Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system
- 66 Downloads
This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system.
Key wordsArtificial anal sphincter Transcutaneous energy transmission Current density Specific absorption rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Arai, K., Ninomiya, A., Ishigohka, T., Takano, K., Matsui, K., Michael, P.C., Vieira, R.F., Martovetsky, N.N., Kaiho, K., Nakajima, H., et al., 2002. Acoustic emission during DC operations of the ITER central solenoid model coil. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercon., 12(1):504–507. [doi:10.1109/TASC.2002.1018453]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cristina, S., Parise, M., 2008. Calculation of EM Power Deposition for Exposure to Shortwave Induction Diathermy. IET 7th International Conference on Computation in Electromagnetics. Brighton, UK, p.208–209. [doi:10.1049/cp:20080264]Google Scholar
- ICNIRP Guideline, 1998. Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys., 74(4):494–522.Google Scholar
- ICNIRP, 2009. Exposure to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, Biological Effects and Health Consequences (100 kHz—300 GHz). Available from http://www.icnirp.de/activities.htm [Accessed on Jan. 2, 2010]
- Zan, P., Yan, G.Z., Liu, H., 2008a. A novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission. High Technol. Lett., 14(4):423–428. [doi:10.3772/j.issn.1006-6748.2008.04.016]Google Scholar
- Zhao, X.L., Kinouchi, Y., Yasuno, E., Gao, D., Iritani, T., Morimoto, T., Takeuchi, M., 2004. A new method for noninvasive measurement of multilayer tissue conductivity and structure using divided electrodes. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 51(2):362–370. [doi:10.1109/TBME.2003.820403]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar