Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 105, Issue 1, pp e11–e14 | Cite as

Patterns of cigarillo use among Canadian young adults in two urban settings

  • Erika A. Yates
  • Jolene DubrayEmail author
  • Robert Schwartz
  • Maritt Kirst
  • Ashley Lacombe-Duncan
  • Juhee Suwal
  • Juanita Hatcher
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Current estimates indicate that cigarillo use has become commonplace among young adults in Canada despite the established risks to health. However, little else is known about patterns of cigarillo use in this subpopulation. The intent of this research was to examine the patterns, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cigarillo use and co-use of cigarillos and cigarettes among Canadian young adults.

METHODS: Canadians aged 19–29 years from the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario and Edmonton, Alberta were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 and in June 2010, respectively (n=133). Eligible participants completed questionnaires assessing cigarillo, cigarette, and cannabis use; social influence of usage; and beliefs about cigarillo use.

RESULTS: Cigarillo use was common in social settings, with friends, and during leisure time. The majority of participants were co-users of cigarillos and cigarettes (82%), and currently used cannabis (72%). Respondents reported “replacing cigarette smoking” and “flavour” as main reasons for smoking cigarillos; and half (52%) believed they were not at all addicted to cigarillos. Disconcertingly, participants perceived the risk of cancer attributed to smoking cigarillos as significantly less than the risk of cancer attributed to smoking cigarettes (p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the social nature of cigarillo use, and suggest a lack of awareness of the health risks associated with cigarillo and polytobacco use in this small convenience sample of Canadian young adults. Population-level analyses are needed to further investigate cigarillo, polytobacco and concurrent cannabis use patterns and beliefs among Canadian young adults.

Key words

Cigar smoking tobacco smoking marijuana smoking young adult adult 

Résumé

OBJECTIFS: Selon les estimations actuelles, l’usage de cigarillos s’est banalisé chez les jeunes adultes au Canada malgré ses risques démontrés pour la santé. Cependant, on n’en sait guère plus sur les habitudes d’usage des cigarillos dans cette sous-population. Nous avons cherché à examiner les habitudes, les attitudes et les croyances liées à l’usage de cigarillos et au co-usage de cigarillos et de cigarettes chez les jeunes adultes canadiens.

METHODE: Des Canadiens âgés de 19 à 29 ans vivant dans la région du Grand Toronto (Ontario) et à Edmonton (Alberta) ont été recrutés de septembre 2009 à février 2010 et en juin 2010, respectivement (n= 33). Les participants admissibles ont rempli des questionnaires d’évaluation sur leur usage des cigarillos, des cigarettes et du cannabis; l’influence sociale de cet usage; et leurs croyances au sujet de l’usage de cigarillos.

RÉSULTATS: L’usage de cigarillos était courant dans des situations sociales, entre amis et dans les temps libres. Les participants étaient en majorité des co-utilisateurs de cigarillos et de cigarettes (82 %) et des consommateurs actuels de cannabis (72 %). Les principales raisons citées par les répondants pour expliquer leur usage de cigarillos étaient le «remplacement de l’usage de la cigarette» et «l’arôme»; et la moitié (52 %) croyait n’avoir aucune dépendance aux cigarillos. Curieusement, les participants percevaient le risque de cancer imputé à l’usage de cigarillos comme étant beaucoup moins important que le risque imputé à l’usage de cigarettes (p<0,0001).

CONCLUSION: Ces constatations soulignent la nature sociale de l’usage des cigarillos et donnent à penser que dans ce petit échantillon de commodité de jeunes adultes canadiens, on méconnaît les risques sanitaires associés à l’usage de cigarillos et au poly-usage de tabac. Des analyses populationnelles sont nécessaires pour étudier plus avant les habitudes et les croyances liées à l’usage de cigarillos et au poly-usage de tabac, ainsi qu’à la consommation parallèle de cannabis, chez les jeunes adultes canadiens.

Mots clés

usage de cigares usage de cigarettes consommation de marijuana jeune adulte adulte 

References

  1. 1.
    Health Canada. Little cigars… big concerns. Health Canada, 2009. ISBN: 978-1-100-13157-3, HC Publication: 5936.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rickert WS, Trivedi AH, Momin RA, Wagstaff WG, Lauterbach JH. Mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic properties of tobacco smoke produced by cigarillos available on the Canadian market. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2011;61(2):199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT, Crammer C, Thun MJ, Hoffmann D, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. JAMA 2000;284(6):735–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shanks TG, Burns DM. Chapter 4: Disease consequences of cigar smoking. Silver Spring, MD: KBM Group, Inc. 56 p. National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control, Monograph 9: Cigars-Health Effects and Trends.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ontario Tobacco Research Unit. Tobacco Informatics Monitoring System: Ever Use of a Little Cigar or Cigarillo, Canada, 20–24, 2011. Available at: http://www.tims.otru.org/Search.aspx (Accessed January 24, 2013).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Health Canada. Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS): Summary of annual results for 2011. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/research-recherche/stat/_ctums-esutc_2011/ann_summary-sommaire-eng.php (Accessed January 24, 2013).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kozlowski LT, Dollar KM, Giovino GA. Cigar/cigarillo surveillance: Limitations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture system. Am J Prev Med 2008;34(5):424–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cullen J, Mowery P, Delnevo C, Allen JA, Sokol N, Byron MJ, et al. Seven-year patterns in US cigar use epidemiology among young adults aged 18–25 years: A focus on race/ethnicity and brand. Am J Public Health 2011;101(10):1955–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jolly DH. Exploring the use of little cigars by students at a historically black university. Prev Chronic Dis 2008;5(3):A82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bill C-32: An Act to Amend the Tobacco Act. 2010. Royal Assent October 8, 2009, 40th Parliament, 2nd Session. Available at: http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/LegislativeSummaries/Bills_ls.asp?lang=E&is=c32&Parl=40&Ses=2&source=library_prb (Accessed September 17, 2011).
  11. 11.
    Bill 124 (Chapter 26 Statutes of Ontario, 2008), Smoke-Free Ontario Amendment Act (Cigarillos). 2008. Royal Assent December 10, 2008, 1st Session, 39th Legislature, Ontario. Available at: http://www.ontla.on.ca/web/bills/bills_detail.do?locale=en&BillID=2105 (Accessed June 18, 2011).
  12. 12.
    American Legacy Foundation. Cigars, Cigarillos & Little Cigars, 2012. Available at: http://www.legacyforhealth.org/3362.aspx (Accessed January 24, 2013).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rigotti NA, Lee JE, Wechsler H. US college students’ use of tobacco products: Results of a national survey. JAMA 2000;284(6):699–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bombard JM, Pederson LL, Koval JJ, O’Hegarty M. How are lifetime polytobacco users different than current cigarette-only users? Results from a Canadian young adult population. Addict Behav 2009;34(12):1069–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Backinger CL, Fagan P, O’Connell ME, Grana R, Lawrence D, Bishop JA, et al. Use of other tobacco products among U.S. adult cigarette smokers: Prevalence, trends and correlates. Addict Behav 2008;33(3):472–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leatherdale ST, Rios P, Elton-Marshall T, Burkhalter R. Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar use among Canadian youth: Are we underestimating the magnitude of this problem? J Prim Prev 2011;32(3-4):161–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fabian LA, Canlas LL, Potts J, Pickworth WB. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 2011;14(3):368–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Page JB, Evans S. Cigars, cigarillos, and youth. J Ethn Subst Abuse 2004;2(4):63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blank MD, Nasim A, Hart A, Jr., Eissenberg T. Acute effects of cigarillo smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 2011;13(9):874–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henningfield JE, Fant RV, Radzius A, Frost S. Nicotine concentration, smoke pH and whole tobacco aqueous pH of some cigar brands and types popular in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res 1999;1(2):163–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith SY, Curbow B, Stillman FA. Harm perception of nicotine products in college freshmen. Nicotine Tob Res 2007;9(9):977–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baker F, Dye JT, Denniston MM, Ainsworth SR. Risk perception and cigar smoking behavior. Am J Health Behav 2001;25(2):106–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nyman AL, Taylor TM, Biener L. Trends in cigar smoking and perceptions of health risks among Massachusetts adults. Tob Control 2002;11 Suppl 2:ii25–28.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Terchek JJ, Larkin EM, Male ML, Frank SH. Measuring cigar use in adolescents: Inclusion of a brand-specific item. Nicotine Tob Res 2009;11(7):842–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boffetta P, Pershagen G, Jockei KH, Forastiere F, Gaborieau V, Heinrich J, et al. Cigar and pipe smoking and lung cancer risk: A multicenter study from Europe. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(8):697–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ford DE, Vu HT, Anthony JC. Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample. Drug Alcohol Depend 2002;67(3):243–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Syu FK, Huang MY, Huang JJ. A successful intervention to reduce cigarillo use among Baltimore youth. Fooyin J Health Sci 2010;2(3-4):72–84. doi:10.1016/S1877-8607(11)60002-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada. Cigarillo smoking in Canada: A review of results from CTUMS, Wave 1–2007. 2008. Available at: http://www.smoke-free.ca/pdf_l/cigarillos-2008.pdf (Accessed June 21, 2011).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Copley TT, Lovato C, O’Connor S. Indicators for monitoring tobacco control: A resource for decision-makers, evaluators and researchers. Toronto (ON): The Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative, 2006;96 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erika A. Yates
    • 1
  • Jolene Dubray
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Schwartz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maritt Kirst
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashley Lacombe-Duncan
    • 4
  • Juhee Suwal
    • 5
  • Juanita Hatcher
    • 5
  1. 1.Ontario Tobacco Research UnitTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, c/o Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Social and Epidemiological ResearchCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  4. 4.The Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Alberta Health ServicesEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations