Mechanism of hole inlet closure in shape transformation of hole arrays on Si(001) substrates by hydrogen annealing


We investigated the process of the hole inlet closure in surface-diffusion-driven transformation of arrays of high-aspect-ratio holes on Si(001) substrates. The inlet gradually shrinks while keeping the circular shape because of lateral bulging of the inlet surface. We observed complicated top view morphologies reflecting the four-fold symmetry of the Si(001) surface on the inlet surface. Large {111} and {113} facets are formed in the four equivalent azimuths of the [110], while corrugated patterns arise in the four equivalent azimuths of the [100]. Atomic force microscopy observations reveal that the corrugated pattern is composed of three types of small facets, namely, {110} and two {113} in relation of the mirror symmetry. The corrugated pattern formation is due to the geometrical restriction that there is no stable facet between (001) and (010) in the [010] azimuth. The observed morphological evolution is interpreted as surface-diffusion-driven transformation under constraint of the anisotropic surface energy of Si.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    N. Fujishima and T. A. Salama: IEDM Tech. Dig. (1997) 359.

  2. 2.

    Y. K. Choi, L. Chang, P. Rande, J. S. Lee, D. Ha, S. Balasubramanian, A. Agarwal, M. Ameen, T. J. King and J. Borkor: IEDM Tech. Dig. (2002) 259.

  3. 3.

    M.C. Lee and M.C. Wu: Proc. 18th IEEE Int. Conf. on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (2005) 596.

  4. 4.

    I. Mizushima, T. Sato, S. Taniguchi, and Y. Tsunashima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3290 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    T. Sato, I. Mizushima, S. Taniguchi, K. Takenaka, S. Shimonishi, H. Hayashi, M. Hatano, K. Sugihara and Y. Tsunashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 12 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    H. Kuribayashi, R. Shimizu, K. Sudoh, and H. Iwasaki, J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A22, 1406 (2004).

  7. 7.

    H. Kuribayashi, R. Hiruta, R. Shimizu, K. Sudoh and H. Iwasaki: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21 (2003) 1279.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    M. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 338 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    V. Depauw, O. Richard, H. Bender, I. Gordon, G. Beaucarne, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, and J. –P. Celis, Thin Solid Films 516, 6934 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R. Shimizu, H. Kuribayashi, R. Hiruta, K. Sudoh and H. Iwasaki, Proc. 2006 Int. Symp. Power Semicon. Dev. & ICs, p.113 (2006).

  11. 11.

    R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, R. Shimizu, K. Sudoh and H. Iwasaki: M.R.S. Symp. Proc. 958 (2007).

  12. 12.

    K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, R. Hiruta, H. Kuribayashi, and R. Shimizu, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083536 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reiko Hiruta.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hiruta, R., Kuribayashi, H., Sudoh, K. et al. Mechanism of hole inlet closure in shape transformation of hole arrays on Si(001) substrates by hydrogen annealing. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1299, 404 (2011).

Download citation