The fire-retardant and water-repellent bio-structural panels (BISPs) were successfully developed using cellulose nanofibrils, corn starch, boric acid, and n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride with adhesive-free character. Its performance properties were evaluated and compared with other well-known products on the market. The BISP’s density (0.1 g/cm3)and permeance value [41.81 g/day/m2with 5.76% coefficient of variation (CV)] were found higher than compared competitor products. The BISPs’ contact angle was found 132.13° (1.59% CV)for BISP. The BISP was the only fire-retardant product, and the only one developed almost no smoke 2.20%.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.
Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.
K. Oksman, A.P. Mathew, and M. Sain: Novel biocomposites: processing, properties and potential applications. Plast. Rubber Compos. 38, 396–405 (2009).
M.A. Hubbe, O.J. Rojas, L.A. Lucia, and M. Sain: Cellulosic nanocompo-sites: a review. BioResources 3, 929 (2008).
T.H. Wegnerand P.E. Jones: Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology. Cellulose 13, 115–118 (2006).
K. Oksman and M. Sain: Cellulose nanocomposites: processing, characterization, and properties. ACS Symp. Ser. 938, 2–8 (2006).
M.A.S.A. Samir, F. Alloin, and A. Dufresne: Review of recent research into cellulosic whiskers, their properties and their application in nanocompo-site field. Biomacromolecules 6, 612–626 (2005).
N. Yildirim and S. Shaler: A study on thermal and nanomechanical performance of cellulose nanomaterials (CNs). Materials 10, 718–730 (2017).
A. Dufresne: Nanocellulose: a new ageless bionanomaterial. Mater. Today 16, 220–227 (2013).
Y. Aitomaki and K. Oksman: Reinforcing efficiency of nanocellulose in polymers. React. Fund. Polym. 85, 151–156 (2014).
K.Y. Lee, Y. Aitomaki, L.A. Berglund, K. Oksman, and A. Bismarck: On the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 105, 15–27 (2014).
B.E. Dale and J. Chem: ’Greening’ the chemical industry: research and development priorities for biobased industrial products. Technol. Blotechnol. 78, 1093–1103 (2003).
N. Lavoine, I. Desloges, A. Dufresne, and J. Bras: Microfibrillated cellulose - its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 90, 735 (2012).
I.S. Bayer, D. Fragouli, A. Attanasio, B. Sorce, G. Bertoni, R. Brescia, R. D. Corato, T. Pellegrino, M. Kalyva, S. Sabella, P.P. Pompa, R. Cingolani, and A. Athanassiou: Water-repellent cellulose fiber networks with multifunctional properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 4024–4031 (2011).
Y. Yin, J. Li, Y. Liu, and Z. Li: Starch crosslinked with poly (vinyl alcohol) by boric acid. Appl. Polym. Scl. 96, 1394–1397 (2005).
S. Gaan and G.J. Sun: Effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on flame retar-dant cellulose: A study of phosphorus compounds. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysls 78, 371–377 (2007).
P. Rupper, S. Gaan, V. Salimova, and M. Heuberger: Characterization of chars obtained from cellulose treated with phosphoramidate flame retar-dants. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 87, 93–98 (2010).
V. Salimova, N. Dimitry, and S. Gaan: Effect of chemical environment of organophosphorus compounds on thermal decomposition of cellulose. PMSE Prepr 98, 250–251 (2008).
A.R. Horrocks: Fire retardant challenges for textiles and fibres: new chemistry versus innovatory solutions. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 96, 377–392 (2011).
J. Alongi and G. Malucelli: Cotton flame retardancy: state of the art and future perspectives. RSC Adv. 5, 24239–24263 (2015).
Z.A. Nagieb, M.A. Nassar, and M.G. El: Effect of addition of boric acid and borax on fire-retardant and mechanical properties of urea formaldehyde saw dust composites. Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 2011, 1–6 (2011).
Z. Song, H. Xiao, and Y. Zhao: Hydrophobic-modified nano-cellulose fiber/PLA biodegradable composites for lowering water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of paper. Carbohydr. Polym. 111, 442–448 (2014).
D. Topgaard and O. Soderman: Diffusion of water absorbed in cellulose fibers studied with H-NMR. Langmuir 17, 2694–2702 (2001).
K. Hofstetter, B. Hinterstoisser, and L. Salmen: Moisture uptake in native cellulose -the roles of different hydrogen bonds: a dynamic FT-IR study using deuterium exchange. Cellulose 13, 131–145 (2006).
A. Salminen: Hydrophobic micrfibrous cellulose and method of producing the same. Patent WO 2012089929A1 (2012).
N. Yildirim, S.M. Shaler, D.J. Gardner, R. Rice, and D.W. Bousfield: Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) reinforced starch insulating foams. Cellulose 21, 4337–4347 (2014).
M. Balaxi, I. Nikolakakis, and S. Malamataris: Preparation of porous microcrystalline cellulose pellets by freeze-drying: effect of wetting liquid and initial freezing conditions. J. Pharm. Sci. 99 2104–2113 (2010).
Z. Liu, Y. Li, F. Cui, L. Ping, J. Song, Y. Ravee, L. Jin, Y. Xue, J. Xu, G. Li, Y. Wang, and Y. Zheng: Production of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy corn starch and its characterization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 11499–11506 (2008).
K.C. Chen and Y.F. Lin: Immobilization of microorgansizms with phos-phorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 16, 79–83 (1994).
M.V. Duin, J.A. Peter, A.P.G. Kieboom, and H. Van Bekkum: Studies on borate esters I. Tetrahedron 40, 2901–2911 (1994).
B. Wicklein, A. Kocjan, G. Salazar-Alvarez, F. Carosio, G. Camino, M. Antonietti, and L. Bergström: Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 277–283 (2014).
N. Sombatsompop and K. Chaochanchaikul: Effect of moisture content on mechanical properties, thermal and structural stability and extrudate texture of poly (vinyl chloride)/wood saw dust composites. Polym. Int. 53, 1210–1218 (2004).
F. Yin, C. Tang, X. Li, and X. Wang: Effect of moisture on mechanical properties and thermal stability of meta-aramid fiber used in insulating paper. Polymers 9, 537–551 (2017).
C. Aulin, G. Salazar-Alvarez, and T. Lindstrom: High strength, flexible and transparent nanofibrillated cellulose-nanoclay biohybrid films with tunable oxygen and water vapor permeability. Nanoscale 4, 6622–6628 (2012).
S.S. Ray and M. Okamoto: Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing. Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 1539–1641 (2003).
K.Y. Yano, A. Usuki, A. Okada, T. Kurauchi, and O. Kamigaito: Synthesis and properties of polyimide-clay hybrid. J. Polym. Sci. 31, 2493–2498 (1993).
N.T. Cervin, C. Aulin, P.T. Larsson, and L. Wagberg: Ultra porous nanocellulose aerogels as separation medium for mixtures of oil/water liquids. Cellulose 19, 401–410 (2012).
H. Jin, M. Kettunen, A. Laiho, H. Pynnonen, J. Paltakari, A. Marmur, O. Ikkala, and R.H.A. Ras: Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic nanocellulose aerogel membranes as bioinspired cargo carriers on water and oil. Langmuim, 1930–1934 (2011).
A.A. Stec and T.R. Hull. Assessment of the fire toxicity of building insulation materials. Energy Build. 43, 498–506 (2011).
The authors thank Revolution Research Inc. for supplying nanocellulose in this study and thank Will West for contributing to the manufacturing process. This work was partly supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I Program (Eco-friendly Thermal Insulation Composite Foam Boards—Award #1521326).
Conflicts of interest
Conflicts of interest
The author declares no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.
About this article
Cite this article
Yildirim, N. Developing fire-retardant and water-repellent bio-structural panels using nanocellulose. MRS Communications 8, 257–265 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2018.37