Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 42–49 | Cite as

A hardware/software co-optimization approach for embedded software of MP3 decoder

  • Zhang Wei 
  • Liu Peng 
  • Zhai Zhi-bo 


In order to improve the efficiency of embedded software running on processor core, this paper proposes a hardware/software co-optimization approach for embedded software from the system point of view. The proposed stepwise methods aim at exploiting the structure and the resources of the processor as much as possible for software algorithm optimization. To achieve low memory usage and low frequency need for the same performance, this co-optimization approach was used to optimize embedded software of MP3 decoder based on a 16-bit fixed-point DSP core. After the optimization, the results of decoding 128 kbps, 44.1 kHz stereo MP3 on DSP evaluation platform need 45.9 MIPS and 20.4 kbytes memory space. The optimization rate achieves 65.6% for memory and 49.6% for frequency respectively compared with the results by compiler using floating-point computation. The experimental result indicates the availability of the hardware/software co-optimization approach depending on the algorithm and architecture.

Key words

Hardware/software co-optimization DSP Embedded software MP3 decoder 

CLC number



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anguita, M., Martinez-Lechado, J.M., 2005. MP3 optimization exploiting processor architecture and using better algorithms. IEEE Micro., 25(3):81–92. [doi:10.1109/MM.2005.57]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Britanak, V., Rao, K.R., 2001. An efficient implementation of the forward and inverse MDCT in MPEG audio coding. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 8(2):48–51. [doi:10.1109/97.895372]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, J.C., Yao, Q.D., Liu, P., Shi, C., 2004. MD16, DSP with Some RISC Features for Embedded System. IEEE Int. Conf. Signal Processing Proceedings, p.144–147.Google Scholar
  4. Goossens, G., van Praet, J., Lanneer, D., Geurts, W., Kifli, A., Liem, C., Paulin, P.G., 1997. Embedded software in real-time signal processing systems: design technologies. Proc. IEEE, 85(3):436–454. [doi:10.1109/5.558718]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang, W.K., Lin, I.T., Chen, S.W., Huang, I.J., 2005. A Cost-effective Media Processor for Embedded Applications. ISCAS 2005, p.6122–6125.Google Scholar
  6. ISO/IEC 11172-3, 1993. Informational Technology—Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital: Storage Media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s. Part 3: Audio. 1st Ed.Google Scholar
  7. Konstantinides, K., 1994. Fast subband filtering in MPEG audio coding. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 1(2):26–28. [doi:10.1109/97.300309]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, B.G., 1984. A new algorithm to compute the discrete cosine transform. IEEE Trans. Acoustic Speech Signal Processing, 32(6):1243–1245. [doi:10.1109/TASSP.1984.1164443]CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, K.H., Lee, K.S., Hwang, T.H., Park, Y.C., Youn, D.H., 2001. An architecture and implementation of MPEG audio layer3 decoder using dual-core DSP. IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, 47(4):928–933. [doi:10.1109/30.982810]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, K.S., Oh, H.O., Park, Y.C., Youn, D.H., 2001. High Quality MPEG-Audio Layer3 Algorithm for a 16-bit DSP. ISCAS 2001, p.205–208.Google Scholar
  11. Lee, K.S., Park, Y.C., Youn, D.H., 2002. Software optimization of the MPEG-audio decoder using a 32-bit MCU RISC processor. IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, 48(3):671–676. [doi:10.1109/TCE.2002.1037059]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nattawut, T., Alex, D., 2004. Hardware-software Co-design of Resource Constrained Systems on a Chip. Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Proceedings 24th International Conference, p.818–823.Google Scholar
  13. Pospiech, F., Olsen, S., 2003. Embedded Software in the SoC World. How HdS Helps to Face the HW and SW Design Challenge. Proc. IEEE, Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, p.653–658.Google Scholar
  14. Wiangtong, T., Cheung, P.Y.K., Luk, W., 2005. Hardware/software codesign: a systematic approach targeting data-intensive applications. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 22(3):14–22. [doi:10.1109/MSP.2005.1425894]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yao, Y.B., Yao, Q.D., Liu, P., Xiao, Z.B., 2004. Embedded software optimization for MP3 decoder implemented on RISC core. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 50(4):1244–1249. [doi:10.1109/TCE.2004.1362526]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhou, F., Yang, J., Shi, L.X., Zhang, Y., 2005. Hardware-software Partition of Fixed-point Hardware Accelerator from Statistical Perspective. International Conference on ASIC, p.148–151. [doi:10.1109/ICASIC.2005.1611272]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information Science and Electronic EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations