Materials and Structures

, 51:150 | Cite as

Comparison between bitumen aged in laboratory and recovered from HMA and WMA lab mixtures

  • Gilda FerrottiEmail author
  • Hassan Baaj
  • Jeroen Besamusca
  • Maurizio Bocci
  • Augusto Cannone-Falchetto
  • James Grenfell
  • Bernhard Hofko
  • Laurent Porot
  • Lily Poulikakos
  • Zhanping You
RILEM Technical Committee Report


Oxidative ageing is an important phenomenon affecting asphalt concrete. Currently, binder short-term ageing, occurring during mixture production and laying, is simulated worldwide through rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT), which was developed assuming that the mixture is produced at conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) temperatures around 160 °C. However, since ageing is strongly influenced by temperature, lower production temperatures imply less material ageing so that the introduction of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies could potentially require some adjustments in the ageing simulation procedures. This study aims at determining which RTFOT temperature simulates WMA short-term ageing more closely. To this end, the chemical and the mechanical characteristics of one type of bitumen, recovered from two asphalt mixtures (WMA and HMA) prepared and short-term aged in laboratory, were compared to those of the same virgin binder short-term aged in laboratory with RTFOT at different temperatures (123 °C and 163 °C). Both conventional and rheological tests show higher ageing levels for the binder recovered from HMA with respect to the binder aged with RTFOT at 163 °C, whereas the binder recovered from WMA generally provides an ageing level lower than the binder aged with RTFOT at 163 °C. These results are also confirmed by the chemical analysis using FTIR which indicate higher oxidation levels for the hot mix process compared to the warm mix. These preliminary results confirm that it is necessary to identify an appropriate ageing temperature for the short-term ageing simulation of WMAs with RTFOT.


Bitumen Ageing WMA HMA RTFOT Foamed asphalt 



The authors would like to thank the members of TC-252 CMB for their constructive discussions and support of this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilda Ferrotti
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Hassan Baaj
    • 2
  • Jeroen Besamusca
    • 3
  • Maurizio Bocci
    • 1
  • Augusto Cannone-Falchetto
    • 4
  • James Grenfell
    • 5
  • Bernhard Hofko
    • 6
  • Laurent Porot
    • 7
  • Lily Poulikakos
    • 8
  • Zhanping You
    • 9
  1. 1.Università Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  2. 2.University of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Kuwait Petroleum Research and TechnologyRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Technische Universität BraunschweigBrunswickGermany
  5. 5.Australian Road Research BoardMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.Technische Universität WienViennaAustria
  7. 7.Kraton Chemical B.V.AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  8. 8.EmpaDübendorfSwitzerland
  9. 9.Michigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

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