Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp e52–e58 | Cite as

Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics

  • Jennifer L. BlackEmail author
  • Jean-Michel Billette
Quantitative Research
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics.

Methods

Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality).

Results

On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake.

Conclusion

While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

Key Words

Fast foods food habits health surveys 

Résumé

Objectifs

Estimer la contribution des produits de restauration rapide à l’apport énergétique quotidien des Canadiens et examiner comment varie la consommation de ce type d’aliments en fonction des habitudes de vie et de certaines caractéristiques démographiques et socioéconomiques.

Méthodes

Des estimés représentatifs à l’échelle nationale de l’apport calorique moyen provenant d’aliments de restauration rapide ont été dérivés à l’aide des données du cycle 2.2 de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes pour un sous-échantillon de répondants âgés de deux ans et plus (n = 17 509). La méthodologie employée est celle du National Cancer Institute. Les apports quotidiens moyens et la proportion relative de calories issues d’aliments de restauration rapide ont été comparés en fonction des caractéristiques démographiques (âge, sexe, province et lieu de résidence rural/urbain), socioéconomiques (revenu, éducation, sécurité alimentaire) et des habitudes de vie (niveau d’activité physique, consommation de fruits et légumes, prise de suppléments de vitamines et de minéraux, tabagisme, consommation excessive d’alcool, indice de masse corporelle (IMC), perception de son état de santé et qualité des habitudes alimentaires).

Résultats

En moyenne, les Canadiens consommaient au moment de l’enquête 146 kcal de produits de restauration rapide par jour, ce qui représente 6,3% de l’apport énergétique quotidien habituel. Les adolescents de sexe masculin étaient caractérisés par les apports les plus élevés (248 kcal/jour) alors que les apports les plus faibles se retrouvaient chez les femmes de 70 ans ou plus (32 kcal/jour). La consommation de produits de restauration rapide était significativement supérieure chez les répondants ayant déclaré une plus faible consommation de fruits et légumes de même que des habitudes alimentaires de moindre qualité, qui ne prenaient pas de suppléments de vitamines ou de minéraux (adultes seulement) et dont l’IMC était plus élevé. Le statut socioéconomique, le niveau d’activité physique, le tabagisme et la perception de son état de santé n’étaient pas associés à la consommation d’aliments de restauration rapide.

Conclusion

Bien que la consommation moyenne de produits de restauration rapide au Canada soit inférieure aux estimations qui existent pour les États-Unis, elle apparaît liée à des habitudes alimentaires de moindre qualité et à un IMC plus élevé. Les résultats suggèrent que la recherche et les stratégies d’intervention devraient se concentrer sur les enfants et les adolescents, dont les apports habituels figurent parmi les plus élevés au Canada.

Mots Clés

restauration rapide habitudes alimentaires enquêtes sur la santé 

References

  1. 1.
    Garriguet D. Canadians’ eating habits. Health Rep 2007;18(2):17–32. PMID: 17578013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Statistics Canada. Canadians spending more on eating out, 2006. Available at: https://doi.org/www.www41.statcan.ca/2006/0163/ceb0163_002-eng.htm (Accessed November 24, 2012).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paeratakul S, Ferdinand DP, Champagne CM, Ryan DH, Bray, GA. Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103(11):1332–38. PMID: 14520253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harnack L, French S. Fattening up on fast food. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103(11): 1296–97. PMID: 14520246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Powell LM, Nguyen BT, Han E. Energy intake from restaurants: Demographics and socioeconomics, 2003–2008. Am J Prev Med 2012;43(5): 498–504. PMID: 23079172. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.041.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lachat C, Nago E, Verstraeten R, Roberfroid D, Van Camp J, Kolsteren P. Eating out of home and its association with dietary intake: A systematic review of the evidence. Obes Rev 2012;13(4):329–46. PMID: 22106948. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00953.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowman S, Gortmaker S, Ebbeling C, Pereira M, Ludwig D. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 2004;113(1):112–18. PMID: 14702458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGuire S, Todd JE, Mancino L, Lin B-H. The impact of food away from home on adult diet quality. ERR-90, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Econ. Res. Serv., February 2010. Adv Nutr 2011;2(5):442–43. PMID: 22332086. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000679.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garriguet D. Overview of Canadians’ eating habits. Catalogue, no. 82-620- MIE-No.2. Ottawa 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Black JL, Day M. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia. Can J Public Health 2012;103(4):255–59. PMID: 23618636.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiy V, et al. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. Health Place 2008;14(4):740–54. PMID: 18234537. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.12.001.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hemphill E, Raine K, Spence JC, Smoyer-Tomic, KE. Exploring obesogenic food environments in Edmonton, Canada: The association between socioeconomic factors and fast-food outlet access. Am J Health Promot 2008;22(6):426–32. PMID: 18677883. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.22.6.426.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frank L, Kerr J, Saelens B, Sallis J, Glanz K, Chapman J. Food outlet visits, physical activity and body weight: Variations by gender and race-ethnicity. Br J Sports Med 2009;43(2):124–31. PMID: 19042921. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008. 055533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thornton LE, Bentley RJ, Kavanagh, AM. Individual and area-level socioeconomic associations with fast food purchasing. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011;65(10):873–80. PMID: 20889585. doi: 10.1136/ jech.2009.099614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laska MN, Pasch KE, Lust K, Story M, Ehlinger E. Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among College Youth. Prev Sci 2009;10(4):376–86. PMID: 19499339. doi: 10.1007/s11121-009-0140-2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    French SA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25(12):1823–33. PMID: 11781764.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Cycle 2.2 (2004) Nutrition: General health and 24-hour dietary recall components user guide. [no. Catalogue 82M0024GPE.], 2008.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    United States Department of Agriculture. USDA automated multiple-pass method, 2009. Available at: https://doi.org/www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm? docID=7710 (Accessed June 2, 2014).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garriguet D. Under-reporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey. Health Rep 2008;19(4):37–45. PMID: 19226926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garriguet D. Impact of identifying plausible respondents on the underreporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey. Health Rep 2008;19(4):47–55. PMID: 19226927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Black JL, Billette, JM. Do Canadians meet Canada’s Food Guide’s recommendations for fruits and vegetables? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2013;38(3):234–42. PMID: 23537013. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Statistics Canada. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada 2012. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2014. Available at: https://doi.org/www.23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p3VD.pl?Function=getVD&TVD=118464&CVD=118471 &CPV=722512&CST=01012012&CLV=5&MLV=5 (Accessed October 15, 2014).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. Nutrition - General health (including vitamin and mineral supplements) and 24-hour dietary recall components — Master and share file derived variables documentation. Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/www.statcan.gc.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=5049 &lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2 (Accessed October 7, 2009).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    World Health Organization. Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical Report Series # 854. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 1995.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz, WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 2000;320(7244):1240–43. PMID: 10797032.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vatanparast H, Adolphe JL, Whiting, SJ. Socio-economic status and vitamin/ mineral supplement use in Canada. Health Rep 2010;21(4):19–25. PMID: 21269008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garriguet D. Diet quality in Canada. Health Rep 2009;20(3):41–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tooze JA, Midthune D, Dodd KW, Freedman LS, Krebs-Smith SM, Subar AF, et al. A new statistical method for estimating the usual intake of episodically consumed foods with application to their distribution. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(11):1575–87. PMID: 17000190.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J Nutr 1987;117(9):1638–41. PMID: 3655942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Šidák Z. Rectangular confidence regions for the means of multivariate normal distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 1967;62(318):626–33.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Euromonitor International. Fast food in Canada, 2012. Available at: https://doi.org/www.euromonitor.com/fast-food-in-canada/report (Accessed January 10, 2013).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lillico H, Hammond D, Manske S, Murnaghan D. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys. BMC Public Health 2014;14(1):323. PMID: 24708863. doi: 10.1186/ 1471-2458-14-323.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McPhail D, Chapman GE, Beagan, BL. “Too much of that stuff can’t be good”: Canadian teens, morality, and fast food consumption. Soc Sci Med 2011;73(2): 301–7. PMID: 21689876. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Poti JM, Duffey KJ, Popkin, BM. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: Is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet? Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99(1):162–71. PMID: 24153348. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nelson MC, Lust K, Story M, Ehlinger E. Alcohol use, eating patterns, and weight behaviors in a university population. Am J Health Behav 2009;33(3): 227–37. PMID: 19063644.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Champagne CM, Han H, Bajpeyi S, Rood J, Johnson WD, Lammi-Keefe CJ, et al. Day-to-day variation in food intake and energy expenditure in healthy women: The Dietitian II Study. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113(11):1532–38. PMID: 24021734. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.07.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scourboutakos MJ, L’Abbe, MR. Restaurant menus: Calories, caloric density, and serving size. Am J Prev Med 2012;43(3):249–55. PMID: 22898117. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.018.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Scourboutakos MJ, L’Abbe, MR. Sodium levels in Canadian fast-food and sit-down restaurants. Can J Public Health 2013;104(1):e2-e8. PMID: 23618115.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food SystemsUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Microdata Access DivisionStatistics CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations