Materials and Structures

, Volume 45, Issue 1–2, pp 277–296 | Cite as

Service life of RC structures: chloride induced corrosion: prescriptive versus performance-based methodologies

  • Pedro F. Marques
  • António Costa
  • Francesca Lanata
Original Article

Abstract

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to aggressive environmental exposure conditions are traditionally designed to satisfy safety, serviceability, durability and aesthetics requirements throughout their operational design service life. This is usually established using time-dependent mathematical models, developed through performance-based methodologies in guidelines and European and national standards. However, at present, in most cases, prescriptive methodologies are used. The objective of this paper is to compare, as regards chloride induced corrosion, defined target periods of service life according to a prescriptive methodology with service life results of a performance-based methodology. In the laboratory concrete specimens were manufactured having compositions according to a prescriptive specification. These specimens were tested in order to determine their performance properties (strength, chloride diffusion and capillary absorption). Test results were included in the mathematical models of the performance-based specifications. The classic safety factor and recent probabilistic approaches have been used to estimate the service life of each composition being compared to the target periods defined in the prescriptive specification. Numerical calculations show that the results of the Partial Safety Factor and a full probabilistic approach are distinctly different and consequently their convergence still needs to be improved, due to the complexity of the process of chloride penetration into the concrete, not only the model but also the input values. When compared to performance-based approaches it would be expected that the prescriptive methodology would be more conservative due to its less quantified information on concrete and environment properties, though in this study this was not always true.

Keywords

Chloride corrosion Durability Performance-based methodology Service life 

References

  1. 1.
    EN 1990—Eurocode 0 (2002) Bases of structural design. CEN, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    EN 1992-1-1—Eurocode 2 (2004) Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1: general rules and rules for buildings. CEN, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    CEB-FIP (1993) Model Code 1990. T. Thelford, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DuraCrete (2000) Probabilistic performance based durability design of concrete structures. The European Union—Brite EuRam III, DuraCrete, Final Technical Report of DuraCrete project, Document BE95-1347/R17, CUR, Gouda, NederlandGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    fib (2006) Bulletin 34. Model code for service life design. Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    RILEM (1996) Report 14—durability design of concrete structures. E&FN Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folić R (2009) Durability design of concrete structures—part 1: analysis fundamentals. Sci J Facta Univ Ser Arch Civ Eng 7(1):1–18. doi: 10.2298/FUACE0901001F
  8. 8.
    Mays G (2001) Durability of concrete structures: investigation repair protection. E&FN Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    ICDCS (2008) Advances in concrete structural durability proc int conf on durability of concrete structures. Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, China November 2008Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    RILEM (2009) Concrete durability and service life planning. In: Kovler (ed) Proceedings of 2nd international RILEM workshop concrete life’09, Haifa, Israel, September 2009Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Costa A, Appleton J (2002) Case studies of concrete deterioration in a marine environment in Portugal. Cem Concr Comp 24(1):169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costa A, Appleton J (1998) Inspecção e Reabilitação de 4 Pontes Cais. Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, LNEC, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    REBA (1967) Regulamento de Estruturas de Betão Armado. Decreto no 47723 de 20 de MaioGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    REBAP (1983) Regulamento de Estruturas de Betão Armado e Pré-esforçado. Decreto-Lei no 349-C/83 de 30 de JulhoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mitchell D, Frohnsdorff G (2004) Service-life modelling and design of concrete structures for durability. Concr Int 26(12):57–63Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maekawa K, Ishida T, Chijiwa N (2007) Computational life-cycle assessment of structural concrete subjected to coupled severe environment and mechanistic actions. In: Proc CONSEC’07, Tours, France, June 2007, 3–18Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gjorv OE (2009) Durability design of concrete structures in severe environments. E&FN Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    NP EN 206-1 (2005) Concrete—part 1: specification, performance, production and conformity. IPQ, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    LNEC E464 (2007) Concrete. Prescriptive methodology for a design working life of 50 and 100 years. LNEC, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    LNEC E465 (2007) Concrete. Methodology for estimating the concrete performance properties allowing to comply with the design working life of the reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structures under environmental exposures XC and XS. LNEC, Lisbon Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tuutti K (1982) Corrosion of steel in concrete. CBI research report no 4.82. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Andrade C, Alonso C, Molina FJ (1993) Cover cracking as a function of bar corrosion: part 1–experimental test. Mater Struct 26:453–464. doi: 10.1007/BF02472805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Costa AJS (1997) Durabilidade de Estruturas de Betão Armado em Ambiente Marítimo. PhD Thesis, Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coppola L, Fratesi R, Monosi S, Zaffaroni P, Collepardi M (1996) Corrosion of reinforced concrete in sea water submerged structures. In: Proceedings of 3rd international conference on performances of concrete in marine environment, New Brunswick, Canada, August 1996, pp 127–160Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nürnberger U, Sawade G, Isecke B (2007) Degradation of pre-stressed concrete. In: Page CL&MM (ed) Durability of Concrete and Cement Composites, Woodhead Publishing, Abington Hall, pp 187–246Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    NP ENV 13670-1 (2007) Execution of concrete structures. Part 1: general rules. IPQ, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Narasimhan H, Chew MYL (2009) Integration of durability with structural design: an optimal life cycle cost based design procedure for reinforced concrete structures. Constr Build Mater 23(2):918–929. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baroghel-Bouny V, Nguyen TQ, Dangla P (2009) Assessment and prediction of RC structure service life by means of durability indicators and physical/chemical models. Cem Concr Comp 31:522–534. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thiery M, Villain G, Baroghel-Bouny V, Dangla P (2006) Modelling of concrete carbonation based on coupled mass transport and chemical reactions. In: Proceedings international RILEM workshop on performance-based evaluation and indicators for concrete durability, Madrid, Spain, March 2006Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aït Mokhtar K, Loche J-M, Friedmann H, Amiri O, Ammar A (2007) Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete. In: Report no. 2-2—concrete in marine environment. MEDACHS—Interreg IIIB Atlantic Space—Project no 197. Marine environment damage to Atlantic coast historical and transport works or structures: methods of diagnosis, repair and of maintenanceGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    NT Build 492 (1999) Concrete, mortar and cement based repair materials: chloride migration from non-steady state migration experiments. Nordtest, EspooGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bentur A, Berke N, Diamond S (1998) Steel corrosion in concrete: fundamentals and civil engineering practice. E&FN Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodriguez J, Andrade C (1990) Load bearing capacity loss in corroding structures. In: Proceedings of ACI convention, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Andrade C, Alonso C, Rodriguez J, Casal J, Diez JM (1995) Relation between corrosion and cracking. Internal report of Brite/Euram project BE-4062. DG XII. C.E.CGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Val DV, Trapper PA (2008) Probabilistic evaluation of initiation time of chloride-induced corrosion. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 93:364–372. doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2006.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ferreira RM (2004) probability based durability analysis of concrete structures in marine environment. PhD Thesis, University of Minho, School of Engineering, Guimarães, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    fib (2010) Bulletins 55 and 56. Model code 2010—first complete draft, vol 1 and 2. Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lindvall A (2003) Environmental actions on concrete exposed to marine and road environments and its response. PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    NP EN 12390-3 (2003) Testing hardened concrete—parte 3: compressive strength test. IPQ, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    LNEC E393 (1993) Concrete. Capillary absorption of water. LNEC, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    NP EN 197-1 (2005) Cement. Composition, specification and conformity criteria. IPQ, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    NP EN 1504-3 (2006) Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity. Structural and non-structural repair. IPQ, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Glass and Buenfeld (1997) The presentation of the chloride threshold level for corrosion of steel in concrete. Corros Sci 39(5):1001–1013Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Manera M (2008) Chloride threshold for rebar corrosion in concrete with addition of silica fume. Corros Sci 50(2):554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bijen J (2003) Durability of engineering structures. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro F. Marques
    • 1
  • António Costa
    • 1
  • Francesca Lanata
    • 2
  1. 1.IST—Technical University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.GeM—University of NantesNantes Cedex 3France

Personalised recommendations