Modulated nanoindentation (MoNI) of Q-carbon filaments. (a) AFM topography of Q-carbon filaments formed in diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films. (b) AFM topography of a filament cross-section; markers indicate positions across the filament where indentation measurements are conducted. (c) MoNI curves measured on a Q-carbon filament and DLC film. Blue and red lines are measurements performed on the Q-carbon filament and the surrounding DLC film, respectively. Numbers refer to positions identified in (b).