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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 104, Supplement 6, pp S31–S38 | Cite as

Comparison of Dietary Intake Between Francophones and Anglophones in Canada: Data From CCHS 2.2

  • Malek BatalEmail author
  • Ewa Makvandi
  • Pascal Imbeault
  • Isabelle Gagnon-Arpin
  • Jean Grenier
  • Marie-Hélène Chomienne
  • Louise Bouchard
Quantitative Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare the dietary intake and food choices between Francophone Canadians in a state of linguistic minority (outside of Quebec) and the English-speaking majority.

Methods

We used the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.2 (general health and 24-hour dietary recalls) to describe dietary intake of Francophone Canadians (excluding Quebec) and compare them to the English-speaking majority. The linguistic variable was determined by languages spoken at home, first language learned and still understood, language of interview, and language of preference. The mean differences in daily nutrient and food intake were assessed by t and chi-square tests.

Results

Differences in total energy and daily food intakes by language groups were not observed in the sample; however, significant differences in weekly consumption were found in different age and sex categories: lower fruits and vegetables consumption, and vitamins and macronutrients intakes for older Francophone men and higher intakes of energy and saturated fat from “unhealthy” foods for Francophone men 19–30 years of age. Based on the Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR), approximately 50% of the sample exceeded their acceptable energy intake from saturated fats, and 80% were below their required intake of linoleic fatty acid.

Conclusion

We confirmed that belonging to Francophone minorities in Canada affects food choices and nutritional well-being of this population. The most vulnerable groups identified by our study were Francophone men in the youngest (19-30) and older (50 and over) age categories. The extent to which the cultural setting influences the diet and, in turn, the health of the minority population needs further examination.

Key Words

Nutrition diet energy intake food intake official language minorities 

Résumé

Objectifs

Comparer l’apport et le choix alimentaires entre la minorité linguistique francophone canadienne (hors Québec) et la majorité anglophone.

Méthodes

Nous avons utilisé l’Enquête de 2004 sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (ESCC), cycle 2.2 pour décrire l’apport alimentaire des Canadiens francophones et les comparer aux anglophones. La variable linguistique a été déterminée par les langues parlées à la maison, première langue apprise et encore comprise, langue de l’entrevue, et la langue de préférence. Les différences moyennes en nutriments et la prise alimentaire ont été évaluées par t-test et chi carré.

Résultats

Il n’y a aucune différence dans l’apport alimentaire total quotidien entre les groupes, mais des différences significatives existent dans la consommation alimentaire hebdomadaire pour certaines catégories de sexe et d’âge. Des apports plus faibles en fruits et légumes ainsi qu’en macronutriments et vitamines pour les hommes francophones âgés et une plus grande consommation d’énergie et de gras saturés provenant des aliments « autres » chez les jeunes hommes francophones ont été observés. Selon l’Étendue des valeurs acceptables pour les macronutriments (ÉVA), environ 50 % de l’échantillon ont dépassé leur apport énergétique acceptable de graisses saturées, et 80 % étaient en dessous de leur apport nécessaire d’acide gras linoléique.

Conclusions

Nous avons démontré que l’appartenance à la minorité linguistique francophone au Canada a un impact sur le choix alimentaire. Les groupes vulnérables sont les hommes entre 19 et 30 ans et au-dessus de 50 ans. Jusqu’à quel point cet aspect culturel influence-t-il la diète et conséquemment la santé demeure une question à élucider.

Mots Clés

nutrition régime alimentaire apport énergétique apport alimentaire minorité linguistique 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malek Batal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ewa Makvandi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pascal Imbeault
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Isabelle Gagnon-Arpin
    • 2
  • Jean Grenier
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  • Marie-Hélène Chomienne
    • 2
    • 3
    • 7
  • Louise Bouchard
    • 2
    • 3
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Réseau de recherche appliquée sur la santé des francophones de l’Ontario (RRASFO)OttawaCanada
  3. 3.Institut de recherche de l’Hôpital MontfortOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  5. 5.School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  6. 6.School of Psychology, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  7. 7.Department of Family Medicine and Epidemiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  8. 8.Institute of Population Health; Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

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