Dyes in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cell Applications

Abstract

The infiltration of dissolved dyes into vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (va-CNT) is reported. The ultra hydrophobic surface of the CNT forest can be wetted and hence infiltrated for an appropriate choice of solvent. The dye-infiltrated CNT array forms a well ordered bulk-heterojunction structure for organic solar cells in which the CNT can act as a large electrode or, for appropriate energy levels, as an acceptor material. Derivatives of the small molecule copper phthalocyanine or the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) were used as dyes. Drop coating was chosen as the infiltration technique resulting in a completely embedded CNT forest. Field emission secondary electron microscopy analysis illustrates the final layer quality. Common electrical characterization under AM1.5 illumination proves photosensitivity and implies photovoltaic behavior of the composite.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56–6 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    S. Frank {etel al.}, Science 280 1744 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    E. Hernandez, A. Rubio, Appl. Phys. A–Mater. 68, 287–6 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    H. W. Zhu, Science 296, 884 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    K. Jiang, Q. Li, S. Fan, Nature 419, 801 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    W. Z. Li, S. S. Xie, L.X. Qian, B. H. Chang, B. S. Zou, W. Y. Zhou, Science 274, 1701 (1996)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Z. F. Ren, Z. P. Huang, J. W. Xu, J. H. Wang, P. Bush, M. P. Siegal, Science 282, 1105 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    L. Feng, S. Li, Y. Li, H. Li, L. Zhang, J. Zhai, Adv. Mater. 14, 1857 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    G. M. Odegard, T. S. Gates, K. E. Wise, C. Park, E. J. Siochi, Composite Sci. Techn. 63, 1671 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    L. Jin, C. Bower, O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1197 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    H. Liu, J. Zhai, L. Jiang, Soft Matter 2, 811 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    R. N. Wenzel, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 28, 988 (1936)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    A. B. D. Cassie, S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 0546 (1944)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    D. Quere, Physica A 313, 32 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    T. S. Chow, J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 10, L445 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    C. W. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 183 (1986)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, F. Wudl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 585 (1993)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    H. Ago, K. Petritsch, M. S. P. Shaffer, A. H. Windle, R. H. Friend, Adv. Mater. 11, 1281 (1999)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. Arranz-Andre's, W. J. Blau, Carbon 46, 2067 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    C. T. Wirth, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, Diamond and Related Mater. 17, 1518 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    W. L. Ma, C. Y. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    F. Fillot, T. Morel, S. Minoret, I. Matko, S. Maitrejean, B. Guillaumot, B. Chenevier, and T. Billon, Microelectron. Eng., 82, 248 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M. Al-Ibrahim, H. K. Roth, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, and S. Sensfuss, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, 85, 13 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    E. Kymakis, I. Alexandrou, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, J. Appl. Phys., 93, 1764 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank N. Benson, S. M. Avdoshenko, K. Kühn, A. Benke, M. Thieme, S. Conze, and S. Hildebrandt for fruitful discussions and O. Trommer for kind support with the FE-SEM. Victor Bezugly acknowledges financial support from DFG (KU 2347/2-1).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gerhard Lackner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lackner, G., Endler, I., Meissner, F. et al. Dyes in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cell Applications. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1390, 00647 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2012.647

Download citation