Methods of Faience Manufacture in Antiquity: Investigation of Colorants and Technological Processes

Abstract

Faience production methods include efflorescence, direct glaze application, and cementation glazing. However, similar processing has been used with a variety of other materials, such as glazed monolithic quartz, ground and re-fired faience, and steatite bodies. Furthermore, faience technology has been linked by similar processing to glass, synthetic pigment and glazing technologies. Here we reinforce these cross-craft relationships by comparing the range of similar functioning chemical elements in faience and glazed artifacts from a variety of archaeological sites that range from the Indus Valley to the Mediterranean. This broad comparative method based primarily on x-ray fluorescence analysis reveals trends in faience production, relationships with metallurgical technologies, and aspects of processing that provide areas of study that may be considered more closely in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    A. Kaczmarczyk, R.E. Hedges, Ancient Egyptian Faience: An Analytical Survey of Egyptian Faience from Predynastic to Roman Times (Warminster: Aries & Philips Ltd. 1983)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    P. Vandiver, in Ancient Egyptian Faience: An Analytical Survey of Egyptian Faience from Predynastic to Roman Times (Warminster: Aries & Philips Ltd. A1–A144, 1983)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A. Lucas, J. R. Harris, Ancient Egyptian Material and Industries. (Histories & Mysteries of Man LTD, London 1989, originally 1962).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A. Jamieson, Ceramics Technical. 17, 82–87 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    C. Swann, P. McGovern, F.J. Fleming. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B. 45, 311–314 (1990).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    R.K. Liu, Ornament Magazine 32, 40–47 (2009).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    I. Kakoulli, in From Mine to Microscope (Oxbow Books, Oxford 2009).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Th. Rehren, J. of Archaeological Science, 35, 1345–1354 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    M. Tite, Archaeometry, 29, 21–34 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    M. Tite, I.C. Freestone, M. Bimson, Archaeometry, 25, 17–27 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    S. La Delfa, V. Formisano, E. Ciliberto, J. of Cultural Heritage, 9, 113–116 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    H.C. Beck, Ancient Egypt and the East, Part I, 64–83 (June, 1934).

  13. 13.

    H.C. Beck, Ancient Egypt and the East, Part II, 19–37 (Dec., 1934).

  14. 14.

    M. Tite, A. Shortland, Y. Maniatis, D. Kavoussanaki, S.A. Harris, J. of Archaeological Science, 33, 1284–1292 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    S. Tanimoto, Th. Rehren, J. of Archaeological Science, 35, 2566–2573 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    C.P. Thornton, In Metals and Mines: Studies in Archaeometallurgy. (London: Archetype Publications, p.123–135, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    C.P. Thornton, C. Ehlers IAMS Journal, 23, 3–8 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    M. Tite, P. Manti, A. Shortland, J. of Archaeological Science, 34, 1568–1583 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    M. Tite, M. Bimson, Archaeometry, 28, 69–78 (1986).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    A. Shortland, M. Tite, Archaeometry, 47, 31–46 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    M. Tite, M. Bimson, World Archaeology, 21, 87–100 (1989).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    J.E. Reade, Iraq, 33, 87–100 (1971).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    J.E. Reade, Iraq, 35, 155–187 (1973).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Y. Goren, I. Segal, O. Bar-Yosef, J. of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 25, 120–131 (1993).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lesley Frame.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Frame, L., DeSordao, D.B., Chiang, YC. et al. Methods of Faience Manufacture in Antiquity: Investigation of Colorants and Technological Processes. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1319, 906 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2011.927

Download citation