Stimuli-responsive materials are capable of reversibly altering their properties depending on the environmental conditions or external stimuli. External stimuli typically include thermal, pH, electric fields, optical, magnetic fields, mechanical forces and chemical interactions. There are many instances in nature where responsive surfaces have been observed. Temperature is the most widely used stimulus in environmentally responsive polymer systems. The change of temperature is not only relatively easy to control, but also easily applicable both in vitro and in vivo. Temperature responsive polymers exhibit a phase transition at a certain temperature, which causes a sudden change in the solvation state. Polymers that become insoluble upon heating have a so-called lower critical solution temperature (LCST). One example of these polymers is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide), which shows LCST at about 32 °C, close to the physiological temperature. In this study, we report the developing of novel polyampholytes which shows thermo-, salt-responsive liquid-liquid phase separation in aqueous solution.
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Das, E., Matsumura, K. Phase Separation of Carboxylated Poly-L-lysine. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1622, 129–133 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2014.224