Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 104, Issue 5, pp e400–e404 | Cite as

A Descriptive Study of Bicycle Helmet Use in Montreal, 2011

  • Tara GrenierEmail author
  • Dan L. Deckelbaum
  • Kerianne Boulva
  • Laura Drudi
  • Mitra Feyz
  • Nathalie Rodrigue
  • Nancy Tze
  • Paola Fata
  • Kosar Khwaja
  • Talat Chughtai
  • Tarek Razek
Quantitative Research
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to describe bicycle helmet use among Montreal cyclists as a step towards injury prevention programming.

Methods

Using a cross-sectional study design, cyclists were observed during 60-minute periods at 22 locations on the island of Montreal. There were 1–3 observation periods per location. Observations took place between August 16 and October 31, 2011. Standard statistical methods were used, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated.

Results

A total of 4,789 cyclists were observed. The helmet-wearing proportion of all cyclists observed was 46% (95% CI 44-47). Women had a higher helmet-wearing proportion than men (50%, 95% CI 47–52 vs. 44%, 95% CI 42–45, respectively). Youth had the highest helmet-wearing proportion (73%, 95% CI 64-81), while young adults had the lowest (34%, 95% CI 30-37). Visible minorities were observed wearing a helmet 29% (95% CI 25-34) of the time compared to Caucasians, 47% (95% CI 46-49). BIXI (bike sharing program) riders were observed wearing a helmet 12% (95% CI 10-15) of the time compared to riders with their own bike, 51% (95% CI 49-52).

Conclusions

Although above the national average, bicycle helmet use in Montreal is still considerably low given that the majority of cyclists do not wear a helmet. Injury Prevention Programs could target the entire cyclist population, but special attention may be warranted in specific groups such as young men, visible minorities, BIXI riders, and those riding in tourist areas. Additionally, a collaborative enterprise with the bicycle sharing system BIXI Montreal™ could prove to be fruitful in addressing the availability of bike helmets for BIXI riders.

Key Words

Head protective devices prevalence brain injuries prevention & control 

Résumé

Objectif

Décrire le port du casque de cycliste chez les cyclistes montréalais en vue d’instaurer des programmes de prévention des blessures.

Méthode

À la faveur d’une étude transversale, nous avons observé les cyclistes sur des périodes de 60 minutes à 22 endroits sur l’île de Montréal. Il y a eu de 1 à 3 périodes d’observation à chaque endroit. Les observations ont eu lieu entre le 16 août et le 31 octobre 2011. Nous avons utilisé des méthodes statistiques types et calculé les rapports de cotes ajustés et non ajustés et les intervalles de confiance de 95 %.

Résultats

Nous avons observé 4 789 cyclistes en tout. La proportion observée de cyclistes portant le casque était de 46 % globalement (IC de 95 %: 44-47). Cette proportion était plus élevée chez les femmes (50 %, IC de 95 %: 47–52) que chez les hommes (44 %, IC de 95 %: 42–45). Les jeunes étaient proportionnellement les plus nombreux à porter un casque (73 %, IC de 95 %: 64-81), tandis que les jeunes adultes étaient proportionnellement les moins nombreux à le faire (34 %, IC de 95 %: 30-37). Le port du casque observé chez les cyclistes membres de minorités visibles était de 29 % (IC de 95 %: 25-34), contre 47 % chez les cyclistes blancs (IC de 95 %: 46-49). Les utilisateurs du BIXI (vélo en libre-service) ont été observés en train de porter un casque 12 % du temps (IC de 95 %: 10-15), contre 51 % du temps chez les cyclistes ayant leur propre vélo (IC de 95 %: 49-52).

Conclusions

Bien qu’il soit supérieur à la moyenne nationale, le port du casque de cycliste à Montréal est encore très faible, car la majorité des cyclistes n’en porte pas. Les programmes de prévention des blessures pourraient cibler tous les cyclistes, mais il serait justifié d’accorder une attention particulière à certains groupes: les jeunes hommes, les minorités visibles, les utilisateurs du BIXI et les cyclistes dans les zones touristiques. Par ailleurs, une collaboration avec le système de vélos en libre-service BIXI Montréalmc en vue d’assurer la disponibilité de casques de cyclistes pour les usagers du BIXI pourrait être fructueuse.

Mots Clés

dispositifs de protection de la tête prévalence lésions cérébrales prévention et contrôle 

References

  1. 1.
    Cyclist collisions with vehicles. Service de police de la Ville de Montréal. Available at: https://doi.org/www.spvm.qc.ca/fr/securite-routiere/cyclistes.asp (Accessed August 22, 2012).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cycling Injury Hospitalizations in Canada, 2009–2010. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Available at: https://doi.org/www.cihi.ca/CIHI-ext-portal/pdf/internet/INFO_CYCLING_INJURY_09-10_EN (Accessed June 30, 2012).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    MGH-MUHC Trauma Registry. 2012 Jun pp. 1–1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson R. Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD001855.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heng KWJ, Lee AHP, Zhu S, Tham KY, Seow E. Helmet use and bicycle-related trauma in patients presenting to an acute hospital in Singapore. Singapore Med J 2006;47(5):367–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rosenkranz KM, Sheridan RL. Trauma to adult bicyclists: A growing problem in the urban environment. Injury 2003;34(11):825–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hagel BE, Rizkallah JW, Lamy A, Belton KL, Jhangri GS, Cherry N, et al. Bicycle helmet prevalence two years after the introduction of mandatory use legislation for under 18 year olds in Alberta, Canada. Inj Prev 2006;12(4):262–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dennis J, Potter B, Ramsay T, Zarychanski R. The effects of provincial bicycle helmet legislation on helmet use and bicycle ridership in Canada. Inj Prev 2010;16(4):219–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LeBlanc JC, Beattie TL, Culligan C. Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets. CMAJ 2002;166(5):592.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karkhaneh M, Rowe BH, Saunders LD, Voaklander D, Hagel B. Bicycle helmet use after the introduction of all ages helmet legislation in an urban community in Alberta, Canada. Can J Public Health 2011;102(2):134–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farley C, Haddad S, Brown B. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec. Am J Public Health 1996;86(1):46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Royal S, Kendrick D, Coleman T. Promoting bicycle helmet wearing by children using non-legislative interventions: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Inj Prev 2007;13(3):162–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://doi.org/www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/rp-guides/visible_minority-minorites_visibles-eng.cfm (Accessed August 22, 2012).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Daily, Tuesday, June 15, 2010. Canadian Community Health Survey. Statistics Canada. Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100615/dq100615b-eng.htm (Accessed June 30, 2012).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Enquête 2008 sur le port du casque de sécurité: Tableaux statistiques. Société de l’assurance automobile du Québec. Available at: https://doi.org/www.saaq.gouv.qc.ca/rdsr/sites/files/12008004.pdf (Accessed August 22, 2012).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Page JL, Macpherson AK, Middaugh-Bonney T, Tator CH. Prevalence of helmet use by users of bicycles, push scooters, inline skates and skateboards in Toronto and the surrounding area in the absence of comprehensive legislation: An observational study. Inj Prev 2012;18(2):94–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nykolyshyn K, Petruk JA, Wiebe N, Cheung M, Belton K, Rowe BH. The use of bicycle helmets in a western Canadian province without legislation. Can J Public Health 2003;94(2):144–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Community Profiles from the 2006 Census — Visible minority population characteristics, Montreal. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://doi.org/www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=2466023&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&Data=Count&SearchText=montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Visible%20minori-ty&Custom= (Accessed August 22, 2012).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bonyun M, Camden A, Macarthur C, Howard A. Helmet use in BIXI cyclists in Toronto, Canada: An observational study. BMJ Open 2012;2(3). pii: e001049. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001049.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parkin PC, Khambalia A, Kmet L, Macarthur C. Influence of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation for children: A prospective observational study. Pediatrics 2003;112(3 Pt 1):e192–e196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tara Grenier
    • 5
    Email author
  • Dan L. Deckelbaum
    • 1
  • Kerianne Boulva
    • 2
  • Laura Drudi
    • 3
  • Mitra Feyz
    • 4
  • Nathalie Rodrigue
    • 5
  • Nancy Tze
    • 5
  • Paola Fata
    • 1
  • Kosar Khwaja
    • 1
  • Talat Chughtai
    • 1
  • Tarek Razek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, MUHC and Trauma ProgramMUHC-MGHMontrealCanada
  2. 2.University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  3. 3.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Traumatic Brain Injury ProgramMUHC-MGHMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Trauma ProgramMcGill University Health Centre (MUHC)-Montreal General Hospital (MGH)MontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations