Advertisement

Materials and Structures

, Volume 49, Issue 7, pp 2767–2780 | Cite as

Pore-related properties of natural hydraulic lime mortars: an experimental study

  • A. Isebaert
  • W. De Boever
  • F. Descamps
  • J. Dils
  • M. Dumon
  • G. De Schutter
  • E. Van Ranst
  • V. Cnudde
  • L. Van Parys
Original Article

Abstract

Restoration of historic buildings is often executed using lime mortars. A restoration mortar is considered compatible with the original building materials when it answers to certain criteria, such as the facilitation of moisture transport. This can be determined by studying porosity, permeability, and the pore size distribution of both materials. Since NHL mortars are used in restoration of the exterior, where water and moisture are ever-present, a good characterization in terms of their pore-related properties is necessary. This study therefore researched characteristics of pure NHL mortars, without metakaolin or pozzolan additives. In this study, 16 different mortar recipes were made with NHL 5, the most hydraulic NHL type. The mortars had variations in spread, sand type and grain size. The sand types varied from coarse-grained to very fine, in order to be able to study the influence of the largest and smallest grains. The spread was adapted from 120 to 180 mm by changing the water:binder ratio. This allows understanding the influence of binding water on these pore-related properties. The measured pore-related properties were linked to compressive strength measurements, so as to characterize these eminently hydraulic limes also on a mechanical level. Nearly 180 samples were tested after 90 days of curing. All mortars show a bimodal pore size distribution. Depending on the sand type and the mortar spread, the mechanical strength varied from 1 to 10 MPa and pore sizes varied from the larger to smaller pore region. This demonstrates the large influence aggregates and water have on the properties of the hardened mortar. In general, the influence of the variation in water:binder ratio was less apparent, although an excess of binding water was translated into a change towards smaller pores, higher porosity and lower compressive strength. This study demonstrates that NHL 5 lime can be a good binder for restoration mortars, in which the properties of the mortar can be adapted through variation of aggregate grain size and spread. This allows researching a possible estimation of properties before making the mortars.

Keywords

Natural hydraulic lime Aggregate variation W/B variation Pore size distribution MIP Permeability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the technical support at the Civil Engineering and Structural Mechanics research group at the University of Mons as well as the technical support at Ghent University for the preparation of the mortar samples and assistance with the tests. The special research fund of Ghent University is acknowledged for the Ph.D. scholarship of W. De Boever.

References

  1. 1.
    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki P, Bakolas A, Karatasios I, Kilikoglou V (2005) Hydraulic lime mortars for the restoration of historic masonry in Crete. Cem Concr Res 35:1577–1586. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tunçoku SS, Caner-Saltık EN (2006) Opal-A rich additives used in ancient lime mortars. Cem Concr Res 36:1886–1893. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schueremans L, Cizer Ö, Janssens E, Serré G, Van Balen K (2011) Characterization of repair mortars for the assessment of their compatibility in restoration projects: research and practice. Constr Build Mater 25:4338–4350. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    André M, Phalip B, Voldoire O, Roussel E, Vautier F, Morel D (2012) Quantitative assessment of post-restoration accelerated stone decay due to compatibility problems (St. Sebastian’s abbey church, Manglieu, French Massif Central). In: 12th international congress deterioration and conservation of stone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mosquera MJ, Silva B, Prieto B, Ruiz-Herrera E (2006) Addition of cement to lime-based mortars: effect on pore structure and vapor transport. Cem Concr Res 36:1635–1642. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.10.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mosquera M, Benítez D, Perry S (2002) Pore structure in mortars applied on restoration: effect on properties relevant to decay of granite buildings. Cem Concr Res 32:1883–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arandigoyen M, Alvarez JI (2007) Pore structure and mechanical properties of cement–lime mortars. Cem Concr Res 37:767–775. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.02.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pavía S, Toomey B (2007) Influence of the aggregate quality on the physical properties of natural feebly-hydraulic lime mortars. Mater Struct 41:559–569. doi: 10.1617/s11527-007-9267-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isebaert A, Van Parys L, Cnudde V (2014) Composition and compatibility requirements of mineral repair mortars for stone—a review. Constr Build Mater 59:39–50. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.02.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rodrigues JD, Grossi A (2007) Indicators and ratings for the compatibility assessment of conservation actions. J Cult Herit 8:32–43. doi: 10.1016/j.culher.2006.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sasse HR, Snethlage R (1997) Methods for the evaluation of stone conservation treatments.pdf. In: Baer NS, Snethlage R (eds) Dahlem workshop saving our architectural heritage: the conservation of historic stone structures. Wiley, New York, pp 223–43Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Torney C, Forster AM, Szadurski EM (2014) Specialist restoration mortars for stone elements: a comparison of the physical properties of two stone repair materials. Herit Sci 2:1–12. doi: 10.1186/2050-7445-2-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schueremans L, Van Balen K, Cizer O, Janssens E, Serré G, Elsen J et al (2010) Compatibility of repair mortars in restoration projects. In: 8th international mason conference, Dresden, pp 785–94Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lawrence RM, Mays TJ, Rigby SP, Walker P, D’Ayala D (2007) Effects of carbonation on the pore structure of non-hydraulic lime mortars. Cem Concr Res 37:1059–1069. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Huertas MO (2005) Forced and natural carbonation of lime-based mortars with and without additives: mineralogical and textural changes. Cem Concr Res 35:2278–2289. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arizzi A, Cultrone G (2012) The difference in behaviour between calcitic and dolomitic lime mortars set under dry conditions: the relationship between textural and physical–mechanical properties. Cem Concr Res 42:818–826. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufmann J, Loser R, Leemann A (2009) Analysis of cement-bonded materials by multi-cycle mercury intrusion and nitrogen sorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 336:730–737. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baroghel-Bouny V (2007) Water vapour sorption experiments on hardened cementitious materials. Cem Concr Res 37:414–437. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loosveldt H, Lafhaj Z, Skoczylas F (2002) Experimental study of gas and liquid permeability of a mortar. Cem Concr Res 32:1357–1363. doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00793-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCarter W, Starrs G, Chrisp T (2000) Electrical conductivity, diffusion, and permeability of Portland cement-based mortars. Cem Concr Res 30:1395–1400. doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00281-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sanjuan M, Muñoz-Martialay R (1996) Influence of the water/cement ratio on the air permeability of concrete. J Mater Sci 31:2829–2832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamami AA, Turcry P, Aït-Mokhtar A (2012) Influence of mix proportions on microstructure and gas permeability of cement pastes and mortars. Cem Concr Res 42:490–498. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kalagri A, Karatasios I, Kilikoglou V (2014) The effect of aggregate size and type of binder on microstructure and mechanical properties of NHL mortars. Constr Build Mater 53:467–474. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cizer O, Balen K Van, Gemert D Van, Elsen J. Blended lime–cement mortars for conservation purposes: microstructure and strength development, vol 2. In: 6th international conference structural analysis historic construction preservation safety significance. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Bath, pp 965–972Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pavia S, Brennan O (2013) Portland cement–lime mortars for conservation. In: 3rd historic mortars conference, vol 1, Glasgow, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Silva BA, Ferreira Pinto AP, Gomes A (2014) Influence of natural hydraulic lime content on the properties of aerial lime-based mortars. Constr Build Mater 72:208–218. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grilo J, Faria P, Veiga R, Santos Silva A, Silva V, Velosa A (2014) New natural hydraulic lime mortars—physical and microstructural properties in different curing conditions. Constr Build Mater 54:378–384. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bianco N, Calia A, Denotarpietro G, Negro P (2013) Hydraulic mortar and problems related to the suitability for restoration 1. Period Di Mineral 82:529–542. doi: 10.2451/2013PM0031 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nichols G (2009) Sedimentology and stratigraphy, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chang C-F, Chen J-W (2006) The experimental investigation of concrete carbonation depth. Cem Concr Res 36:1760–1767. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.07.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Washburn EW (1921) The dynamics of capillary flow. Phys Rev 17:273–283. doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.17.273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall C, Hoff WD (2011) Water transport in brick, stone and concrete, 2nd edn. Spon Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lanas J, Pérez Bernal JL, Bello MA, Alvarez Galindo JI (2004) Mechanical properties of natural hydraulic lime-based mortars. Cem Concr Res 34:2191–2201. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Isebaert
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. De Boever
    • 1
  • F. Descamps
    • 2
  • J. Dils
    • 3
  • M. Dumon
    • 4
  • G. De Schutter
    • 3
  • E. Van Ranst
    • 4
  • V. Cnudde
    • 1
  • L. Van Parys
    • 2
  1. 1.PProGRessGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Materials InstituteUniversity of MonsMonsBelgium
  3. 3.Magnel LaboratoryGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Laboratory of Soil ScienceGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations