Materials and Structures

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 1425–1450 | Cite as

Laboratory study of the effect of RAP conditioning on the mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt containing RAP

Original Article


This paper evaluates the effect of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) laboratory conditioning on the rheological properties of recycled hot-mix asphalt. Four different conditioning processes were used on a single RAP source before mixing: unheated RAP, RAP heated at 110 °C in a microwave, RAP heated in a covered pan at 110 °C in a draft oven, and RAP heated in a non-covered pan at 110 °C in a draft oven. Dense graded 20 mm HMA was designed using a PG 64-28 binder and mixed with 25 % of the four different conditioned RAPs. Thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) and complex modulus test were used to characterize RAP conditioning effect. Test results showed that the complex modulus of the four mixes has no different rheological behaviour, and did not affect TSRST results as much.


Reclaimed asphalt pavement Recycling Binders Complex modulus TSRST RAP conditioning 



This work was funded by the Missions Sectors in Egypt and the École de Technologie Supérieure. The authors would like to thank the companies in Quebec that provided us with the materials and with all the needed data for the project.


  1. 1.
    Al-Ohaly AA (1987) Laboratory evaluation of microwave heated asphalt pavement materials. Ph.D thesis, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvarez C, Bonneau D, Dupriet S, Le Noan C, Olard F (2008) Very high rate (50%) in hot mix and warm mix asphalts for sustainable road construction. In: Proceedings of the 4th eurasphalt and eurobitume congress, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shah A, McDaniel RS, Huber GA, Gallivan VL (1998). Investigation of properties of plant-produced reclaimed asphalt pavement mixtures. Transp Res Rec 1998:103–111Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniel JS, Lachance A (2004) Rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). In: Transportation research board annual meeting proceeding, TRB paper no.: 04-4507Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Delaporte B, Di Benedetto H, Chaverot P, Gauthier G (2007) Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous materials: from binders to mastics. Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol 76:488–494Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Di Benedetto H, Partl MN, Francken L, De la Roche Saint Andre C (2001) Stiffness testing for bituminous mixtures. Mater Struct 34(2):66–70. doi: 10.1007/BF02481553 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    FHWA Superpave Mixture Expert Task Group (1997) Guidelines for the design of Superpave mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Accessed 5 Oct 2011
  8. 8.
    Guthrie W, Cooley D, Eggett D (2007) Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on mechanical properties of base materials. Transp Res Rec 2005:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang B, Kingery WR, Zhang Z, Zuo G (2004) Laboratory study of fatigue characteristics of HMA surface mixtures containing RAP. In: Transportation research board annual meeting proceeding, TRB paper no.: 04-4088Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isacsson U, Zeng H (1998) Low-temperature cracking of polymer-modified asphalt. Mater Struct 31:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jaffee BI (2001) Implementation of the SUPERPAVE(TM) level 1 mixture design system in the Cooper Union Asphalt Technology Laboratory by classifying an asphalt binder and compacting samples in the gyratory compactor. M.E. thesis, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kandhal PS, Rao SS, Watson DE, Young B (1995) Performance of recycled hot mix asphalt mixtures in the state of Georgia. NCAT report 95-1. National Centre for Asphalt Technology, AuburnGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malpass GA (2003) The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in new Superpave asphalt concrete mixtures. Ph.D thesis, North Carolina State University, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McDaniel R, Soleymani H, Shah A (2002) Use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) under superpave specifications: A regional pooled fund study. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2002/6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McDaniel R, Soleymani H, Anderson RM, Turner P, Peterson R (2000) Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Superpave mix design method. NCHRP Web document no. 30. TRB, National Research Council, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McDaniel R, Anderson RM (2001) Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Superpave mix design method: technician’s manual. NCHRP report 452. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Olard F, Di Benedetto H (2003) General “2S2P1D” model and relation between the linear viscoelastic behaviours of bituminous binders and mixes. Road Mater Pavement Des 4(2):185–224Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pellinen TK, Witczak MW (2002) Stress dependent master curve construction for dynamic (complex) modulus. Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol 71:281–309Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Potyondy AJ (1996) Recycling waste roofing material in hot mix asphalt pavement. M.Sc. thesis, Technical University of Nova Scotia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Raad L, Saboundjian S, Sebaaly P, Epps J (1998) Thermal cracking models for AC and modified mixes in Alaska. Transportation research record, no. 1545. J Transp Res Board 1629:117–126Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robert FL, Kandhal PS, Brown ER, Lee DY, Kennedy TW (1996) Hot mix asphalt materials, mixture design, and construction. National Asphalt Pavement Association Education Foundation, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sargious M, Mushule N (1991) Behaviour of recycled asphalt pavement at low temperatures. Can J Civil Eng 18:428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shah A, McDaniel RS, Gerald AH, Gallivan VL (2007) Investigation of properties of plant-produced reclaimed asphalt pavement mixtures. Transportation research record, no. 1998. J Transp Res Board:103–111. doi: 10.3141/1998-13
  24. 24.
    Sullivan J (1996) Pavement recycling executive summary and report. Report no. FHWA-SA-95-060. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tam KK, Joseph P, Lynch DF (1992) Five-year experience of low-temperature performance of recycled hot mix. Transportation research record, no. 1362. J Transp Res Board:56–65Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    The Asphalt Institute (2003) Performance graded asphalt binder specification and testing, SP-1. The Asphalt Institute, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Young JF, Mindess S, Gray RJ, Bentur A (1998) The science and technology of civil engineering materials. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar


  1. 28.
    AASHTO (1998) Standard test method for determining the rheological properties of asphalt binder using a dynamic shear rheometer. Test method TP5-95, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 29.
    AASHTTO (2001) Standard test method for thermal stress restrained specimen tensile strength. Test method TP10. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. 30.
    AASHTTO (2003) Standard method of test for determining dynamic modulus of hot-mix asphalt concrete mixtures. AASHTO TP 62-03, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. 31.
    AASHTO (2008) Standard method of test for determining the flexural creep stiffness of asphalt binder using the bending beam rheometer (BBR). Test method T 313-08, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  5. 32.
    ASTM (2006a) Standard test method for viscosity determination of asphalt at elevated temperatures using a rational viscometer (D4402-06). American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  6. 33.
    ASTM (2006b) Standard test method for penetration of bituminous materials (D5-06el)Google Scholar
  7. 34.
    EN 12697-35 (2007) Bituminous mixtures: test methods for hot mix asphalt—part 35: Laboratory mixingGoogle Scholar
  8. 35.
    LC 21-010, Sample rateGoogle Scholar
  9. 36.
    LC 21-040, Gradation analysisGoogle Scholar
  10. 37.
    LC 25-001, Recovery of bitumen solution by Evaporation rotativeGoogle Scholar
  11. 38.
    LC 26-003, Determination of the ability of compaction of hot mix asphalt by means of the gyratory compactorGoogle Scholar
  12. 39.
    LC 26-006, Determination of asphalt content by ignition ovenGoogle Scholar
  13. 40.
    LC 26-100, Determination of content asphalt (by extraction with trichloroethylene)Google Scholar
  14. 41.
    LC 26-350, Aggregate grading analysisGoogle Scholar
  15. 42.
    LC 26-045, Determination of the maximum densityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département du Génie de la ConstructionÉcole de Technologie SupérieureMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations