Performance-based criteria to assess the suitability of geopolymer concrete in marine environments using modified ASTM C1202 and ASTM C1556 methods
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In marine or coastal zones, the most harmful exposure for reinforced concrete structures to chloride ions. The ASTM C1556 chloride diffusion test (or its European equivalent NT BUILD 443) has been widely used as the most reliable testing method to assess the performance of concrete against chloride penetration. However, this test is time demanding and labour intensive. As a result, accelerated test ASTM C1202 (RCPT) is often preferred, providing fast and acceptable assessment of chloride penetrability of Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of RCPT to assess the performance of Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) in chloride environment. The correlation between several GPC properties [i.e. compressive strength, volume of permeable voids (VPV) and sorptivity] and the chloride diffusion coefficient are examined. Results indicate that the compressive strength, the VPV and the sorptivity coefficient are not suitable indicators of the GPC performance. The ASTM C1202 standard RCPT failed to measure the charges passed through most of the GPCs tested. A modified version of RCPT using 10 V (as opposed to 60 V specified by standard ASTM C1202) is proposed in this paper, allowing to successfully measure the charges passed through all GPC samples using a wide range of binders. A good correlation was observed between modified ASTM C1202 and Standard ASTM C1556 test results. Performance-based recommendations are proposed in this paper. Both experimental results from this study and appropriate reference concretes from the literature were used to calibrate the modified ASTM C1202 and ASTM C1556 performance-based requirements for GPCs.
KeywordsGeopolymer ASTM C1202 ASTM C1556 Performance-based specifications RCPT Chloride diffusion Sorptivity
This research work is funded by the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Low Carbon Living Ltd supported by the Cooperative Research Centres, an Australian Government initiative. Authors acknowledge that the design of mixes G18 and G19 used is this study has been provided by RILEM TC DTA.
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Conflict of interest
The authors certify that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and all funding sources were declared in the acknowledgment section. Authors certify that this work does not contain any material subject to ethical standards.
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