Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 606–612 | Cite as

Factors affecting the formation of trihalomethanes in the presence of bromide during chloramination

  • Yong-ji Zhang
  • Ling-ling Zhou
  • Guo Zeng
  • Zheng-guo Song
  • Gui-bai Li


The effects of the concentration of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC), the TOC/Br ratio, bromide ion levels, the chlorine to ammonia-N ratio (Cl:N), the monochloramine dose and the chlorine dose on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) (including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, and bromoform) from chlorination were investigated using aqueous humic acid (HA) solutions. The profile of the chloramine decay was also studied under various bromide ion concentrations. Monochloramine decayed in the presence of organic material and bromide ions. The percentage of chloroform and brominated THMs varied according to the TOC/Br ratio. Total THMs (TTHMs) formation increased from 112 to 190 μg/L with the increase concentrations of bromide ions from 0.67 to 6.72 mg/L, but the chlorine-substituted THMs were replaced by bromine-substituted THMs. A strong linear correlation was obtained between the monochloramine dose and the formation of THMs for Cl:N ratios of 3:1 and 5:1. These ratios had a distinct effect on the formation of chloroform but had little impact on the formation of bromodichloromethane or chlorodibromomethane. The presence of bromide ions increased the rate of monochloramine decay.

Key words

Trihalomethanes (THMs) Humic acid (HA) Bromide Monochloramine 

CLC number

TU991.2 X5 


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Copyright information

© Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-ji Zhang
    • 1
  • Ling-ling Zhou
    • 2
  • Guo Zeng
    • 1
  • Zheng-guo Song
    • 1
  • Gui-bai Li
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of EducationTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources ReuseTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.School of Municipal and Environmental EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

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