Experimental study of bitumen emulsion–cement mortars: mechanical behaviour and relation to mixtures
Cold bitumen emulsion mixtures are eco-friendly materials for road pavement construction. Portland cement and other supplementary cementitious materials are added to the mixtures to improve their performance. In bitumen emulsion–cement (BEC) mixtures, the two binders affect the mechanical behaviour and the curing process. In this research, BEC mixtures are considered as multiphase composite materials consisting of a mortar matrix and coarse aggregate inclusions. The main objectives are to identify the composition of BEC mortar phase and to compare mixtures and mortars throughout the curing process. Starting from two BEC mixtures containing 80% reclaimed asphalt, eighteen mortars were manufactured by changing their water and air voids content. Then, two design composition were selected to analyse the curing process by monitoring indirect tensile strength (ITS), indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) and moisture loss. Results showed that the short-term ITS of mortars (1 day of curing) increased by reducing their water and their air voids content. During curing (from 1 to 28 days), the mechanical properties (ITS and ITSM) of mixtures and mortars increased in a similar way. Unique relationships were identified between mortar and mixture properties, regardless of bitumen to cement (B/C) ratio, curing time and curing condition. In terms of predictive behaviour, the design composition slightly underestimated mixture stiffness and overestimated mixture strength.
KeywordsCold paving technologies Bitumen emulsion Cement Mortar Curing
The Authors wish to express their gratitude to Valli Zabban S.p.A. and to Società Cooperativa Braccianti Riminese Companies for providing the bitumen emulsion and the reclaimed asphalt aggregate.
This study was funded by Italcementi—HeidelbergCement Group (Grant Number 2200700).
- 1.Asphalt Institute (2008) A basic asphalt emulsion manual, manual series no. 19, 4th edn. Lexington, KentuckyGoogle Scholar
- 5.Brown S, Needham D (2000) A study of cement modified bitumen emulsion mixtures. Asph Paving Technol 69:92–121Google Scholar
- 9.Schwartz CW, Diefenderfer BK, Bowers BF (2017) Material properties of cold in-place recycled and full-depth reclamation asphalt concrete (no. project 09-51)Google Scholar
- 10.Graziani A, Mignini C, Bocci E, Bocci M (2018) Complex modulus of cold recycled mixtures: measurement and modelling. In: 13th ISAP conference on asphalt pavements. Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, 19–21 June, 2018Google Scholar
- 15.Gibson RF (1994) Principles of composite material mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Pichler C, Lackner R, Aigner E (2012) Generalized self-consistent scheme for upscaling of viscoelastic properties of highly-filled matrix-inclusion composites–application in the context of multiscale modeling of bituminous mixtures. Compos Part B: Eng 43(2), 457–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.05.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Underwood BS (2015) Multiscale modeling approach for asphalt concrete and its implications on oxidative aging. In: Advances in asphalt materials, pp 273–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100269-8.00009-X
- 21.Kim YR (2003) Mechanistic fatigue characterization and damage modeling of asphalt mixtures. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
- 25.Izadi A, Bhasin A, Motamed A (2011) Designing Fine aggregate mixtures to evaluate fatigue crack growth in asphalt mixtures (no. SWUTC/11/161022-1). Southwest Region University Transportation Center, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at AustinGoogle Scholar
- 29.Fu J, Zhang X, Wang F (2015) The meso structure and strain distribution analysis of cement emulsified asphalt concrete. Int J Pavement Res Technol 8(3):179–184. https://doi.org/10.6135/ijprt.org.tw/2015.8(3).179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.EN 196-1, Methods of testing cement—Part 1: determination of strength, 2016Google Scholar
- 35.Godenzoni C, Graziani A, Corinaldesi V (2016) The influence mineral additions on the failure properties of bitumen emulsion mortars. In: 8th RILEM international conference on mechanisms of cracking and debonding in pavements. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 327–333Google Scholar
- 36.EN 13808 (2013) Bitumen and bituminous binders–framework for specifying cationic bituminous emulsionsGoogle Scholar
- 37.EN 197-1 (2011) Cement—part 1: composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cementsGoogle Scholar
- 38.EN 196-6 (2010) Methods of testing cement—part 6: determination of finenessGoogle Scholar
- 42.EN 12697-26 (2012) Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hot mix asphalt. Part 26: stiffnessGoogle Scholar
- 43.EN 12697-23 (2003) Bituminous mixtures—test methods for hot mix asphalt–part 23: determination of the indirect tensile strength of bituminous specimenGoogle Scholar