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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 104, Issue 7, pp e490–e495 | Cite as

Changes in Dietary and Physical Activity Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Alberta Youth Between 2005 and 2008

  • Laura E. Forbes
  • Shawn N. Fraser
  • Shauna M. Downs
  • Kate E. Storey
  • Ronald C. Plotnikoff
  • Kim D. Raine
  • John C. Spence
  • Rhona M. Hanning
  • Linda J. McCargar
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

Unhealthy dietary and physical inactivity patterns inspired many initiatives promoting healthy youth and healthy schools in Alberta between 2005 and 2008. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) between two province-wide samples of Alberta adolescents (2005 and 2008).

Methods

The dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns of Alberta youth were assessed in two cross-sectional studies of grade 7-10 students, one in 2005 (n=4936) and one in 2008 (n=5091), using a validated web-survey. For each diabetes risk factor, participants were classified as either at risk or not at risk, depending on their survey results relative to cut-off values. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to determine differences in risk factor prevalence between 2005 and 2008.

Results

Compared to 2005, mean BMI, energy intake, fat intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were lower in 2008 (p<0.05); and carbohydrate, protein, fibre and vegetable and fruit intakes were higher in 2008 (p<0.05). In 2008, a lower proportion of students were: overweight, obese, consuming high GI, high GL, high fat, low fibre, low veg/fruit intake (p<0.05). No differences existed in magnesium or PA levels between the two time points.

Conclusions

Improvements were observed between 2005 and 2008 in terms of the proportion of adolescents having specific risk factors for T2D. The cause of these changes could not be determined. Continued monitoring of adolescent lifestyle habits and monitoring of exposure to health promotion programming is recommended.

Key words

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus adolescents prevalence risk factors diet physical activity 

Résumé

Objectifs

Les habitudes alimentaires malsaines et l’inactivité physique ont inspiré de nombreuses initiatives de promotion de la santé des jeunes et des écoles en Alberta entre 2005 et 2008. Nous avons cherché à examiner les différences dans la prévalence des facteurs de risque liés aux habitudes de vie pour le diabète de type 2 (DT2) entre deux échantillons provinciaux d’adolescents albertains (2005 et 2008).

Méthode

Les habitudes d’alimentation et d’activité physique des jeunes de l’Alberta ont été évaluées à la faveur de deux études transversales auprès d’élèves de la 7e à la 10e année, l’une en 2005 (n=4 936) et l’autre en 2008 (n=5 091), à l’aide d’un sondage en ligne validé. Pour chaque facteur de risque du diabète, les participants ont été classés comme étant à risque ou non à risque selon leurs réponses au sondage par rapport aux valeurs limites. Des tests du khi-carré et des modèles de régression logistique ont servi à déterminer les différences dans la prévalence des facteurs de risque entre 2005 et 2008.

Résultats

Comparativement à 2005, l’IMC moyen, l’apport énergétique, l’apport en matières grasses, l’indice glycémique (IG) et la charge glycémique (CG) étaient plus faibles en 2008 (p<0,05); et les apports en glucides, en protéines, en fibres et en fruits et légumes étaient plus élevés en 2008 (p<0,05). En 2008, une moindre proportion d’élèves était en surpoids ou obèse et consommait une diète avec IG élevé, CG élevée, riche en gras, faible en fibres et faible en fruits et légumes (p<0,05). Aucune différence n’a été relevée dans les niveaux de magnésium ou d’activité physique entre les deux dates.

Conclusions

Des améliorations ont été observées entre 2005 et 2008 dans la proportion d’adolescents présentant les facteurs de risque propres au DT2. Nous n’avons pas pu déterminer la cause de ces changements. Il est recommandé de continuer à surveiller les habitudes de vie des adolescents et leur exposition aux programmes de promotion de la santé.

Mots clés

diabète de type 2 adolescent prévalence facteurs de risque régime alimentaire exercice physique 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura E. Forbes
    • 1
  • Shawn N. Fraser
    • 2
  • Shauna M. Downs
    • 3
  • Kate E. Storey
    • 4
  • Ronald C. Plotnikoff
    • 5
  • Kim D. Raine
    • 6
  • John C. Spence
    • 7
  • Rhona M. Hanning
    • 8
  • Linda J. McCargar
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Family Relations and Applied NutritionUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Health DisciplinesAthabasca UniversityAthabascaCanada
  3. 3.Menzies Centre for Health Policy, School of Public HealthUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and NutritionAdvanced Technology CentreCallaghanCanada
  6. 6.Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  7. 7.Faculty of Physical Education and RecreationUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  8. 8.School of Public Health and Health SystemsUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  9. 9.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 4-126 Li Ka Shing Centre for Health ResearchUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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