A Grade 4 titanium was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)–Conform and drawing to produce an ultrafine grain (UFG) size of ∼180 nm. Some samples were tested in this condition (UFG-1) and others were annealed for 1 h at 623 K (UFG-2). The grain boundaries are in a non-equilibrium condition after processing, but the annealing equilibrates the boundaries without any increase in grain size. This leads to significant differences in the mechanical behavior of UFG-1 and UFG-2 when they are tested at 293 and 623 K.
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This work was supported in part by the International Science and Technology Center under Project 4003P, in part by the ViNaT project (Contract no. 295322, FP7-NMP-2011-EU-Russia) and in part by the European Research Council under ERC Grant Agreement No. 267464-SPDMETALS. We thank the Royal Society of the U.K. for providing support under International Joint Project No. JP091299 which permitted AVP to conduct research at the University of Southampton.
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Polyakov, A.V., Semenova, I.P., Valiev, R.Z. et al. Influence of annealing on ductility of ultrafine-grained titanium processed by equal-channel angular pressing–Conform and drawing. MRS Communications 3, 249–253 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2013.40