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European Journal of Dermatology

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 452–459 | Cite as

Immunohistochemical markers of advanced basal cell carcinoma: CD56 is associated with a lack of response to vismodegib

  • Jean-Marie Castillo
  • Anne-Chantal Knol
  • Jean-Michel Nguyen
  • Amir Khammari
  • Mélanie Saint-Jean
  • Brigitte Dreno
Investigative report

Abstract

Background

Vismodegib is an effective treatment for advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but primary resistance to vismodegib remains to be elucidated. Alternative approaches are warranted to help selecting patients most likely to be responsive to treatment. The identification of immunohistochemical markers may support this perspective, as well as better understanding of resistance mechanisms.

Objectives

To determine the level of expression of CD56, PDGF-R, CD117, MMP9, TIMP3, and CXCR4 in advanced BCC, and explore whether expression levels are associated with non-response to vismodegib.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted. Immunohistochemical markers were selected based on their roles in tumour proliferation and/or migration in skin tumours. Tissue samples included pretreatment advanced BCC samples from patients treated with vismodegib, with an available response after six months of treatment. Regression optimised models were used to build hypotheses regarding a possible association between expression levels and non-response to vismodegib, whichwas then tested by logistic regression.

Results

Twenty-three patients were included. The percentage of samples expressing markers ranged from 43.5% (CD117) to 91.3% (CXCR4). CD56 expression was significantly associated with an increased risk of non-response to vismodegib (OR = 5.5; CI 95%: 3.4-29.8; p = 0.0488); a similar association was suggested for CXCR4 (p = 0.066), but not identified for other markers.

Conclusion

These results provide a better understanding of the expression of immunohistochemical markers in advanced BCC. Further detailed analysis of CD56 expression may provide insights into guiding further investigation of the correlation between this marker and non-response to vismodegib.

Key words

basal cell carcinoma immunohistochemistry treatment response vismodegib 

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Copyright information

© John Libbey Eurotext 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Marie Castillo
    • 1
  • Anne-Chantal Knol
    • 2
  • Jean-Michel Nguyen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Amir Khammari
    • 2
    • 4
  • Mélanie Saint-Jean
    • 4
  • Brigitte Dreno
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Family Medicine DepartmentNantes Medical SchoolNantesFrance
  2. 2.CRCNA, INSERM U892, CNRS 6299NantesFrance
  3. 3.PIMESP-SEBHôpital St JacquesNantesFrance
  4. 4.Dermato-Cancerology DepartmentCHU Hôtel-DieuNantesFrance
  5. 5.Unité de Thérapie Cellulaire et Génique (UTCG)CHU Hôtel-DieuNantesFrance

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