Defects in flash-sintered ceramics and their effects on mechanical properties

Abstract

The effects of electric field and current during flash sintering have resulted in nonequilibrium microstructures that are not typically observed in conventionally sintered ceramics. In this article, we review the recent findings on the unique microstructural characteristics observed in flash-sintered ceramics and their impacts on mechanical properties. Gradient microstructures across flash-sintered samples are frequently observed and have been investigated using a variety of in situ techniques to monitor the dynamic evolutions in real time. Other microstructural characteristics, such as high-density dislocations and stacking faults, and chemical segregations along grain boundaries, have been reported in flash-sintered ceramics. These defects have been observed in several ceramic systems and were shown to enhance the mechanical properties through defect-mediated inelastic deformation mechanisms. In situ studies on the temperature-dependent transition of deformation mechanisms are also highlighted.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.

References

  1. 1.

    R.I. Todd, E. Zapata-Solvas, R.S. Bonilla, T. Sneddon, P.R. Wilshaw, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35, 1865 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Y. Zhang, J. Nie, J.M. Chan, J. Luo, Acta Mater. 125, 465 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    R. Raj, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 32, 2293 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    S. Grasso, Y. Sakka, N. Rendtorff, C. Hu, G. Maizza, H. Borodianska, O. Vasylkiv, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 119, 144 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    W. Ji, B. Parker, S. Falco, J.Y. Zhang, Z.Y. Fu, R.I. Todd, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37, 2547 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Eqbal, K.S. Arya, T. Chakrabarti, Ceram. Int. 46, 10370 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Biesuz, L. Pinter, T. Saunders, M. Reece, J. Binner, V.M. Sglavo, S. Grasso, Materials (2018)

  8. 8.

    C.A. Grimley, A.L.G. Prette, E.C. Dickey, Acta Mater. 174, 271 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    H. Charalambous, S.K. Jha, H. Wang, X.L. Phuah, H. Wang, T. Tsakalakos, Scr. Mater. 155, 37 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    M. Biesuz, V.M. Sglavo, Scr. Mater. 150, 82 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    H. Yoshida, P. Biswas, R. Johnson, M.K. Mohan, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100, 554 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    H. Yoshida, K. Morita, B.N. Kim, Y. Sakka, T. Yamamoto, Acta Mater. 106, 344 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    T.P. Mishra, R.R.I. Neto, G. Speranza, A. Quaranta, V.M. Sglavo, R. Raj, O. Guillon, M. Bram, M. Biesuz, Scr. Mater. 179, 55 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    X.L. Phuah, H. Wang, Z. Qi, S. Misra, M. Kalaswad, H. Wang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 103, 2309 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    S.W. Kim, S.G. Kim, J.I. Jung, S.J.L. Kang, I.W. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 4231 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    V. Esposito, D.W. Ni, D. Marani, F. Teocoli, K.T.S. Thydén, D.Z. De Florio, F.C. Fonseca, J. Mater. Chem. A. 4, 16871 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Y. Dong, I.W. Chen, Acta Mater. 156, 399 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    H. Wang, X.L. Phuah, H. Charalambous, S.K. Jha, J. Li, T. Tsakalakos, X. Zhang, H. Wang, Materialia (2019)

  19. 19.

    Y. Zhang, J.-I. Jung, J. Luo, Acta Mater. 94, 87 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    H. Charalambous, S.K. Jha, X.L. Phuah, H. Wang, H. Wang, J.S. Okasinski, T. Tsakalakos, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 38, 5503 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    W. Rheinheimer, X.L. Phuah, H. Wang, F. Lemke, M.J. Hoffmann, H. Wang, Acta Mater. 165, 398 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    H. Wang, X.L. Phuah, J. Li, T.B. Holland, K.S.N. Vikrant, Q. Li, C.S. Hellberg, N. Bernstein, R.E. García, A. Mukherjee, X. Zhang, H. Wang, Ceram. Int. 45, 1251 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    B. Kayaalp, K. Klauke, M. Biesuz, A. Iannaci, V.M. Sglavo, M. D’Arienzo, H. Noei, S. Lee, W. Jung, S. Mascotto, J. Phys. Chem. C 123, 16883 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    G. Corapcioglu, M. Ali Gulgun, K. Kisslinger, S. Sturm, S.K. Jha, R. Raj, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124, 321 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    W. Rheinheimer, J.P. Parras, J.-H. Preusker, R.A. De Souza, M.J. Hoffmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2019)

  26. 26.

    X.L. Phuah, H. Wang, H. Charalambous, S.K. Jha, T. Tsakalakos, X. Zhang, H. Wang, Scr. Mater. 162, 251 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    A. Uehashi, K. Sasaki, T. Tokunaga, H. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, Microscopy 63, i19 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    A. Karakuscu, M. Cologna, D. Yarotski, J. Won, J.S.C. Francis, R. Raj, B.P. Uberuaga, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95, 2531 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    H. Yoshida, A. Uehashi, T. Tokunaga, K. Sasaki, T. Yamamoto, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 124, 388 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    J.M. Lebrun, T.G. Morrissey, J.S.C. Francis, K.C. Seymour, W.M. Kriven, R. Raj, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1493 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    S.K. Jha, J.M. Lebrun, K.C. Seymour, W.M. Kriven, R. Raj, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36, 257 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    S.K. Jha, H. Charalambous, H. Wang, X.L. Phuah, C. Mead, J. Okasinski, H. Wang, T. Tsakalakos, Ceram. Int. 44, 15362 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    H. Charlambous, S.K. Jha, R.T. Lay, A. Cabales, J. Okasinski, T. Tsakalkos, Ceram. Int. 44, 6162 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    V.M. Sglavo, A. Quaranta, M. Biesuz, P. Luchi, A. Martucci, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 37, 3125 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    L. Pinter, M. Biesuz, V.M. Sglavo, T. Saunders, J. Binner, M. Reece, S. Grasso, Scr. Mater. 151, 14 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    H. Majidi, K. Van Benthem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    S.M. Wiederhorn, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 14, 373 (1984)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    J. Cho, Q. Li, H. Wang, Z. Fan, J. Li, S. Xue, K.S.N. Vikrant, H. Wang, T.B. Holland, A.K. Mukherjee, R.E. García, X. Zhang, Nat. Commun. 9, 1 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    J. Li, J. Cho, J. Ding, H. Charalambous, S. Xue, H. Wang, X.L. Phuah, J. Jian, X. Wang, C. Ophus, T. Tsakalakos, R. Edwinarcía, A.K. Mukherjee, N. Bernstein, C. Stephenellberg, H. Wang, X. Zhang, Sci. Adv. 5, 1 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    R.H.J. Hannink, P.M. Kelly, B.C. Muddle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 461 (2000)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    J. Lankford, R.A. Page, L. Rabenberg, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4144 (1988)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    J. Cho, J. Li, H. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Fan, A.K. Mukherjee, W. Rheinheimer, H. Wang, X. Zhang, Mater. Res. Lett. 7, 194 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Y. Dong, I.W. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 3624 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    R. Ramamoorthy, D. Sundararaman, S. Ramasamy, Solid State Ionics 123, 271 (1999)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    J. Ding, Q. Li, J. Li, S. Xue, Z. Fan, H. Wang, X. Zhang, Acta Mater. 149, 57 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Y. Zhu, X. Wu, Mater. Res. Lett. 7, 393 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    C. Schmerbauch, J. Gonzalez-Julian, R. Röder, C. Ronning, O. Guillon, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97, 1728 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Y. Yamashita, T. Kurachi, T. Tokunaga, H. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 40, 2072 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    M. Yu, S. Grasso, R. Mckinnon, T. Saunders, M.J. Reece, Adv. Appl. Ceram. 116, 24 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support from the US Office of Naval Research (Contract Nos. N00014171-2087 and N00014201-2043).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xin Li Phuah.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Phuah, X.L., Cho, J., Tsakalakos, T. et al. Defects in flash-sintered ceramics and their effects on mechanical properties. MRS Bulletin 46, 44–51 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1557/s43577-020-00014-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ceramic
  • Sintering
  • Microstructure
  • Defects
  • Stress-strain relationship