High Crystalline Quality Perovskite Thin Films Prepared by a Novel Hybrid Evaporation/CVD Technique


Performance of a perovskite based solar cell is highly determined by the crystalline qualities of the perovskite thin film sandwiched between an electron and a hole transport layer, such as grain size and uniformity of the film. Here, we demonstrated a new hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique to synthesis high quality perovskite films. First, a PbI2 precursor film was spin-coated on a mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2)/compact TiO2 (c-TiO2)/FTO substrate in ambient environment. Then, purified CH3NH3I crystal material was evaporated and the vapor reacted with the PbI2 precursor film in a vacuum pressure/temperature accurately controlled quartz tube furnace. In this technique, high vacuum (2mTorr) and low temperature (100°C) were applied to decrease perovskite film growth rate and reduce perovskite film defects. After vapor reaction, the perovskite film was annealed at 100°C for 10min in 20mTorr vacuum to recrystallize and remove CH3NH3I residue in order to further improve crystal quality of the thin film. Crystal quality of this perovskite thin film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and AFM results illustrate perovskite thin films synthesized by this technique have larger grain sizes and more uniformity (RMS 11.6nm/Ra 9.3nm) superior to most existing methods. Strong peaks shown in the XRD chart at 14.18°, 28.52°, 31.96°, which were assigned to (110), (220), (330) miller indices of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal, indicate the complete reaction between CH3NH3I vapor and PbI2 precursor layer. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.3% and stable efficiencies under four hours illumination of AM1.5 standard were achieved by these solar cells. This vacuum/vapor based technique is compatible with conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques and high quality perovskite film could be achieved through delicate process control. Eventually, perovskite based solar cells could be mass produced in low cost for large scale applications by this novel technique.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Kojima, A.; Teshima, K.; Shirai, Y.; Mryasaka, T. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009, 131, (17), 6050–6051.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg. (02–04),

  3. 3.

    Burschka, J.; Pellet, N.; Moon, S. J.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Gao, P.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Gratzel, M. Nature 2013, 499, (7458), 316–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Jeon, N. J.; Noh, J. H.; Kim, Y. C.; Yang, W. S.; Ryu, S.; Seok, S. I. Nature materials 2014, 13, (9), 897–903.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Huang, F.; Dkhissi, Y.; Huang, W.; Xiao, M.; Benesperi, L; Rubanov, S.; Zhu, Y.; Lin, X.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Gray-Weale, A.; Etheridge, J.; McNeill, C. R.; Caruso, R. A.; Bach, U.; Spiccia, L.; Cheng, Y.-B. Nano Energy 2014, 10, 10–18.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Zhou, H; Chen, Q.; Li, G.; Luo, S.; Song, T. B.; Duan, H. S.; Hong, Z.; You, J.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y. Science 2014, 345, (6196), 542–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Liu, M.; Johnston, M. B.; Snaith, H. J. Nature 2013, 501, (7467), 395–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Chen, Q.; Zhou, H.; Hong, Z.; Luo, S.; Duan, H. S.; Wang, H. H.; Liu, Y.; Li, G.; Yang, Y. J Am Chem Soc 2014, 136,(2), 622–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Luo, P.; Liu, Z.; Xia, W.; Yuan, C; Cheng, J.; Lu, Y. ACS applied materials & interfaces 2015, 7, (4), 2708–14.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ha, S. T.; Liu, X. F.; Zhang, Q.; Giovanni, D.; Sum, T. C; Xiong, Q. H. Advanced Optical Materials 2014, 2, (9), 838–844.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Leyden, M. R; Ono, L. K.; Raga, S. R; Kato, Y.; Wang, S.; Qi, Y. J. Mater Chem. A 2014.

  12. 12.

    Chen, Q.; Zhou, H.; Song, T. B.; Luo, S.; Hong, Z.; Duan, H. S.; Dou, L.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y. Nano letters 2014, 14, (7), 4158–63.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yanke Peng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Peng, Y., Jing, G. & Cui, T. High Crystalline Quality Perovskite Thin Films Prepared by a Novel Hybrid Evaporation/CVD Technique. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1771, 187–192 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2015.541

Download citation