(a) HRTEM image showing the formation of Q-carbon on the sapphire substrate. The marked regions contain crystallites of nanodiamonds (ND). Inset figure represents the electron diffraction pattern with sapphire substrate diffraction spots. (b) EEL Spectra obtained from amorphous Q-carbon and (c) diamond, demonstrating the presence of p* (284 eV) and s* (292 eV). The inset in (b) shows the HAADF image of Q-carbon.