Materials and Structures

, Volume 49, Issue 12, pp 4929–4945 | Cite as

An approach to couple aging to stiffness and permanent deformation modeling of asphalt mixtures

  • Lucas F. de A. L. Babadopulos
  • Jorge Luis S. Ferreira
  • Jorge B. Soares
Original Article


This work presents an effort to evaluate aging in asphalt mixtures and investigate the evolution of resistance to permanent deformation in aged materials. A phenomenological model from the literature (based on an internal state variable for aging) is adopted and a proposition is made for an experimental procedure for simulation of asphalt mixture aging in laboratory, based on a RILEM protocol. With the model that combines aging and linear viscoelasticity (Prony series were studied in this paper), experimental results for storage (real part of complex modulus) and loss (imaginary part of complex modulus) moduli are predicted for a reference asphalt mixture and for the same mixture, but at three other aging states. Complex modulus tests were used to obtain stiffness properties, while uniaxial repeated load tests were used to obtain permanent deformation characteristics (such as the Flow Number). The evolutions of stiffness and of resistance to permanent deformation with aging are simulated to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. The aging model is also coupled to permanent deformation parameters and their evolution was simulated in the material level. It was observed that aging increased asphalt mixture resistance to permanent deformation faster for more evolved aging states, indicating that permanent deformation is a distress more likely to occur at early ages. When it comes to the linear viscoelastic characterization, it was observed that not only a vertical shift but also an inclination of the master curves for the norm of complex modulus occurs after aging. That phenomenon was also visible when analyzing the discrete spectra (LVE models).


Asphalt mixtures Aging Complex modulus Uniaxial repeated load Flow number 


  1. 1.
    White TD, Haddock JE, Hand AJT, Fang H (2002) Contributions of pavement structural layers to rutting of hot mix asphalt pavements, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 468, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Partl MN, Bahia HU, Canestrari, F, Roche CDL, Di Benedetto H et al (2012) Advances in interlaboratory testing and evaluation of bituminous materials. Report STAR 206-ATB. Unedited version of State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATBGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Rub RKA, Darabi MK, Kim S-M, Little DN, Glover CJ (2013) Mechanistic-based constitutive modeling of oxidative aging in aging-susceptible materials and its effect on the damage potential of asphalt concrete. Constr Build Mater 41:439–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniel JS, Kim YR, Lee HJ (1998) Effects of aging on viscoelastic properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures. Transp Res Rec 1630:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michalica P, Kazatchkov IB, Stastna J, Zanzotto L (2008) Relationship between chemical and rheological properties of two asphalts of different origins. Fuel 87:3247–3253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babadopulos LFAL, Soares JB, Castelo Branco VTF (2014) Aging and constitutive modeling of asphalt mixtures: Research developments in Brazil. Asphalt Pavements, pp 1059–1068Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Babadopulos LFAL (2014) A contribution to couple aging to hot mix asphalt (HMA) mechanical characterization under load-induced damage. M.Sc. Thesis, Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Park SW, Schapery RA (1999) Methods of interconversion between linear viscoelastic material functions. Part I: a numerical method based on Prony series. Int J Solids Struct 36:1653–1675CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Babadopulos, LFAL (2013) Avaliação do modelo viscoelástico linear aplicado a misturas asfálticas utilizadas em revestimentos de pavimentos no Brasil. B.Sc. Thesis, Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil. (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva, HN (2009) Caracterização viscoelástica linear de misturas asfálticas: operacionalização computacional e análise pelo método dos elementos finitos. M.Sc. Thesis, Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil. (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lau CK, Lunsford KM, Glover CJ, Davison RR, Bullin JA (1992) Reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from POV aging of asphalts. Transp Res Rec 1342:50–57Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee DY, Huang RJ (1973) Weathering of asphalts as characterized by infrared multiple internal reflection spectra. Appl Spectrosc 27(6):435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petersen JC, Branthaver JF, Robertson RE, Harnsberger PM, Duvall JJ, Ensley EK (1993) Effects of physicochemical factors on asphalt oxidation kinetics. Transp Res Rec 1391:1–10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu M, Ferry MA, Davison RR, Glover CJ, Bullin JA (1998) Oxygen uptake as correlated to carbonyl growth in aged asphalts and asphalt Corbett fractions. Ind Eng Chem Res 37:4669–4674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perraton D, Di Benedetto H, Sauzéat C, Roche CDL, Bankowski W, Partl M, Grenfell J (2011) Rutting of bituminous mixtures: wheel tracking tests campaign analysis. Mater Struct 44(5):969–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coleri E, Harvey JT, Yang K, Boone JM (2013) Investigation of asphalt concrete rutting mechanisms by X-ray computed tomography imaging and micromechanical finite element modeling. Mater Struct 46(6):1027–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang J, Alvarez AE, Sang IL, Torres A, Walubita LF (2013) Comparison of flow number, dynamic modulus, and repeated load tests for evaluation of HMA permanent deformation. Constr Build Mater 44:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Witczak MW, Kaloush K, Pellinen T (2002) Simple performance test for Superpave mix design, National Cooperative Highway Research Program – NCHRP Report 465, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    AASHTO T 342 (2011) Standard Method of Test for Determining dynamic modulus of hot mix asphalt concrete mixtures, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Williams ML, Landel RF, Ferry JD (1955) The temperature dependence relaxation mechanisms in amorphous polymers and other glass-forming liquids. J Am Chem Soc 77(14):3701–3707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glover CJ, Martin AE, Chowdhury A, Han R, Prapaitrakul N, Jin X, Lawrence, J (2008) Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete: literature review and experimental design Report No FHWA/TX-08/0-6009-1Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park SW, Kim YR (2001) Fitting Prony-series viscoelastic models with power-law presmoothing. J Mater Civ Eng 13(1):26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walubita LF (2006) Comparison of fatigue analysis approaches for predicting fatigue lives of hot mix asphalt concrete mixtures (HMA). Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TXGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucas F. de A. L. Babadopulos
    • 1
  • Jorge Luis S. Ferreira
    • 1
  • Jorge B. Soares
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Pavement Mechanics (LMP), Department of Transportation EngineeringFederal University of Ceará (UFC)FortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations