This study aims to elucidate the antiproliferative mechanism of hydroxychavicol (HC). Its effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HT-29 colon cancer cells were investigated. HC was isolated from Piper betle leaf (PBL) and verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cytotoxic effects of the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), PBL water extract, and HC on HT-29 cells were measured after 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment. Cell cycle and apoptosis modulation by 5-FU and HC treatments were investigated up to 30 h. Changes in phosphorylated JNK (pJNK) and P38 (pP38) MAPK expression were observed up to 18 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HC (30 µg/mL) and PBL water extract (380 µg/mL) were achieved at 24 h, whereas the IC50 of 5-FU (50 µmol/L) was obtained at 72 h. Cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in HC-treated cells was observed from 12 h onwards. Higher apoptotic cell death in HC-treated cells compared to 5-FU-treated cells (P<0.05) was observed. High expression of pJNK and pP38 MAPK was observed at 12 h in HC-treated cells, but not in 5-FU-treated HT-29 cells (P<0.05). It is concluded that HC induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HT-29 cells, with these actions possibly mediated by JNK and P38 MAPK.
阐明羟基胡椒酚 (HC) 的抗恶性细胞增生的机制. 并研究 HC 对 HT-29 结肠癌细胞的细胞周期、 凋亡及 c-Jun 氨基末端激酶 (JNK) 和 P38 丝裂原活化蛋白激酶 (MAPK)表达的影响.
从蒌叶 (PBL) 中分离出 HC, 经高效液相色谱 (HPLC)、 核磁共振 (NMR) 和气相色谱-质谱 (GC-MS) 进行检测. 在处理 24、 48 和 72 h 后, 检测标准药物 5-氟尿嘧啶 (5-FU)、 PBL 水提物和 HC 对 HT-29 细胞的细胞毒性作用. 检测 30 h 内 5-FU 和 HC 处理对细胞周期和凋亡的调控作用. 同时检测 18 h 内磷酸化 JNK (pJNK) 和磷酸化 P38 (pP38) MAPK 的表达变化.
HC (30 μg/ mL) 和 PBL 水提物 (380 μg/ mL) 的半数最大抑制浓度 (IC50) 值在 24 h 时达到, 而 5-FU (50 μmol/ L) 的 IC50 值在 72 h 时达到. 从 12 h 开始 HC 处理的细胞停滞在细胞周期的 G0/G1期. 与 5-FU 处理的细胞相比, HC 处理的细胞凋亡率更高 (P<0.05). 在 HC 处理的细胞中, pJNK 和 pP38 MAPK在 12 h 时出现高表达, 而在 5-FU 处理的 HT-29 细胞中则没有 (P<0.05).
由此可见, HC 可诱导 HT-29 细胞的细胞周期阻滞和凋亡, 这些作用可能由 JNK和 P38 MAPK 介导.
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This reasearch was supported by the Taylor’s Research Grant Scheme (No. TRGS/MFS/2/2013/SBS/003), Malaysia. We thank Taylor’s University and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) for the laboratory facilities.
Aiysvariyah RAJEDADRAM, Kar Yong PIN, Sui Kiong LING, See Wan YAN, and Mee Lee LOOI declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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Rajedadram, A., Pin, K.Y., Ling, S.K. et al. Hydroxychavicol, a polyphenol from Piper betle leaf extract, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in TP53-resistant HT-29 colon cancer cells. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 22, 112–122 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000446
- Piper betle
- Hydroxychavicol (HC)
- Cell cycle
- c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)
- P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
- 羟基胡椒酚 (HC)
- c-Jun 氨基末端激酶 (JNK)
- P38 丝裂原活化蛋白激酶 (MAPK)