178 | Cite as

Association between neighbourhood fast-food and full-service restaurant density and body mass index: A cross-sectional study of Canadian adults

  • Simon Hollands
  • M. Karen Campbell
  • Jason Gilliland
  • Sisira SarmaEmail author
Quantitative Research

Abstract

Objective: Frequent fast-food consumption is a well-known risk factor for obesity. This study sought to determine whether the availability of fast-food restaurants has an influence on body mass index (BMI).

METHODS: BMI and individual-level confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-08 Canadian Community Health Survey. Neighbourhood socio-demographic variables were acquired from the 2006 Canadian Census. The geographic locations of all restaurants in Canada were assembled from a validated business registry database. The density of fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurants per 10,000 individuals was calculated for respondents’ forward sortation area. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between restaurant density and BMI.

RESULTS: Fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurant density variables were statistically significantly associated with BMI. Fast-food density had a positive association whereas full-service and non-chain restaurant density had a negative association with BMI (additional 10 fast-food restaurants per capita corresponded to a weight increase of 1 kilogram; p<0.001). These associations were primarily found in Canada’s major urban jurisdictions.

CONCLUSIONS: This research was the first to investigate the influence of fast-food and full-service restaurant density on BMI using individual-level data from a nationally representative Canadian survey. The finding of a positive association between fast-food restaurant density and BMI suggests that interventions aiming to restrict the availability of fast-food restaurants in local neighbourhoods may be a useful obesity prevention strategy.

Key Words

Obesity fast foods body mass index environment and public health 

Résumé

OBJECTIF: La consommation fréquente d’aliments de restauration rapide est un facteur de risque d’obésité bien connu. Nous avons cherché à déterminer si la présence de restaurants rapides a une influence sur l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC).

MÉTHODE: L’IMC et les variables de confusion individuelles ont été puisés dans l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes de 2007-2008. Les variables sociodémographiques par quartier ont été obtenues dans le Recensement du Canada de 2006. Nous avons déterminé l’emplacement géographique de tous les restaurants au Canada à partir d’un registre des entreprises validé. Nous avons calculé la densité pout 10 000 habitants des restaurants rapides, plein service et n’appartenant pas à une chaîne, selon la région de tri d’acheminement des répondants. Nous avons effectué des analyses de régression multivariées pour étudier l’association entre la densité des restaurants et l’IMC.

RÉSULTATS: Les variables de densité des restaurants rapides, plein service et n’appartenant pas à une chaîne présentaient une corrélation significative avec l’IMC. Pour la densité des restaurants rapides, cette association était positive, tandis que pour les restaurants plein service et n’appartenant pas à une chaîne, la densité était négativement associée à l’IMC (chaque tranche supplémentaire de 10 restaurants rapides par habitant correspondait à une hausse pondérale d’1 kilogramme; p<0,001). Ces associations étaient principalement observées dans les grands centres urbains du Canada.

CONCLUSIONS: Notre étude est la première à analyser l’influence de la densité des restaurants rapides et plein service sur l’IMC à l’aide de données individuelles provenant d’une enquête nationale représentative menée au Canada. La découverte d’une association positive entre la densité des restaurants rapides et l’IMC donne à penser que les interventions visant à limiter la présence des restaurants rapides à l’échelle des quartiers pourraient être des stratégies utiles pour prévenir l’obésité.

Mots Clés

obésité aliments de restauration rapide indice de masse corporelle environnement et santé publique 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Hollands
    • 1
  • M. Karen Campbell
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jason Gilliland
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Sisira Sarma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Room K201, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Paediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine & DentistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  4. 4.Children’s Health Research InstituteLawson Health Research InstituteLondonCanada
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  6. 6.School of Health StudiesUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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